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DICTIONARY 

OF 

American Biogr/ 

HKLODIHD 

MEN OF THE TIME; 



TEN THOUSAND NOTICES OF PERSONS OF BOTH SEXE: 
AND FOREIGN BIRTH, WHO HAVE BEEN REMARKA1 
PROMINENTLY CONNECTED WITH THE 

ArtSy Sciences^ Literature, Politics, of 
AMERICAN CONTINENT. 

^CIATIOK OF MANY OF THl 
.BY TO THE ASSUMED HAUl 

SUPPLEMENT. 

BY 

FRANCIS S. DRAKE. 



BOSTON: 
HOUGHTON, bSGOOD & COMPAN' 

1879. 



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CT 

XI i 



Kotcnd. f- "-ti^ to An of Coe^tm, ia th* jmt xtj*, 

Br FRAKCIS S. DRAKE, 

■b Uw Offic* at tha Ubnriu of CoB|nM> M Waddnflok 



SttfMtrt^-iJP'*-Udi, Smd. Avn>. »• C» 



r 

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SAMUEL GARDNER DRAKE, 

THE HISTORIAN Of BOSTON, 

CM WRt 

IS INSCRIBED, 

AS A TRIBUTE OF FIUAL REGASIX 



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htAt^^- TO 



PEEFACE. 



r'l iHE design of this work is to gire, in a single Tolnme and at & moderate 
-*- coet, a manual of reference, containing in a condensed fonn all the more 
important data of American biography, including that of persona stUl living. 
Its scope, as eet forth in the titlepage, is amtinental ; and it aims to include 
within the preacrihed limits aa many facta and dates as p<«sihle ; while, at the 
same time, ample reference is made to fuller sources of information. It is ob- 
vious that the utility of such a work must depend miunly upon its correctness ; 
and, to insure thia all-important object, much time and labor have been given 
to the verification and completion of its dates. In regard to persona now liv- 
ing, it haa not always been practicable to obtain the requisite facts ; and, in 
some instances, these have been so long withheld aa to midie it necessary to 
embody them in a Supplement 

While the investigations of historical students in New England, New 
Tork, and in some of the other States, have been so fruitful in the materials for 
liii^raphy, that the principal difficulty has been that of selection and condensa- 
tion, it is nnfortnnately true, that in many of the States, and in other portions 
uf the continent, such materials are exceedingly scanty. Another deficiency 
iu the sources of American biography is found in the departments of industry, 
inventions, and the fine arts. The politiciana, authors, and clergy of America 
have had their full share of notice ; while her inventors, engineers, and practi- 
cal scientists, — to whom her wonderfully-rapid progress in the arts of civiliza- 
tion and her high rank among the nations are munly due, — have been in a 
veiy great degree overlooked. One object of the author haa been to remedy to 
some extent thia injustice. 

Among the features calculated to enhance the value of the work are the 
pronunciation of such names as present unusual difficulty ; and the Key to 



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VI PREFACE. 

Assumed Names, which will enahle the reader at once to trace the authorship 
of writings pablished under a pseudonyme. 

To John WAbd Dbah, M.A., I<ibiarisQ of the ITew-England Historic- 
Genealo^cal Society of Boetoo, whose thorough and accurate knowledge of 
American history and wonderfully-retentive memory are oxceeded only by the 
readinesa with which its abundant stores are imparted, the author is under 
weighty obligations. For much valnable material relating to the West, his 
acknowledgments are also due to the late Alfbkd T. Qoodmak of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Secretary of the Westem-BeBerve Historical Society, whose recent 
decease at the early age of twenty-six is not alone a calamity to his Mends, 
but is a serious loss to the community. To the late Dr. JossPB Palher, 
who kindly loaned him his annotated copy of the Harvard-College Triennial, 
he is also under obligations. To Bev. Elias Nasoit, to WiLUAif B. Tsass, 
Esq., and to all who have aided him in the prosecution of his labors, the 
author retams hia grateful acknowledgments. And, finaOy, his thanks ate 
justly due to the proof-readers, — Messrs. GsoBOB Wapham and Geobob 
W. Powers, and Miss Meboib L. Taylor, — of the value of whose critical 
labors he is fully sensible. 

F. &D. 



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KEY TO ASSUMED NAMES. 



AUmdceb OMdr, 



Id AUi 

ADanGn 

Arp.BlU 



BuRtt. Walux, dark, 

BurrOnr, 

Belle BrllUn, 



GMlaD C. T«rpI>nDk 
Jame* Cook Rldimond 
WblMtew Beld 
trill i.m Elliott 
Alio* B. Barea 



Hn. F. D. Gun 
B«T. buo WOldii* 

Fred. DonilKas 
Kn. H. a. OIli 
Ephnlm G. Sqnler 
Joaeph A. Soorllls 
Bobcrt B. CoDn 
Hlnun Fuller 
LooIh Klrbr PlUt 



Berkln. Heloi. 
Berwick. 
Bigloir. BoMft, 
Btglr. CuwU A^ 

BIDArp, 
BilUu*. Joih. 
Blrthc. WUl^ Jnoq 

tt«b lihort, 

BortaD Rebei, 
Breltmaon. Huu, 
Brown, TudTka, 
BonUipe, Ned, 
Burleigh. 



Cwuilc Chriitopbar, 



l>PltB Crnica, 



{ADttlD,knd Ijolnttr 

( Ltdud Abbott. > 
Cberlea Aator Briated 
Adu Con (UoirMt) 

Bllchle 
Junea Redpelh 
Junes Kuiaell LowtH 

CbarlesH. Smith 
HenrrW.ShBw 
SoloD RoblnaoD 
A. B, Longatreet 

Jotm Lowell 

Cbarlea O. Leland 
Wm. P. BraDiuui 
E. 2. O. JudsoQ 
Uatlbew Hale Smith 



B«T. Jacob Duchi 
Alf)^ W. ArrlngIDD 
Hra. C. U. Kirk land 
Judllb ^areeui Uurray 
O. C. VefglBnck 

JouTth L,eniuel Chuler 
Waablngton Irving 
Gen. D. T. Strolher 
J, T. Trowbridge 
Flti Greene Hulleck 



Frank B. Goodrich 
WaablngtOD Irving 
Hortinwr N. Tbompioii 



ElbridnQ 
Seba ?mlt>i 
Caleb 8. Hi 
Hetlrr II. Flint 
Bar. Suiuel Fla 



E. C. BeTOD*, 
Edith Utv, 
Edmund KIrin, 
Ellubcib ff eUMTeO, 



QtJl Bamllton, 

Gath, 

OenMH Traveller, 

Geoffrey Crayon, 

Glyndon. Howard, 



Hamilton. Gall. 
HKnB Urcittnaon, 
HarisDd. Uarlon, 
Harrjr Gringo, 
Helen Berkley. 
Helen Har, 
Honeitui, 

Hosea'Blglow. 
Honard UtyndoB, 



IkUarrel, 

Jack Downing. H (Jar. 



Flake 

C. ConTSTM 



Xn. Sarah ( Willi t| 
Han J.S.Upahur 



Fanner. PennayUanla, 
Fat CoDUibnlor, 



Hra. Klliaberh Aker* 
Joaeph E. fiabion 
George Chslmrr* 
Wm.^. Herbert 

Maiy Abigail Dmige 
Geo. ALtVed Tonn-tnd 
Hatlhew L.Davie 
Wfl.-hlngton Ining 
Nailil.ritowdircii 
Laura CKediLin 
Barn J. Llpplniott 
William \V11<on 
Biib*rl B. f'onio 
Henry A. Wise 

Mary Abigail t>"''w 
Charlea U. Uliii.d 
Jlrn. TerUune 
Lleut.H.A.WI-e 
Anna Cora |3IOB0ttl 

Kitchie 
Hra. D.H F.Walker 
BenJ. Aiii-iin 
U.C. Fl>l>er 
J. Rnanrll Lon-ill 

Un.ElJi.SluurirUelpi 
Emma C. Embury 
8amuel L. Knnpp 
Donald G.HIICIieU 
8eba Smith 



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KEY TO ASSUMED NAMES. 



John Oldbng, 
Jobn Paal, 
JobDpnccntx, 
Jnbo Quod. 
John it.teni, 
Jaulhan Oldl^le, 
Jooea, Kaioi, 
Jatb Billings. 

EulKedmi, 
Kerr. Orpbmia Cq 



Lee. Alice G., 
L*e. ralty, 

L«lgti. FlorSDU 



McArone, 
>I»M Sloper, 
«ar. Helen, 
UariadelOiKideiitc, 
JIarlon H&rlud, 
Uulon Word, 
Mark Twain, 
Uarvel. Ik, 



NBsbT. Petroleum T. 

N(^ fiunUlae. 
Kev«ra,O.OT 

Noianglua, 



r. Leonard Withlnc- 



Puquin. Anlhonr, 
Pnlty Lee. 

ruiil. Jabn, ' 
I'buIdi tiUeDtlarhu, 

Peim, Wm., 



Henry ' 

Joae^ 



Lemuel CheMer 

Charle* C. Conrereo 
R. H. .Vcwell 
J. R. tillmore 
Rev.KlcliolaaUnrTkr 
WublngtoB Inlng 
Junei U. Uorrti 

Sttplien HIgglnaon 
Lizzie R. CuialM 

Alice fillaveu 

Annaf. Wllbiir 

L, Tlreliilk ^nch 
George W. HarrU 



Mm. D.M. K.Walker 
Marla(Go«*n)Brook« 
Mar^ Vlq^nls (Usneg) 



Eamuel [.. Clcmeni 
Donald G. Ulccbell 
enrol I ne II. Klrkland 
Hn -Man' tiatgent (iore 

Danlrl Leonard 
Anna Drinker 
MIbbK.S. Clarke 
Cbarlea G. Hal pine 
'— ' ■-'■nson CMr«. 



Anna L. Job 
Ju ■ - 
Corn. 



» H. (Bndlev) 

Rlcbarda 

DaTld Roil Locke 

E.Z.C. Judaon 
Cbarlea C. Coii>er>s 
Joba Adami 

Bei. Leonard Wltblng- 



Benjamln Anxln 
Wa.-hlnpon Irving 
George ciielmeM 
Jaaepb Dennle 
Wm. T. AdHns 
Cbarlea G. Halplne 
Hr..Nlehol. 
Roben H. Newell 

B. F. Shfllaber 
Jobn Wllliuu 

J. T. Trowbrldn 

C. B, Webb 
George P. Pbllei 
JoiIbK D. CaiiDlng of 

Jetemlab Eruta 



Peter Scrlbei 
Pelroleuin v 

PhllanLhi 



Nubf, 
illip QuItlbPt, 
Plpea, J eemei, otPIpe*- 



Robiusan, Ignatlna 

Kutledge, 

SalmuniDdl, 

l^aiDuelA.'Banl, 



or the Old 



gmftb. Belle, 
Sophie May, 
SiiarrongraM, 
Spy In Waablnr 



Uncle Toby, 

L'pdlke, UndertiUl, Dr., 

VaDdyke Brown, 



John Dlcklnaon 

James 11 Uorrls 
Cbarles W. Slarch 
Ura. Ellxabetb Akera 
Ben. Perley Poure 

Wm! Cobbett 
Isaac Story 
George Wood 
Charfes Aug. Davia 
DSTld Roaa Locke 
William Ladd 
George E. Pond 
George H. Derby 
Slepben C. MaaacCt 
Benjunln Franklin 

Jolm Qulncy Adnmi 
F. LeypoldE 

George B, Pond 

John T. Irving 



S.L. Knapp 
Robert DEnsmoor 
Hn. UlrUm (Cole*: 
Uarrla 

Waahtnrton Irrlng 
T. C. Hiliburton 
Epbralm G, Squier 
George A. Foxcroft 
George Wood 
Charrea Ang. Davia 
Cbarlea D. Klik 
Lndna U. Sargent 
Hiss Suaan Dunning 

«low Kn. Watrra.) 
ucln* U. Sarp-ut 
Cbarlea G.Lerand 
Loulia KIrby llait 
Hlsa EL 8. Clarke 
Fredrick S. CoEiena 
Uattbew L. IMvIa 
George H. Derbr 
Jonathan F. Ke'Uy 
J. U. Held 
Ulaa Kate Field 
Ain^ W. Arrlngton 
George W. UanFa 

Th«rtaaA.L, Roblnion 
Nathaniel Ward 
Dr. J. G. Holland 
Frank B. Goodrich 
Joaepli E. Babi'oo 
Hnlthew L. Daii' 
Mra. EUi.Stnan Fhelpi 
Samuel L. Clemens 

Rot. Tobias H.UIUer 
Boyall Tyler 

E. d'. Maoafleld 



liter Barrett, dark, J. A. G 



Ward, . 
Ward. Uarloa, 

WarrlEigton, 

WetheKll, El'liabeth, 
Wtalte, BIytlie, jun.. 



Mrs. H. U. Stepbens 
Henr? Car)' of Boston 



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ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS. 



Amer., fL-^"*^ or Ametlcan. 
Ant. ColL, Antloch CoUege- 
mpp., i{f>olDtcd. 
mn., •rtniaj. 



b^itttaptlMd. 



■loned, ODOimlulaiwr. 



CoDit. CoDT., Cooitftatloul ConnntloD. 




ciljed., CxpvdltloD. 
cipio . cxploriiig. 
Inf., InOotiT. 
lD«u,Iiulltal*, Iiutltatloa. 



prarli., prorlalookL 
pDb., pobllibad, poblloM 



BbtoL, Barobitloiurr. 

•am., temlOMrj. 

Und., Umali^T, theologlo*!. 

Unit., dnltariaii. 

Toll., TOlnnIMn, 

Nimw of coll V** P 



sdbrflM 



Tta tuieOj ft 

dropped; 

to (hat of tUttbev*, — (ooietlmai ipelled wjth a 
■Inglo 1 1 knd In tboM IutIbb tbe prefix Jfc, which 
K» planed •• though apelled Mm. Kuoei of mem- 
ben of the MUDS Sunllr *» tometliiua gronped 
■ m the osHi of 
WfUjn, HilUm, Clftlhonie, 



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INDEX TO AtlTHOEITrES, CITED BY THE AUTHOR'S 
NAME ONLY. 



Anibou, DiollaiiM? of Aatbon, ( Toli. Sro, 

18W-70. 
AniMOD, Now AmaHcaD Cjdopadl^ and Annuli, 



wBnglukd Blognfbj, Oao, ISU. 
CoUioi, HlMoiT of Eentoc^, Sn, UiS. 
Ciillaiii,Ri^t«TOf WMt-Foltit QiMbat*!, t nil. 

DoTAiDck, CTolOpadla of Amarlwoi titattan, 

and Bnpplanuit, 1 toI). Sto, iaBB-<H. 
Ellot, Nnr-EngUiid Blognphloal UoOoaarj, Sto, 

laot, 

OBTdacr, DIottanai7 Of Om A11D7, ad sdltloli, Umo, 

IBM. 
Oaram, mttorr of LooUItaa, t *^, Sto, UH. 
Ooodman, A. T., JfS. iKHMi. 
Qtlgabr, ytigtuU OanrentloD of 1T7B, tn, ISBB. 
Qtom, Amerlmn Itodkal Blc«r^>hr, Bro, UBl. 
Hamanly, Beooid of Urlof OOoki D> B. Swrj, 

Sto,.1B70. 
Bentj, Beeoid of OItQ AppolntnWQti U> S. izmj. 



typallathan, H««^Tark Colonial DoenniBnti, 11 

T(di.Ma. 
FUlUpart, Boyat WUttrj Oaleodu, t Tdi. Sto. 



Simpson, OnliMnt FhlladtipUaiu, Sro, WS9. 
Spaik*, Amarlom BlogniiUM, IK and U Mrfc*, a 



nKma*, UnlTonal Blop^Uoal JHotloiiary, 2 toU. 

Sto, 1S71. 
TockRnuui, Book of tiie AHMa, Sto, 18S7. 
Wbadn, BIM017 or VOTth CacoUna, 8to, ISSI. 
WIlliaiu,Amarkanll*dkal Blograptaj.Sro, 13U, 



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DICTIONARY 



American Biography. 



Abaacal (tUb-^'J, Doh Joefi Fbrhah- Spain, hit grief at thii duty caused hit death. 

DO, Viceroj of Fern, b. Oriedo, 1 743 ; d. Ma- ■ He protected the Indiana, repressed the excesses 

drid, Jane 30, 1831, Entering the military of maatera towards their slaves, and [tit a 

wrrice in 1769, be became a brigadier dnring memory dear to all Lonisianians. — 'Callag- 

the war with France, and in 1796 was sent as haa. 

lieutenant cf the king to defend Harana Abbeville, d' Idib-vel'), Cudi>b, a Cap- 

a)nintt the English. Called thence to the nchin, aaihor of "Hiatoire de la Mission des 

intendancj of Nev Galicia, hi* serrices there Fires Capucina en I'lsle de Maragnon ; " d. 

were rewarded in ISOl with the Ticerovahip of Paris, 163S. The mission to the Island of 

Pern. On his way thither, he fell into the MaranhBin (on the coast of Brazil) was ttnder- 

baoda of the English. By pradence and Arm- taken in leia. 

neis he OTercameTBrious obstacles, and gained Abbot, Ahibl, D.D. (B, U. 183S), tninis- 

tbecoafidence of tbe people. He established ler, b. Wilton, N.U., Dec. 14, 1765; d. Weil 

free schools, on academy of design, and chairs Cambridge, Ml., Jan. 91, 1S59. H. U. 17S7. 

of medicine and surgery, at Lima, besidea Descend^ from George, who settled in An- 

effeccmg important changes in its admioistra- dorer. Ma., IMS. His father, Abiel, was a 

tiTe Indian and police organ tzaiiona. For m^jor in the BeTol. army. Soon after gradu- 

Iheee and other serrices, the Spanish Cortea, atine', and until Jnly, 17S9, he was a teacher io 

May 30, 1813. gave him the title of MarmtU Phillips Academy. After Itndving theology, 

dt la Concordia EipoAala del Peru. Snbse- and engaging in misaionar; labors in Maine 

<fDent rereraes caused bia r«cstl in 1816. The and elsewhere, be was, from Jan. 1794 to Jan. 

title of depot j-general was decreed him by 17SS, Greek Intor at Cambridge. Ord. minis- 

tbe Junta of Astnriaa for Ma benefactions to ter of Corentry, Ct., Oct. !8, 179S. June 6, 

the widows and orphans of the patriot! of that 1811, he was deposed from the ministry on 

province who died fighting for the oatioiul acconnt of diSerencea of opinion with hie 

Independence. church. In Sept. 1811, he took charge of 

AlMUOla (i-U'-so-la), MiBiAHO, Mexican Dnmmer Academy ; which, in April, 1619, be 

nrolutioniac, b. near Dolores Gnannjuto ab. quitted for a farm in North Andorer. In- 

I7BD ; shot in Chihnahoa, July, 1811. He stalled minister of Peterborough, N.H., June 

was a lealoDs anpporter of Hidalgo, a colonel !7, 1837, be remained until hia retirement in 

of his army; ana at the capture of KiaRon Sept. 1846. He was an ablewriterand popular 

was conspicuous for courage, and humanity to preacher. In 1811, he pub. a statement of the 

the prisoners. He was at Las Crncea, and, CoTentry difficulty; in 1829, a "Biatory of 

■riertbc disastrous battle of the Bridge of Cal- Andorer;" and a "Genealogy of the Abbot 

deron, fled to Salcillo with Hidalgo, Both Family" in 1647. — A'aro/mg, ff. f/. 

were taken by Eliiondo, March 21, 1811, and Abbot, Abibl, D.D. (H. U. 1821), minis- 

shot soon after; their bodies being pnhlicljex- ter, b. Andorer, Ang. 17, 1770; d. Slaten Is- 

posed on stakes, and left nnbaried until 1822. land, N.Y., June 7, ISas. H. U. 1793. Alter 

Abbadie, d' (d&-b&dS'), M., goTcmor of being an assistant in the Andover Academy, 

Lonisiana from 1T63 to his death, Feb. 4, 1769. he was minister of Harerbill from Junes, 1795, 

June 39, 1763, he arriTed at New Orleans, to June 13, 1803; and then of Beverly until 

where the French king had a factory, of which tbe winter of 1837-6; when hewcnt toChnrlet- 

d'Abhadie was made director-genera], with ton, B.C., for bis health, and thence to Cuba, 

the powers of a military commandant. Or- Betuming in improTed health, he preached a\ 

dered in 1764 to surrender tbe conutr; to Chailetlon Jane 1, and sailed the next day foi 



iv\^ioo«^le 



New Tork, bnt died of yellow fever at the SO, 18IS, pngior of the chnrch in Salem, « 
quarantine near that cilj. He wai an eloquent snccti'Mr of Rct. Thomas Barnard, where he 
und liberal preacher. Hia " Letters from wa« highlj eiteemed for his literarjr acuuire- 
Cuba" were pub. in Boston in 1839. His aer- miinti nnil the liberality and candor of hu re- 
moos, wilb a memoir WS. Everett, were pab., lieioiia TJEwn. His serincios, with a memoir 
l3mo, ISSl. — AbiiK ChKoiim. b; H. Ware, jun., were pnb. in 1829. 

Abbot, Bebjakiji, LL D. (D. C. 1811), Abbott, Rbv. Johs Stkters Cabot. 

eJucHtor, b. Andovor, Sept. IT, 178S; d. Eio- author, bra. of Jacob, b. Brimewicli, Me., Sept. 

ler,N.H.,Oct.S5,lS49. H.U.1788. Hewas IS, IBOS. Bowd. Coll, 1829; And. Theol. 

<r>r fifty yeara pnocipal of Phillips. (Exeter) Scm. 1829. Ord. Jan. 37, 1830. Setllediuche 

Academy ; a posidon for which ho posaes^ed ministry anccessiTely at Worcester, Boxbury, 

pecultnr qaalinaitions, — amone them, iligni- nnil Nantucket, Ms., Uowe-st. Ch., N. Haren, 

Bed manners, an eqoal and hapP7 tvmpcr, 1861-6, nnd over the Second Ch., Fair Haren, 

quiek perception of character, and a ualiie Ct., 1869. His first work, "The Mother nt 

aatbonly which secnred obedience and aflvc- Home," has been translated into Tarious for- 

tiun. Under his charge, the institution was eij^ri languai.'es. Among his principal publi- 

exceedinely popular. Among his pupils were cationt are " The Child at Home ; " " Abbott's 

Daniel webeter, Edward ETcreti, Jared Historical Series," S role. ; " Confidential Cor- 

Sparks, Gcorm Bancroft, and many others iWpondenceofNapoleonand Josephine;" "K 

who became flialingniahed. He stotMl at ihe poleon at St. Helena;" "Memoira of Nej 
brad of liis profession in New England. Mary, 
bis wife, aiaier of Thos. H. PerUns, merchant, 

of Boston, d. Exeter, March 17, 1863, a. 93 y. , 

10 mo. theOreat;"d. Fair Haven, Ct., Jane 17, 1 B77. 

Abbott, Bbrjamdi v., b. Boeton, June 4, Abbot, Samfbl, a firander and benefHC- 

1830; Austin, b. Dec. IS, IS3I : and Ltvah, tor of the And. Theol. Sem., b. Andorer, 

b. Boxbury, Dec 18, 1835. The- Abbott Ms.; d. there April 30, 1818, a. 80. Hnv- 

brolbcrs, sons of Iter. Jicon, practise law in ing a feeble constilulioo, ha adopted tbe mei^ 

N. T. City ; and have jointly pub. Admiral- cantile profession in Boston, and, acquiriog 

tv Repons. 1857 ; N. Y. Praclice Reports ; wuilth by integrity and metiiodiciil hnbii«, 

I^unui of Pleadinz ; Digest of N. Y. ; C. P. dcvolii) il to ivligioas and eharilaUle ohjects. 

Reporis, 8 Tols. : Uigeslof U. S, Sutuicennd Upon the e«tablithment of the seminarc at 

Reports, 1789-1867, 4 vols.; Clerks' and Coa- Ando»er. AaR. 31. 1807, be Ba»e to it »30,000, 

veyancers' Assist ; Digest of the Law of Cor- and in his will left it (100,000 more. 

poratioas, 3 roll,, 1869 ; Treatise on the Prac- Abbot, Sahuil, inventor of the process 

lice and Jurisdic^on of the U. S. Courts ; ^ which starch is made from the potato, b. 

many articles in law mngniinea ; and " Cone- Wilton, N.H., March 3, 1786 ; d. there Jan. % 

cat Coniers,"a novelinsupporl uf prohibitory 1839. H. U. 1808. Son of Major Abiel. 

temperance laws. — AJWione. Fmctised law at Dunstable, and afterwards at 

Abbot, Hdll, minister of rharlestown, Ipswich. Burned lo death in a starcb-factorj 

Ms., from Feb 5, I TIM, to bis duaih. April at Wilton. 

19, 1774. B. Boston, June 15, 170:2. U. U. Abeel. Datid, an offloer of tbe frigsie 

1T20. Many years colleague with Itev. Simon " Alliance" in the Revol. war, A. N. Bnms- 

Bradslreet. He pnb. sermons on iho ' Anil- wick. M.J., Oct. 1840, a. 78. 

lery Election," 1735; on the "Rebellion in Abeolt Datid. D.D.,miasionary loCbina, 

Scotland," 1746; " Against Swearing," 1747. b. N. Brunswick, N. J., June 13, 18l>4; d. Al- 

Abbott, Rev. Jacob, nnthor, b. llallow- bany, Sept. 4, 1846. Edncaled principally al 

ell, Me., Nov. U, IS03. Bowd Coll. 1830; hia native place. He was ord. to the ministry in 

And. Tbeol. Sem. 18S5. Jacob, hia father, b. 1826, and labored at Athens, N.Y., two years. 

Andover; d. Farminglon, Me., Jan. 35, 1847, His health failinK, be went in Oct. 1839 as a 

a, 70. Prof of mathematics and net. philos. missionary to China, and thence ta Java, Bata- 

Amh. Coll. 1835-9. Ord. Sept. 18, 1834, at via, Singapore, and Siam. Visiting En rope in 

Eliot Church, Boston Highlands ; and was sue- 1833, on returning homo be pub. "The Claims 

ccedetl by his bro., Rev. J. &. C, Kuv. 35, of the World to the G«epel ; " " Residence in 

1835. Among his many writinip, chiefly for China" in IBS9-33; and "Missionary Con- 

the Toung, are "The Young Christian," IS35, vention at Jerusalem," 1838. He went neain 

"Corner Slone,""WBViodoGood,""Hoary- to Canton in 1839; hut, tbe "opium war" 

Head," and " Mac. bonner," " Teacher," pieclading his asefulness diere, he visiieil Ma- 

" Summer in Scotland." 24 vols, of tbe " Rol- laci'a, Borneo, and other places, and settled at 

lo,""Lacy," and "Jonas" stories, and 30 Kolingni. Ill health compelled him to return 

vols, of juvenile biographies. home in 1845, after beginniog a mission at 

Abbott, JoHH, auihor of " The Natural Amoy in 184! ; and he died soon alter. He 

History of the Rarer Lepidopterooe Insects of wai well qualified for his work by great prae- 

Georgia," edited by Sir J. E. Smitb, Loud, tical judgment, good sense, and persevering 

1797, with 104 colored plates. Resided many enerey. — ilemoiri iy Sev. G.H. iViUiai/uoH, 

years in Geornia, 1849. 

Abbot,JoHi(EHKHT,clergyman,b.Exeter, Abeel, JoiiN Nbmoit, D.D.fH. U. 1304), 

N.H., Aug. 6, 1793 ; d. Salem, Ms., Oct. T, an eloquent Preabjierian minislDr, b. New 

1819. Bowd. Coll. 1810. Son of Benjamin, York, 1769 ; A. there Jan. 3D, 1818. Frioccioit 

principal of Phillips Academy, where be re- Coll. 1787. Ha studied law while a tnior at 

ceived his academical edacatioD. Ord, April Princeton, bat began to pieach, in Apr. 1793 



vV^ioo^^le 



inPhil*. From the utama or 179Santil fail 17SI ; Iieat-<:o1. 3Tth, 1775; coL IT8I ; mu. 

dwtfa,he<ru puior of the Datch Befonned geo. 1790; licuc-t'cn. 1797 ; gen. 1303. Ha 

Chnrcfa in New YoiL He posaeased e voice aerreil in Canada until in sarrender b; ibe 

of mDch sweetnen aod metod;. French in 1763 ; commanded hiii ngt. through 

AberOrombis, Jahk*, of Oloiuogh, a the whole American war until captared al 

Bridtb gen,, h, 17(tG ; d. deput7-goT. of Siir- Yorktonn, and waa wounded at Monmoath 

ling Castle, Apr. SS, ITBI. Deacended Irom He commanded the ezped. which. May 7, 

a weallfaj ScoKh famil/, he entered the armj ; IT 78, deatroved the American Bbipplng ia the 

beeama a col. Apr. 16, 1716 ; mi^.i;en. Jan. 31, Delaware ; May 1, 177B, anrpriaed Oen. Lacey 

ITSS; lieaL-gen. Mar. 31, 17S9; gen. May 25, hi Croojced Billet, Pa.; and, during the siege 

1771, Sent M America in June, 1756, with of Yorklown, led a lacceaafal aorcie, caplnriag 

the rank of maj.-gea., ^a which he had been two batieriea. Ue afhirward leri-ed in India, 

Eromoted (or aerricea on the Continent, he where he Hucceeiled Comwallia in the chief 

eld the chief command until the arrival of command in 1793; and. at hia death, wai the 

LondoDii ia Aug., and reaumed the command oldeat gen. in the serrice. 
00 the return of that offii^r in 1758. July 8, Abert (a'bert). Col. JoHn J ambi, military 

I75B, at tbe bead of 15,000 man, be attacked engineer, b. Md. I7S7 ; d, Waibington, D.C., 

TicoDderoga with the bayonet, — a piece of Jen. 27, 1863. Weet Point, 1811. Ha waa 

fbUj which coat the lirea of nearly 2.0U0 brave employed in the war office in 1811-14; wna 

men. He etill further displayed hia incapacity in the battle of Bladenaburg, Aug. 24, 1814 ; 

bj nnneceaaarily retreating to bia intrenched Nov. 22, 1814, waa app. maj. of topographical 

camp on tbe aouth aide of Laku George, engineera; became lieul.-col. Nov. 22, 1824; 

Sapeneded by Amberat, he returned to ana Mar. 19, 1829, waa placed in command 

England ia 175), and. oi a member of par- of the curpa of topographical engineer*, and 

liameot, anpported the arbitrary maasurea at the head of tbe lopograpbical burma, wbich 

which reaoliad in tbe independence of the wai by hia efibrta made a disiinct branch of 

United State*. the war depi. June 22, 1831. He waa ao 

AbworombiS,jAiiaB,biaion.alient-col., Indian commissioner in 1S32-S; and, on the 

Diortklly wounded at Banker'a Hill ; d. Boaton, reconstmction of tbe army, waa appointsd col. 

Jrtna 4J JITK M«flA ■>•>,.» AfiA t1 Lfpli \ D n H arm nDi^nnmD .Ti,1> 7 I a44 Tha miUFarv tnhnrF. 



Jane 24, 177S. Made capt. 4ad Highlandera, of hisoorpa, July 7,1838. The military topog- 
Feb. 16, I7B6; aid^de-camp to Gon. Amhent, raphy of the United State* was under bis 
Hay 5, 17S9; ta^. 7Sth, July 25, 1760 ; lieat.- snpervision until his retuvment, Sept. 9, 1861. 



col. a2d, March 27, 1770. He led the gren- Abert, Cox.. Wm. Stbktch, bud of J. J., 
■dien to the asaanit of Bunker'a Hill; waa a b. Waahiagton, D.C., Feb. 1,1B36; d.Galvea- 
brave and noble-bearled soldier; and, while ton, Tex., Ang. 25, 1867. Daring tbe Rebel- 
being borne from the field, begged hia men to lion, ia wbich be rendered faiihfal service u> 
apara hia old friend Putnam. the government, be was col. 3d Ha. Heavy Art., 

AberorotUbie, James, D.D. IN. J. Coll. and bret. lieot-col. TJ. S. A. tor galJantrj at 

1804), clergyman and scholar, b. Phil*. Jon. Antietam. 

26, 1758 ; A. there June 26, 1841. Phila. Coll. AbOTille, d' (di-bo'vel'l, FRiitgoia Ma- 

1776. Ord. dcAcoti and priest Dec 29, 1793. ut, Count, a French gen. of anilkry.b. Brest, 

He was for many years one of the aaaociated Jan. 23, 1730; d. Not. 1, 1B17. Entering tbe 

recton of ChriaE Church, St. Peter's, and St. ar^Uery, be dialing, bimaelf at the siege of 

Joba'a, in that city; and was alaowidelj and Munater in 1759. He commanded in chief, 

littarablj known as a classical teacher. For with the grade of col., the artilleryof Kocham- 

impreuive etoqaence and claMical acquire- beau's army, and directed ita operationa at 

nents, ha waa eiicelled by few. the siege of Vorklown with great akill, earning 

AberarOmbie, Jobs Joseph, brig.-gen. promotion to the rank of brigadier, and tlw 

U. 8. Vote., b. Tenn. 1802. West Point, 1822. order of tbe Cincinnati, J/arttW da camp, in 

His lather emigrated from Scotland, waa a 1788. In 1792 he com., as lieat.-gen., the Ar^ 

volDOtecr in the Bevol. army, and settled in my of the North and of tbe Ardeunee, and ia 

Tenniauoe. Entering the lat Infy., he was 1807 wasKOV. of Brest. Adhering In 1814 to 

adJDiant from 1825 I0 1B33; became capt- Sept the BourlKins, be was made a p«er, and com- 

4, 1836 ; brav. maj. for services in the Florida mander uf the 'irder of St- Louia. 

war, eapedolly at Okecbobee, Dec. 25, 1837 ; Aoamapixtle Z. (ft-ka-ma-pitch'-ilee), 

hrev. lieut.-coL for gaiUntry at Monterey, king of the Aiteca from l3}2iohlsd, in 13d9; 

where he waa wounded Sept. 23, 1846 ; lieut.- waa the l(»is1alor of his subjects ; built roads. 

col. 2d Infy. May 1, 1S53 ; col. 7th Infy. Feb. canals, and aqnedncts ; collected tbe scHiiered 

25, 1861; brev. brig.-gen. IT. S. A. March 13, tribes together, and founded the city of Tenoch- 

1865; retired Jane 12, 186S ; brig.-gen. of ti dan, near Mexico. 

Vols. Ang. 31, 1861. He commanded a Aokland, Ladt Chsihtina Harhiet 

brigade in Patt«isoo's division in May ; in Cakolihe Foi. dau. of Stephen, Earl of III- 

Jnly was trmn^rred to Banks's division on cheal^r, and wife of Miy. John Dyke Acliland 

the Upper Potomac; and early in 1862 joined of Pixton, b. 1750; d. July SI, 1815. Her 

the army of MeClellan, and was in the baules husband, mnj. in the !Oth foot, joined Bur- 

before fechmond, being slightly wounded at goyne's eiped. in 1776; dlstiog. himself, and 

Fair Oaks; d. Roelyn, L. I.Jan. 3, 1877. was severely wounded, and mado prisoner, at 

Aberorombj, Sib Boseht, b British tbe battle of Saraioga, Oct. 7, 1777. While 

gea., bro. of the celebrated Sir Holpb, b. Oct. on parole in New York, be alleviated tbe sof- 

1740; d. near Stirling, Scotland, Nov. 3, 1827. (eringi of the American prisoners there. He 

Ensign in the 44tb in July, 17.'<B; capt. in waa a member of parliament, and d. Oct. 31. 



t.Google 



A.CO 4 ASiA. 

I77S. Lady Harriet, who accompiDied him Cbickuairg from 1T35 to 1775,u(igneloilen 

duriDeBargoTne'«exped.,ia memorable for her ft Hebrew origin, — an idea then regarded at 

■nfferinga and heroism darine an anitiona «(• risionar;, bal which hsB eince foand Eappor^ 

tendance apon her husband ihrooghoat the era ; amung them Dr. Boudinot in bis " Star 

Krila of a loDg ram^igQ. The story related of the Weat." Hie argnment ia fonnded on 

Wilkinson in bis memotn, and often re- their division into tribes, their loogaage and 

p«at«d, of her bnsbAtid falling In a dael, her cnsloms. 

consequent insanity, and subsequent marriage AdOir, Jobh, general, b. Chester Co., S.C, 

to Mr. BrudeneJl, ■ chaplain in Burgoyne's ar- IT59 ; d. HarroUsburg, Ky., May 19, 1S40. 

my, lacks confirmation. Some aolborities He served in the Kevol. army ; remored to K^. 

state that Maj. A. died from the effect of hia in 1787 ; was a mij, under St. Clair and Wil- 

wounds. Lady A. could never after bear anal- kinson in the axpedilions against the North- 

Insion to his name without teara. Her sisler, western Indians in 1791 ; was attacked by the 

LnriT Susan, also came to America with her Miami chief, " Ltttio Tartle," in camp near 

husband, William O'Brien, who held oflSco Fort St. Ciair.-Nov. 6, 1792, and forced to re- 

nndcr the crown, and returned to England (real; and was lieut.-col. under Oen. Charles 

during the war, bj which he was a large Imor Scott in 1793. He was a rolnnleer aide to 

in landed property Gen. Shelby al the battle of the Thames, Oct. 

AoostA, JOAQirii*, an officer in the service 5, 1813; made brig.-gen, of Ky. militia ia Nor. 

of tbe repablic of Colombia, travelled exten- 1814; and com. theKy. troop* wilb distinction 

-■-cly there and in New Granada, and com- at N. Orleans, onderGen. Jacklon, ■" '°" '" 



piled' a map of New Granada, with a history of He was several years a represeolative of Mer- 
the discovery and eolonuation of that conn trv cor Co. in the Ky. legieUture, of which body 
(Paris, Svo, IS48). He also repub. the work be was also apeaher ; was a member of the Ky. 



if Caldas, cited bj Humboldt, with notes and Const. Conr., and register of the U. S. Land 

a preface ;d. about 1 862. Ofilce ; D. S. senator m 1305-6; gov. of Ky. 

AoostA, Joseph d', a Spanieh Jesait and 1820-24; and M. C. 1831-3, serving on the 

miisionarj, b. Medina del Canuio, 1539 ; d. Committee on Military AfTaira. 

rector of the U. of Salamanca, Feb. 15, 1600. AdEUnB, AaiOAit., wife of Prca. John, b. 

HeBpeniEomeyearasubsequentto 1571 in the WcymouiU, Ma., Nov. 3!, 1T44 ; d. Quincy, 

conversion of the Indians of S. America, and Oct. 28, 1818. Dan. of Ker. William Smith, 

was allerwards a provincial in the Jesuit Col- Feb, 24, 1764, she m. Mr. Adams, then a 

lege in Peru. On his return to Spain, be pnb., lawyer at Weymouth. She visited Europe 

besides his missionary works, "The Natural while her husband was minislerto England, itl 

and Moral History of the Indies," Svo, 1590, 1784-8; and daring bis Vice-Preaidcncj and 

trunalaied into French in 1600 ; to which was Presidency, 1789-1800, resided in Phila. Her 

afterward added Ik Niiiara Naci Oriit, Hbri letters were pub. by her grandson, Charles F., 

duo, a work quoted by Robertson and others. 4th ed. Boston, 1848, 12mo. They are inter- 

Hc was at one lime professor of theology at eating and valuable pictures of the Revol. pe- 

OcaHa. nod. 

AcreliUB, IsBABL, a Swedish clergyman, AdEUUB, Aiioa, minister of Roxbury, Ms., 

■ b. Oslcraker, Dec. 25, 1714 ; d. Fcllingsbro', (rom Sept. 12, 1753, to big d. at Dorehesler, 

Apr.25, 1800. U.of Upsal. Ord. 1743. App. Oct. 5, 177S, b. Medfielii, Ms., Sept I, 1728. 

Eovosl of the Swedish consrcgiitions on the H. U. 1752. Be was an ardent patriot, and 

elaware in 1749, and pastor of Christina, was scribe of the convention of ministers at 

Beaching Phila. in Nov., he siiperini ended sue- Waienovm, which in May, 1775, recommend- 

ceasiuUy the ecclesiastical alf.iirs of the Swe- ed to the people to take op arms. Ho pub., 

dish colonisia until obliged bv ill health to re- besides sermons, two diacoursea on " Religious 

sign in Nov. 1758. On his' return, the king Libertv," 1767; "A Concise Historical View of 

gave bim apension and the living of Fellinfcs- New England," in two discourses ; on the Gen- 

bro'. Besides articles on America in (he eral Fast, Apr. 6, 17G9, repub. London, 1770, 

Swedish Journals, and some religions works, AdamS. Anorbw, LL. D. (Y. C. 1796), 

he i>iil). a description of the Swedish colonies jurist, b. Stratford, Ct., Jan. 1736 ; d. Litcb- 

in America, 4to, Stockholm, 1759. field. Nov. 26, 1797. Tale CoU. 1760. He 

Acuna, d' (^koon'-ya), Chbistoval, was mdmiited to the bar of Fairfield Co. : 

Jesuit and explorer, b. Burgos, 1597 ; d, Lima, practised law Some time in Stamford; removcil 

ab. 1675. He was one of tbe early explorers in 1764 to Litchfield ; was a member ;.t 

of the Kiver Amazon, and was sent to report the legislature from 1776 to 1781 ;' delegate to 

the incidents of the eiped. of 15.39. On his Congress in 1777-80 and 1781-2; member 

ri'turn to Spain, be nub. at Madrid, in 4to, of the Council in 1781 ; app. judge of the 

\6il, yiieno Diicubriiminilo lie Giaii Uiodelaa Supreme Court in 1789, and chief-jaElice in 

Amaionfi. The copies of this work wore all 1793. He was an adroit and learned lawyer, 

desirurcd but two, one of which Gomberrilie and an able judge. 

translarwl into French in 1684. The work is AdamB, Benjamin, lawyer, b. Worcet- 

accompanied with a curious dissertation. He ter, Ms., 1765 ; d. Uxbridge, Ms., March S8, 

subsequently went to the East Indies, returned 1837. B. U. 1788. He was an able law- 

to 8. America, and died on the way from Pan- yer, a member of the legislature in 1809-14, 

ama lo Limn. Slats senator in 18U-15 and 1822-29, and a 

Atlttir, Jaheb, trader, and author of a his- tiseful member of Congress in 1816-21 

lory of tbe American Indians, 4to, 1775, Lon- Adams, Charleh, historian of the 

don. Tbe writer, who lived ciiiefly among the "Patriot war," b. Arlington, Vl., Mar. IS, 



lyV^ioo^^le 



JLDA. 5 AHA. 

1783; d. Burlinglon, Vi., Jan. 13, isei. U. Acnailliiral Regiter, a.1 Boiton. — £(.r(M. Coll 

ofVLIBO*. H« WHS an eminent Uwjer, and ^unmi'. 

held Cisn; public office*. Adams, Ebemezer, edaraior, b, Kew Ips 

AdunB, C1UX1.EH B:iKBB, natural i>l, b. «icb,N,II.,Oct. 2, 17GS; d. Ennover, Aug..J&, 

Dorcbcaler, Mi., Jan. 11, 1814; d. St. 1841. Dartni. Coll. 1791. De«CTidant of 

Thomas, Jan. 19, 18S3. Amh. Coll. 1834. Uear; of DeTonahirc, Eng., who BCttJcd in 

He Btodied at the And. Theol. Sem. twoyear*, Brainirci] ab. 1G30. Proi^pior of Lcici-eter 

•nil then, vith the Ror. Dr. HiichcociL, made Acad, in 1T9S-IB06 ; then tuolc charge or the 

a geological soney of New York. Tnlor at Portland Acad, ; prof. a( matlicmalicj la Fhil- 

Amh. Coll. 1837. From 1838 to Aug. 1847, he lips (Exeter) Acad.; prof, of languages at 

vai prof, of chemiiln and nalurid history in Dulra. Coll. in 1809-10, and of mathematics 

Uiddlebnry Coll., and Irom 1S47 10 bis death and natural philosophjthcrc tn 1810.^3. Mem- 

wu prof, of aitronomy and xuologj at Amh. ber of many scicntitic and litGrHTyBocietleB. 

Coll. He made the geolojHcal anrrey of Vt. Adama, Edwin, comedian, b. Mcdtord, 

■n 1843-7, and, between ibo years 1S41 and Ms., Feb, 3, 1934. First appeared at the Na- 

1851, made scicntiflc explomtionB in Panama tional Theatre, Boston, Aug. 29, ISfiS, us 

and aeTeral of the We^t India Iitands. He Stephen in " The Uunchbaclt," His first ap- 



_, poaranca in Phila. was Sept. 20, 1854, al .__ 

and, beside* bis geological reporta of Vt., pub. Cheslnat, as Charles Woodlej in " The Sol- 

derett numbers of " Contribuciona to Con- dier's Dangblcr." His first great hit was at 

chologv," " Monographs of SeveraJ Species of tba 8l. Charles TheBti«, Bflltimore. He ha^ 

6bell*7' " Catalogue of Shells collected in Pa- appeared as a star In all the principal cities uf 

nama," N.T., 185S, " Elements of Geology," the U.8. ; d. PhiU. Oct. 38, 1877. 

and some papers in SiUiiaaa's Journal. AdamB, Eliphalet, minister of New 

Adama, Cai^cEi Fbancis, LL.D. (H.U. London, Cl-. b. Dedham, Ms., Mar. 26, 1677 ; 

1864), itataman, ion of John Quincy Adams, d. Oct. 4, 1753. H. U, 1694. Ord. Feb. 9, 

b. BoiUHi, Ang. 18, 1807. H. U. 1835. Bis 1709. William, hiM father, wsstecond minlsier 

boybood was passed with his hther at St. of Dedbom. A Diary^ kept by him, 1667-85, 

Pelenborg. Accompanying his father in hia is in Ms. HisL Coll. Ir. I. Eliphalct waa a 

misiion to England in 1315, be was placed at scholar of reputation, and pub. a number of 

school tbera until his retora home in 1817. sermons. Hisson William, also a minister, d. 

He studied law in the office of Daniel Webster, 1798. — Spitiaat. 

and was, in 1828, adm. to tbe bar, bat never Adama, Uakkah, historian, b. Medlleld, 
ha* practised. In 1829, he m. the roun^cM Ma., 1755; d. Brooklinc, Ms,, Nov. 15, 18-11, 
dan- of P. C Brooks, a Boston milftonnaire. and was the first person interred at Ml. 
RepretentatiTe in the legisl. of Ms. 1831-4; Auburn Cemetery. Her father was a shop- 
senator 1835-7. HaHng loft tbe Whig party, keeper of literary tastes. Her mother d, when 
he was, in 1848, the candidate of tbe ncwlj- she was but two years of age. Evijicing an 
organized Free Soil party for the Vice-Preai- early fondness for study, slie obtained a 
dene/. In 1S4S-8, be edited at Boston a daily knowledge of Latin nnd Greek from some 
uiper which preparod tbe way for the present diviniiv students boarding at her father's bouse. 
Bepablicaii party, M. C,, tor the dialrict so He failed iu business when she was 17 ; and 
long leprcsenled by his fatbi-r. in 1359-61, and, the children were obliged to provide for tbem- 
from Uar, 1861 to Feb, 1663, minister to Great selves. During tbe Kevol. she Eup]iurted 
Britain, — a position which bad been filled by lierself by making luce, and teaching. Sliewas, 
hia lather and gnnd&lbcr before bim. This perhaps, the first of those literal? women of 
pott was, during the gcval Kebcllioa, an ex- whom our country has since been So ptolilic, 
ceedingly trying one ; but he acquitted himself and, though much oaleemed aa a writer, de- 
with great cr^iL He was a contributor to rired little pecuniary benefit from her liternry 
l\ie North Aaierican RevieiB viA Vo iat ChrUtian labors. Her friends, however, contributed 
ExamiTttr, and has edited his grandfather's col- liberally to her support, raising for ber dpcliii- 
lected writings, with a Memoir by himself, in ing years a comfortable annuity. Simple in 
lOvols. 8td; " Letters of Mrs, Adams," 4thed. her manners, she possessed rare modesty, and 
1846; and "Letteisof John Adamsaddressed great excellence and purit;y of character. 
10 bis Wife; " also a "Life of John Adams," Small iu stature, she was, in old age. very 
3 vols. 1870. His son, John QniHcr, b. Bos- deaf, fond of strong tea, and an inveterate 
ion, SepL 22, 1833 (U, U. 1853), has been ser- anulf-laker. She corresponded with learned 
eral times democ candidate for gov. of Ms. men in Enrope, among them, tbe Abb^ Gie- 
Adama, Daniel, M.D,, physician, and goiro, who assisted her with material for her 
inthor of school tcit-boots, b, Townsand, " History of the Jews," She pub. " View of 
Ml,, Sepl-39, 1773 ; d. Keene, N,H., June 8, Keligioos," 1784; " Histoiy of New England," 
1864, Uartm. Coll. 1797; M.D. 1822. He 1799 ;" Historvof tbe Jews," 18)2; " n Cun- 
langbl a select school in Etoslon in 1806-13 ; troversy with Dr. Morse," 1814 ; " Letters ui*. 
iiractised medicine in Lancaster, Boston, and the Gospels," 2d ed. 1826; and " Evidences of 
Keene, N. U.; was Stale senator in ^', H. in the Christian Religion," 1804. Her Autobi- 
1838-40; and was president of the N, H, ograpbj, with a cnminuaiiou bv Mr«. U. G. 
Medical and Bible Societies. Besides an Lee, was pub, in 1832, 

ariibmciic, which was eiienaivel^v used, and Adams, IsAjtc, inventor of the power 

oiber school-books, he pub. an oration at Leum- printing-press in geneml use, b. Bocbesler, 

in!iter, on the dca;h of Washington ; edited the N.H., 1803 ; descended from Rev, Joseph of 

rtJooipe, at Mt Vernun, and the ifet/ieo/ (ui(j 24ewington, 1689-1783. His education was 



v^iooi^le 



AjyA. 6 JLDA 

very limited. He fint became a factor; opera- nsenUiiTes ; and in ITTO waa chosen to [be 

tive, aflerwanl* teamed the trade of a cstanet- General Conn, notwlthalanding hit defence ol 

maker ; caoie to Boiton ab, 1834, and went Capt. Preston and his soldiers ftir the " Boston 

into a machine-ahop. Ho iorcnred a printing- Musacre." He was from this time farwanl 

press in 1838, which in 1834 he improved, tlie chief legal adriser of ilie patriots, and a 

makitig it aDbataniially what it nov is. With leader amoof; them. Elected to the Provincial 

bis bro. Seth, he engaged in the manafac- Council in 1773 tuid 1774, he was negatived 



(ureof these and other niachines, ond acquired br Got, Hntchinson. Chosen a delegate 
a competency. Member Ms. seoaic the Congress of 1774, he advocated reslinc 

Adams, Jutus Hopkins, politician, b. colonial riijhts opon the law of nature as well 



■car Columbia, B.C., July S7, as the law of England, and shaped the r.. _ 

1861. Yale Coll. 1831, He strongly opposed luiions thereupon. On his recnm, he was cbo- 

in the S. C. tetjisl. in 1B30, the nalliRcBtioa sen to the Froviccial Cbngresa. At this time, 

doctrine ; was eubscquentlv a member of the he wrote, under the eigoature of Nocaiigtiu, 

Senate ; wm gov. of S. C. In 1855-7, and, his reply to HaaachateaensU, — a series of ef- 

alierthepassageof the "Secession Ordinance," ftetive papers In vindication of the course of 

was one of the commissioners to treat with the Great Bntain. An abridgment of them was 

President coneeraing the U.S. property in pnb. In Atmon's "Remembrancer" for 1775 as 
South Carolina. A History of the Dispute with America;" 

Adanu, Jasfsr, D.D., edncator, b. Med- and tbey hare twice been repnb. In the Cod- 

wBF, Ms., 1793 ; d. Charlestoo, S.C., Oct. S9, tinentoi Congress of 1 775, be carried the prac- 

1641. B. U. 1819. He studied theology; wa« deal measures of putting the Colonies in a stat« 

prof, of mathematics in B. U, 1819-24 ; look of defence ; adopting the N. E. array about 

charge of Charleston Coll, in 1834, and of Go- Boston ; and also, to conciliate Virginia end 

nuva Coll in ISS5-7 ; and was president of the the South, proposed Washington for the chief 

former in 1627-46. He next occupied himself command, jn Sept, he drew up, as one of the 

in preparing a treatise on moral science, pub. Committee of Naval Af&irs, mles and regn- 

ia 1837. He was in IS3B-10 a prof, of geog- lalioas, the basis of our existing Kaval Code. 

raphy, history,andcthics, in WescPuint Acad?, He ui^ed upon Congress to advise all the 

and BubBeqneolly had charge of a seminary at provinces at once to institute goveromeots of 

Pendleton, 8,C. their own, which wus done. His views upon 

Adams, Joan, poet and 'Cong, minister. State governments were printed under the title 

b. 1704 i d. Combridge, Ms., Jan. 23. 1740. of " Thoughts on Government Applicable to 

H.U. 1721. Sonof Hon. John Adams of Nova the Present State of the Ameriniti Colonies," 

Scotia, Settled niinister of Newport, R,I,, Placed on (he Committee on the Decleratiou 

Apr, II, I7SS; dismissed Feb. 25, 1730, after- of Independence, and also on that of Foreign 

ward settled in Phila. His poems (Boston, Betations, npon him devolved the task of 

l74S)includetbeBookofBevelatione in heroic battling dte Doclaratioti throogh Congress in 

verse, and evince a lively fancy, and a bnrmony a thre&deys* di-bale. President of the Board 

of versilicatian remaritahle for that period. An of War, June 12, 1776-Oec, 1777, and waa 

ingenious and satirical pii«e on tlia love of also chairman of the committee which dedded 

money, pub, during bis lifetime, is not included appeals in admiralty cases from the Stain 

ill thin volume. Ua had genius and learning. Courts. AptiuiDted, Nov, 38, 1777, commis- 

and was a popular preacher ; was " master of sioner to France to supersede Denne, he 

nine lani;uaL-es, aad conversant with Greek, reached Paris Apr. B, 1778, and tlnding a 

Iditin, French, and Spanish niilhori," want of harmony belwceti the commissioners, 

Adams, John, second President U,S,, b. Franklin and Lee, advised iutrustiog the mis- 
Braintree, now Quincv. M^',, ()c(. 19, 1735; d, siun to a single person, Franklta having been 
there Jnly 4, 1836. 'U. U. I71i5. His father made sole ambassador, he returned home in 
wn.4 a selectman and farmer of limited means, time to take a seat in the State convention for 
Hu first taught school at Woi'cester, and be- forming a constitution, and cook a leading part 
gan to study law ; though his early incline- in it> liirmaiion. App. by Congress miaisier 
lion was for the army, looming to Braintree to treat with Great Britain for peace and corn- 
in I7S8, be acquired a good practice, and in merce, he sailed for France in Nov. 1773. Yer- 
1764 m. Abigail Smith, a woman of superior gcnnes, the French minister, who distrusted 
abilities and sense. He was the author of bin, flnnlly obtained from Ctmgresslhe recall 
the In'-tructioni of the Town of Bruintree of Mr, Adams's powers to negotiate a treaty 
10 its Ropcesontalives on the Subject of the of commerce, and the conjunction with him of 
Stamp Act, which were adopted nfriiatini by several colleagues, of whom FraukHn was one. 
more than 40 towns. App, by the toivn of In July, 1 780, he went to Holland to negotiate 
Boston, together with Gndley and Uiis, to a loan, and Apr, 19, 1782 was received as am- 
support a memorial addressed to the governor bassador by the Slates-General, from whom 
and council that ttao courts might proceed with be soon after obtained a loan of two million 
business wiiboul stamps, Adums opened the dollars, and with whom he made a treaty of 
case, boldly taking the ground thai the Stamp amity and commcree. In Oct. he returned to 
Act was ahsoluteW void, parliament having no Paris to assist in making the treaty of peace, 
right to tax the Colonics. Some papers writ- and was chiefly instrumental in securing the 
ten by him at this time for the lioaion GasrOe fisheries to the U. S. With Franklin and 
were aubseiincntly pub. as an " Essay on the Jay he negotiated a treaty of comm 
Canon and Feudal Law." He movol to Bos- Great Britain. In the toUowing * 
ton in 1766; drafted the instructions to its rep- negotiated auother Dutch loan; i 



vv^ioc^le 



tniwloMd with Franklin and StiSsnoa to for gillanti; at Santa Cnu r!e Rosales, Mar 

fiarm ireatiei witli foreign powera, and in Mar, 16, 1848; eapt. Nov. 30,1856; hud ceen L-unsid> 

i;8&, went ai miniaier to tb« court of St. orable Indian fighting in Cuh nnd N. Mexi- 

Jamea. While al tbii post, he prepared big co; i«agned Mar. 31, 1S61, to join in the Be- 



caUcd in Feb. 1788, on hig arrival borne, be -^AdJUDM, JoBV Quiscr, siiih Prvsideni 
■ reappointed a delegate U> CongrosB. bat of United Stales, b. Brxintree, July II, 1767 ; 
I not lake hii seat, having been elected Vice- d. Waahinglon, D.C., Feb. 23, lgJ3. H. U. 
Pretident oribeU.B., rcceivini^ the next higb- 1787. Son of Prea. John Adams. He re- 
cti Dunilwr of votes to Wasbiugton in the ceived his tiame of " Quincy " from his luater- 
first l*rei>idenlial eiection. Ue sustained the nalgrundFather, an inauential citizen, who died 
policy of Waahingion, giving, u preaideoi of just as his grandchild was bora. In Feb. 
the senate, his casting-fote in m any important 177B, he accompanied his taiher in his misslou 
tntaiuTe*. The Frencb Bevol., to which ha to France, occupyinj; himself, until his return 
was 0]^?«i<, led him to write his "DiseoursM in Aug. 17T9, in studying the French atid Latin 
on Davila," in which be controverted the ]angnaf;ea; enjoying tbe special fuvor and 
radical deroov. doctrines of the day. Chosen friendship of Fmnklin. In Nov. he made ■ 
prejldml by a siDBtl majority over Jefferson second visit to France, and reaumed his sin- 
'^ beginning Mar. i, 1797, his ad- dies, which were sub^eijuenilj pursued aT ' 



ninistratluD was vehemenily opposed hy tha Btsrdam'aud at lbs U. of Lcydcn. In ITBI, 
new iwny under the lead of JefferBOQ, called at the age of 14, be acoompanicd Mr. Dana 
Bepablicans, who were friendly to the Frem^ to Rassia as private sec. In I7bs, ha spent 



HeVo) , while the Federal party w^e dcter^ some time in Stockholm, Copcnbann, 

mined to preserve neulrality. The French Uamburj'; accomjjanied his futnerto Engtauu, 

Directory oavlug issued decrees and orders and, in 1784, to Taris; reluming home early 

bi^-hly injurious to American commerce, a na- in 178S. After graduating at Harvard with 

•I was set oa loot, an army partly levied, with dialing, honor, he studied law withThoophilu* 

iVoihingion lor vommiinder- in • chief; and a I'ursons, and practiiiGd at Boston, obtaining 

fwuj ii-ar nilh France eniiued. Commission- dij,tinclion aa a political writer. Under the 

crs Ellaworth, Davie, and Mairay, however. sii;natnre of " Publicola." in IT91, he advo- 

snrceeded in arranging the matters in dispute cated neulraiitr with France: sug|:esllng 

with Booajiarie, (beujnst elected consul. The donbts of the favorable is^uc of the French 

heavy taxes to meet the expenses of warlilio Bcvol. From 17W to ISOl, ho was sue- 

iiieparaiiutis, the ilt-advited Alien and Sedition ecssivtil; minister to Holland, England, and 

Liiiv, and the charge of being under British Prusaift, leccivlng in 1798 a commisiiion to 

inSneoca, countenanced by Hamilton, de* negotiate a treaty of commerce with Swe<len; 

siruyedAdama's popularity ; and in the follow- and residing in Berlin from Nov. 1797, to Apr. 

ing election he received but 6S electoral votes, ISOl, when be was reculled. While here, he 

wbile Jetierson and Barr had 73 each. His wrote his " Letters from Silesia." July 37. 

subseqiwot life was passed in relirenient at the 1797, he m. Louiea, dao. of Joi>hua Johnson, 

homestead in Quincy. At the age of 85, be consol at London, and nioce of Thos. Johii' 

wB< ebown a dek^te to the Convention to rn- ton gov. of Md., and jndge of the U. S. Su- 

fise the ConstitDtion of Mi., and was request, preme Court In 18(ffi, he was in the senate 

ed lo preside, bat declined. He lived to see 'Of Mi., and was in that of the U.S. from 1803, 

., his >on President, and to receive Jeffenon'i until, in 1808, he resigned on account of di:*- 

congratnlalions npon it. By a remarkable agreement on the question of embargo with 

eoincidence, they both expired on thu Hftieth Ibe Ms. legist. Ilis course in this mutter led 

anniveraaiy of that Dedaration of Indepoud- lo a ecrioua conirovcrai- liclween him and his 

eoce in which they had botb taken so active colleague Timothy Pitkeriug. From 1806 to 

a part. His dau. Abigail m. Col. Wm. &. 1809, he was prolC of rhetoric at U. U. Min- 

Bmith. hia secretary of legation in Lon- isicr to liussia 1809-14, bis influence at that 

don. He wrote for the BaOon Patriol many court induced its offers of intervention, which 

valuable coniribntiona to the histoiy of his culminated in tha treaty of peace between 

times, a portion of which, entitled " Corre. Eng. and the U. S. Ho was one of the com- 

s;Kjndence," was pnh. 8vo, 1809. Uis Letters misaioners to ncgolinte that treaty at Gbent 

lu Mr. Tndor led lo the publication of the Life in 1814 ; after the signing of which, he, with 

of Ulis, and shed much light on the earlr bis- Gailalin and Clay, negotiated at the court of 

uin of the Bevol. Hia srandson Charles St. James a commercial treaty with Great 

Francis Adams has pub. his collected writ- Britain, signed Jul^ 13, ISIS. Ho rcmuiued 

tngt, including his "Antobiography." Among in London as resident minister until Mur. 

hisothcr pnhlicarions are " Twentj-six Let- 1817. While at St. Petersburg in 1811, be 

era on ihe American Jtovolution. written in was app. a judge of ibe U. S. Supreme Court. 

Holland in 1780;" "Correspondence with hut declined, A scries of letters lo his sou on 

W. Cunningham," 1823; and LetlarsonGov- "The Bible and its Teachings," wan uriiiun 

cnimeni lo Samuel Adams," 180!. Though at this jperiod. From 1817 lo 18:^5, he was 

roartetin* in manner, iii. Adami was some- Sec. of Stale lo Fn^ident Monroe, whom be 

what irritable in temper. succeeded as Froxidont in 1825. In 1831, he 

ArtBTTlff JuHK. maj..gen. C.S.A.. b, Tenn. was sent to Congress, where he was continued, 

IR2S; killed at the battle of tVanklin, Tenn., by successive re-eieciions, nntil his duatli. which 

Nov. 30, 1864. West Point, 184fi. Entering oicurred suddenly in the Capitol. His last 

tbt lit diaifooiis, he was brevetied Itt lleut. words wore, " This is the last of earth i I ant 



t.Google 



eontenl." Ai a scbolar, hia aCtiunmenn were .^AdaiUfli Sihuxl, one 3l the foreniMt at 
varioDH and proround. Congres* devolTed ihe Revol. patriou. b. Boaton, Svpl, ST, 173!; 
npoQ him tb« duty of prononncing tha eulo- d. there Oct. 2, 1803. H. D. 17*0. LL.D. 
gium upoQ LikfRjelte; and he also proDODDced 1793. Sunael and Prea. John, Adama vere 
at Boston the ruDoral.o ration a upon Mnduon great-graiidsaiiB of the son of Henrf, the firat 
BOd Monroe. Aa Sec. of State, the claima on emigrat)'- ^ia father, Samuel, many j'eara a 
Spain were by hia influence adjoaled ; Flotida rep, in the Ma. A^aembly, d. 1717. Heamdied 
was added to the Union ; and the lepnblio of for the ministry. On receiving the degree of 
S. America recognized. Mr. Adama s adminia- A.M. in 1743, he proposed, and took the af- 
iration brored the application of all the anpor. Srmative in the discussion of, tbe question, 
Buuua terenuei of the eoooiry to internal " Whether it be lawful to rciiat tbe aupreine 
IniproTementa. The learle«a stand which he mag^atraia, if the commonwealtb cannot otbcr- 
■naintaioed in Congress npon the right of wise be preaerred J " Abont theaametime he 
petition was in the nighest degree honorable pnb. a pamphlet called EnglMmea'i Righti. 
to him. He looked npon alarery aa an an- Dneacc^sfaf u a merchant, as a writer he 
iDitii;ated curse. Hia voice was heard on soon became eminent, preserving by hiseSbru 
nearly every imporunt qoestioa before tbe the estate of hia father, which had been at- 
House. When more than fourscore, he was tached on account of the "Land Bank Bob- 
yet " the Old Man Eloqaeot." Independent, ble." His able writings in opposition to the 
manly, and patriotic, he never awerved from admiaiatration of Shirley procured him public 
what he believed to be the path of duty ; leaT- esteem and confidence. App. tax collector, 
ing behind him a high reputation lor pnrity bia political opponenta styled him " Samuel 
and diaiotarestedneas. In ISIO, his " Lectures the Publican." He was a member of a politi- 
on Rlie tone and Oratory "were pub.; "Let- cal club which originaled important mess- 
lers on Freeuiasonry,' in 1833; "Dermot ares j fomented boatility to the Stamp Act, tbe 
MacMurrough," a poem, 1B3S; and, in 1848 tea-dat;, and other aggresaive meaaaree; and 
" Poema of Beligion and Sode^," A Memoir drew up tbe instmctioas of the town of Boa- 
by Josiah Qnincy wa« pnb. in Boston, 8vo, ton in May, 1764, to iu repreaentatives, 
1858. agftinat Grenville's schemes of parliamentaiy 

AdEunS) Matthew, iniler, of Bolton, d. taxation. Elected a representative in 1769, 

Mar. 2, 1749. He waa a merchant or nmdes- he was chosen clerk, and for nearly teti yeai« 

man,andhadalargecollectioD of books. Dr. was the soul of that asaemblv. Coarageona 

Franklin acknowledges hia obligationi for ac and ardent, he waa yet prudent, and knew 

vm to Ills library. He contrib. essaya to the how to bend the passions of others to hia pur- 

Siw-EtHiland Joarnai, and pnb. aoma poetical poae. He ia said to have suggested the congress 

-■'—• ' His SOD JoOH, minister of Durham, which assembled at N. Y. id 1 765. In conse- 

1748-78, b. June 19, 1735 ; d. June 4, quence of the act imposing duties, in 1767, 

II. U. I74S. Rev. Hdqb, minister of Adama suggested tbe non-importation agree- 

Durham, bro. of Matthew. H. U. 1G97, d. ment, which took efiect Jan. 1, 1T69. On the 

See ZVajte** Boston, pp. 634, 675. day following the" massacre "of Mar. 5, 1770, 

no 11:..^-.-,.. ....I — I. B — ... he addroaaed a pnblir meeting with impressive 

eloqneDce, and waa cbairman of the comniLttee 

^ . ., to demand of Gov. Hutcbineon the inimedi- 

law with Gen, Sullivan j but, before the ex- ale removal of the troopa. Tbe stem and in- 

piration of his term, was app. clerk of the N.H. flexible patriot carried his point, and clearly 

Superior Court, and for more than flfly years exposed the fallacy of Hutchinson's reply to 

officiated in the courts of tbe State. He waa the donund. Committees of correspondence 

the reporter of the flratvol. of "Decisions of were .in 1773 first adopted by Ma., on motion 

the ts.H. Court," pub. 1819, and author of of Adama; and the plan was followed by 

" Annals of I'ortamouth," 1835 ; one of the all tbe provincea. To Gov. Gage's overture to 

founders of [he N.U. Hiat. Society. bim to make hia peace with tbe king, he re- 

Adams, Nehehiah, D.D., Cong, clergv- plied, " I tmat I liave long since made my 
man, b. tiulem, Ma., Feb. 19 1SU6. U. U. peace with the Kinii of Ungt. No personal 
1828 ; And. Theol. Sem. 1839, Settled as col- considerations shall induce mo to nitandon tbe 
league with Rev. Ur, Holmes of the First righteous cauae of my country." Ho waa one 
Church, Cambridge, Dec. 17, 1839, and siac« of those who matured the plan o( a gcnernl 
Mar. 2t>, 1834, has beeo pastor of tbe Essex- congress; waa one of the lirst dele,»tes; and 
St Church, Boston, Many years an officer was on active member ii^im Sept. 5, 1774. to 
of the Amer. Tract Soc. and of the A. B. C. 1781, rendering most important services to his 
F. M. An eloquent and earnest preacher, coantry. Tbe last official act of the British 
Dr. Adama took an active part in the ITni- Government in Ms. was to proscribe John 
tarian controveray, and baa pnb. " Remarks Hancock and Samuel Adama, June I!, 1775. 
on tbe Unitarian Belief;""Tho Friends of He was one of the eorlieet and most walous ad- 
Christ," IM^il ; " AntobioB. of Thoa. Shepard," vocatos of independence, which he had avowed 
Ic., 1833 ; " Life of John Eliot," 1847 ; aa early as 176S, and which he wished to have 
" Soutbsidc View ol Sltveiy." 18M, present- declared immediately 'after the battle of Lex- 
iiig n favorable view of the iiiiiiituTion ; " Cor- ington. With John Adams he made the draft 
re>pondcni-e viitli Gov. VVise of Va." on tbe of the Siaie Constitution, 1779, and also the 
tunic tuliject ; oi'cnsional discouraca, &c. He address of the convention to the people. Prea- 
u'us n rnqucni contributor to the tijiiiit of (he i<lent of the senate of Ms, in 1781. Mcmbef 
P:t;iiiHi, Boston, 1836-33. ' "^ ' '^'-'^ -j- .-j -l- .,..—. 



N^f'l 



of (be GOQTentioa which adopted the Federal 



,,Google 



Conititucion in Feb. ITBB, though olgectliie 
to come of it> provigioiu : Mine of his Bmeod- 
menla, BfturiTBrds tgrntd to, now fbrm s part 
of tbst iaitmment. Lioat-goT. of Mb. I7S3- 
94; got. 1T94-7. Hii aqlf son, Samuel, b. 
Oct. 37, 1741 (H.U. 1770], itndied medicine 
nndor Dr. Joseph Warren, served as ■ aurijeon 
daring tlie wir.and d. Jan. 17, 1788. Though 
poor, aamuel Aduna possessed B lofty and ia- 
corraptible spirit, was pure in morals, and 
craTe and austere 10 manner, though Harm in 
hii (eelings. An eathnsiaalic lore of liberty, 
an tnexticguiihable hatred of tyranny, great 
promptness of decision, and inflexible nnnness, 
were bis prominent characteristics. His Revol. 
Btrriccs were not surpassed by those of any in- 
dividaal. From the commenrGiaeni of the dis- 
putes, he was inceesanlly employed, — writing 
State paper* from 1765 to 1774, planning and 
organ uing clubs and committees, haranguing 
iu town-meetings, or fllling the columns of the 
public printa adapted to the spirit and temper 
of the limes. As a speaker, be was pure, coo- 
dae, logical, and impressive; and the energy of 
his diction was not inferior to Ibo depth of his 
mind. JeSbisoo attributed to him a greater 
share than to any other member of Con- 
tra* in advising and directing its measnrea 
ID ibe northern war. He was jealous of 
•II delegated power, even in the bands of a 
WasbingioD. He was a warm admirer of the 
French Rcvol., and belonged lo the Republi- 
can or Jefferaonian parly. His wife, Eliaabeib, 
dan. of Rev, Samuel Chechley. whom he m. 
Oct 17, 1749, was a most exemplary woman. 
Adams pub. a LttUr lo Iht Earl of HJUborough, 
a Laitr lit ^ilnsinr lo Thomai Paint, in Dt/ence 
of Chritlianily, and an Oration in 1776. Four 
LtUeri (la CvnrrnmeM were pub. in pamphlet 
form in 1800. — See Lifi and Public Services, 
•ith extracts from bis writings, edited by his 
grandson, William V. WeUs. 3 tola. Bvo, 1S66. 

AdamSf Seth, inventor, b. Rochester, 
M.B., Apr. 13, 1807. Apprenticed to a cabi- 
netmaker; removed to Boston in 1828; worked 
in a machine-shop; began business for him- 
selfin 1831 ; in 1833 became interested in the 
priming-press invented by bb bro. Isaac; 
erected a new machinc-thop in I83S, and em- 
barked largely in maun lac luring the new 
press, and established the firm of I. & 8. 
Adams, which continued until 18E>6, with great 
pecuniary proflt. In 1849 he began the busi- 
tMSSofkugar-refininjr : and in 1B59 built in So. 
Boston an establisiimenl for this purpose, 
which is one of the most noteworthy in the 
world. He has been a member of the dly 
council and of the board of public works. 
M. A. of Bowd. Coll., to which hegave acon- 
liilerablc sum for the eiilBrgemcnt of their 
buildings; d. Boalon, Dec. S, 1873. 

Adanu, Wit-UAK, D.D. (N. T. U. 1842), 
LL.D. (N. J. Coll. 1869}; h. Cokheswr, Cl., 
180*. Tale Coll. 1827. His father, John 
Adams, LL.D., principal of the Colchester 
Acad., and afterward of that at Andover. Ms., 
d. JacL'ODville, 111.. Apr. 34, 1S63, a. 90. Yale 
Coll. 1-9S At 87 he left hia N. E, pari.sh lo 
visilthe South for his henllh, bccHmi: pnsior of 
(he Bnximcvat. Chun-h, N. Y. <tS-35-53;, and 
ba* since been pastor of the New School Pres- 



byterian Church, cor. 24th Sl and Madison 
Ave., N.Y. City. Besides sermons. Dr. Adams 
has pub. " The Three Oardeoa, — Eden, Geth 
semsne, and Paradise." 

Adams, William T., "Oliver Optic," 
writer of juvenile books, b. Medway, Ms., July 
30, 1 822. 20 years a teacher; for 6 years he 
was principal of the Boylston and Bowditch 
Schools, Boston. He has pub. " Boat Club," 
" Woodville," and " Army and Navy " series, 
6volB.eaeh; "Biierdale, 12 vols. ; "Young 
America Abroad," 6 vols., and " Starry Flag," 
6 vols. These have been pub. by Messrs. Lee 
& She[Nird, Boston, and nave attained great 
popularity. He has for some years edited Oli- 
ver Oalic'i iimatine for Boys and Girli, 

AdoniB, WiSBOBR, Bevol. officer of Dur- 
ham, N.H., mortally wounded at the battle of 
Stillwater, Sept. 19, 1777. Capt. 2d N. H. 
regt., 17T5 ; maj. in 1776 ; lieut.-col. in Beid'a 
regt. in the spring of 1777. 
_. Adanu, Zabdiei., minister of Lunenburg, 
Ms., b. Bralntree, Nov. S, 1739 ; d. Mar. 1, 
1801. B. C. I7S9. Old. Sept. G, 17G4. His 
father was uncle to Pres. John Adams. Ah. 
1774, he pnb. a pamphlet roaiolnining that a 
pastor bad a negative upon the proceedings of 
the church. Some ministers, in eonsecjuence 
of embracing this doctrine, lost their parishes. 
He pub. sermons on "Chnrch Music." 1771 ; 
" Christian Dnity," 1 772 ; " Election Sermon," 
1781 ; on Apr. 19, 1783, and at tbe ordination 
of E. Whipple, 1788. 

Addington, Isaac, sec. of the province 
of Ms., b. Jan. 22, 1645, in Boston ; d. there 
Mar. 19, 1715. Son of Isaac Addington, sur- 
geon, by Anno, sister of Gov. Leverell, and was 
bred to his lather's profession. Member of 
the house of representatives and speaker in 
1685; on assist, in 1686; was one of those who 
opposed the administration of Sir Edmund 
Audtos, and on its overthrow, Apr. 1689, was 
chosen clerk of the Council of Safety, to whom 
the government was committed by ilie people. 
Sec from his appointment in 169U till his 
death, — a period of nearly 26 years. Judge 
of the Court of Common IPleus from 1693 to 
1702. and chief justice of the Superior Court 
in 1702-3. He was manjr years chosen to the 



Addison, Albxandbb, a 

of Pittsburg, Pa., b. 1759 ; d. Nov. 24, 1807, 
He was judge of that circuit 12 years; was ao 
accompli shed scholar and a cultivated writer. 
He pub. " Observations on Gallatin's Speech," 
1798; "Analysis of the Report of a Commit- 
tee of the Va. Assembly," 1800; " Penu. Re- 
ports," 1800. 

Adet (a'da'), Piehbb Auochtcb, French 
politician and chemist, b. Paris, 17G3; d. ab. 
1832. Brought op in the artillery service, ho 
quitted it to devote himself to the study of the 
sciences, but, engaging in politics, was success- 
ively chief of the administration of (he Colo- 
nics, member of the council of mines, colleague 
ofthe minister of marine in 1793, resident at 
Geneva in 1794, ambassador to ihu U. S. in 



byGoogle 

J 



AlOi 10 .AQN 

IT95-T; was afterward cftUed to the tribanaie; the6shesof the Daonbe, and ^ve «et«o ;ean 
prefect lit ite Nietre in 1803 ; cbosen to ifae to ihe study of fOmil fiahes. He was enabled 
senate ia 1809, and to the cbodberof deputic* bf Cbriitenat, a friend of hii father, to prose- 
in 1814, as ■ coostitntianaliit. He pub. eome cats his studies in Paris, and wee offered bj 
chetnlcal works. InlT96, he presented to con- Curler all his own collections, Hetuming in 
greM, on the part of the French nsiion, the tri- 1833 to Nenfcbfitel, hewasapp. prof, of natural 
colored flag, and in IT97 sent to the Sec of history Ibere. The liberality of Hamboldt 
Stale the famous note in which the Directory enabled bim to pnb. his great work On " EVmbII 
declared that tbe flag of the republic would Piabes," 5 Tola. (1834-44), with a folio atlas, 
treat all neuird flags as ibey pemitied them' He arriTed in Boston In 1846, intending to 
Mires to be treated by tbe English, — a decla- study the natural history and geology of tlie 
r&tioa regarded by onr goyemmcnlaa contrarf country, and lectured there on the animal 
to the tenor of the treaty of 1778. Adet then kingdom and on the ((lociers. Ketuming in 
suspended bis foncdons, and returned to the summer of 1847 from a jonmey sonlh, 
France, Prof. Bacbe. scpeHnteudcnt of the U. 'S. Coast 

Adler, Gboboe J., Ph.D., author, b. Leip- Surrey, tendered him its facilities for the con- 
sic. Germany, 1831,' d. Bloomingdale Insane tinnanceof his labors, of which offer be availed 

Asylum, N.Y., A " ' ■' ' " 

1844. Hecameto __,..._r— — - bj -— •, -, — 

of Germao at the U. of N.T. from 1B46 to Lawrence Scientific school, Cambridge, s 

1894, and, until be lost his reason in 1860, was its foundation in I84S; in which year he made, 

a teacher, and writeroftsxt-books. Amonghis withsomeof his pnpits, a scientilic explora- 

works are a German grammar, 1846; a reader, -■ - ■■ ■ ' ' " ' 
184T; a dictionary, 1848, end a manual of 
0«rman lileruture, 1853; a Latin gramluar, 
1858 ;traDalalionsoftho"Iphigeaia" of Goethe, 
and a bistory of Profen^al Poetry, by C. C. 

Fauriel, 1860; notes on the Agamemnon of t,A|i<uiw uiun, lui^ i»u.u> ui ■•m.-u, » 

,£scbylus, 1861 ; and his last, a " Review of Journey in Braiil," by Hrs. Agassii, was pub. 

Kathan the Wise," in Putnam'i Magaune Sot 1887, and another rol„ by C, F. Hant, in 

Sept. 1868. He delircred lectures in N.T. on 1870. In 1861, be received the Coplev Medai 

"Roman Lileraiura"iD 1862, and in 1964 On from the Eoyal Society of London. fS-om the 

Goethe's " Fauat." His " Letters of a Luna- Acad, of Sciences, Paris, he has received the 

tic " appeared in t8!>4. Monthyon Prise, for experimental philos., and 

AdraiU, ItoncBt, LL. D., mathematician, the Cuvier Prize ; the Wollaston medal ftom 

b. Carricktui'gus, Ireland, Sept. 30, 1TT5; d. N. the Geolog. Soc.. Loud. ; and the Medal of 

Brunswick, SJ., Aug. 10, 1843. He taught Merit from the King of Prussia, Member of 

school. Was dangerously wounded in tbe the leading scientific bodies, and contributor 

Irish rcbcllioa of 1798, in which lie command- to the prominent scientific junmals of Garope 

tid a compiinj ; escaped pursuit, and, arriving and America. LL.D. of the Univeraliiea of 

in S.Y., taught school successively at Prince- Dublin and Edinburgh. Els' researches npon 

ton, K.J., York and Reading, Pa., and was a the glaciers of tbe Alps are embodied in 

contributor toa scientific journal pub. in N.T., " Etudes so r les Glaci^res," 1840, and "Sys- 

and to the Annt^iil in Fhila. ; prof, of malbe- t^e Glaciale," 1S47. Among his works an 

malica and natural philosophy in Rutgers Coll. "Lake Superior," Svo, 1850, and " Contrv 

in 1810-13, and in Col. CoU in 1813-25,; from butions to the NaiDral Hist, of the D. S.," 

1837 to 1834 was prof, of nialhemalics in the of which fijur rola. onlv have yet appeared; 

U. of Pa., and also vice-provost ; and after- " Methods of Study in 'Natural HiaL ; " Geo- 

wards engaged in teaching in N.Y. He was a lo^cal Sheicbea," " The Structure of Animal 

member ol many scientific bodies in Europe LiTe," Svo, 1862; and "Twelve Lectures on 

and America ; edited an improved edition of Comparative Embryology," before the Lowell 

" Hutlon's Mathematics," also a periodical, Institute, Boston, 1S49 ; d. Dec, 14, 1879. 

tbe MaAeauitiad Diars, in lsaS-8. and pub. Agatet FRsuEiuca S., artist, b. Sparta, 

capers on " The Figure and Magnitude of the N.Y., ISOT ; d, N.Y. City, May, 1S44 ; nslted 

Earth," andon"Grariiy"in tbe perio4ficalsof Italy in 1835; was an aasiduona student in 

the duy." art, but d, without leaving any works of rerj 

Agassiz (&'^&-*ee). Loots Jobn Rd- great interest. Of ihoae he left, the best 
vuU'U. naturalist, b. in the pariah of Matters, known are, "Dead Christ and Mother," " Co- 
near Lake Neafehfttel, Switzerland, May se, Inmbua and [he Egg," " The Ascension," and 
1607. Of Hucuonot descent.' his father waa " Count Ugolino.''^ 

pastor of St. Imier. Ho studied at Bienne Agneli Htacimib B., teacher of French 

and the Coll. of Lausanne, at the Zurich at mat Point Milit. Acad, since Feb. 4, 1840, 

medical sciiool (1824-9), and at tbe universities b. N. Y.; d. West Point, N. T,. ah. Feb. 15, 

of Heidelberg and Mnnich. besides attending, 1671. Author of a "Treatise on Chess,'" 1867, 

for four vcars, Schelling's lectures on pbiloa- and " Tabular System of French Instruction." 

ophv. lie aided Mariius in his great work AglieW, Jaues, a British gen., killed at 

on Brazil, and, by the help of Cotta the pnb- the battle of German town, Oct, 4, I'TT. Maj. 

libber, was enabled to complete his " Natnral SSth Foot, Dec. 1797; lieut.-col. 44[b, Dec. 

History of the Fresh Water Fishea of Europe." 1764; came to Boston late in 1779; was 

RcceivinK at Erlangen the degree of Ph. D., engaged at Brooklyn Heighla, Aug. 27, 1776 ; 

and at Munich that of M. D., he aexc studied wtan, as well as in tbe following campaign, 



lyV^ioo^^le 



AO-U 11 JLSSl 

be com. die 4th brigade of the nrral annr. Julr 36, and parehaaed a imall farm in Hoo«i«, 

He HHii. a detacbment ander Got. Tttod, id N.Y. In IS39, be removed to the Weal, tried 

bis exped. 10 Danburj, Apr. se, ITTi, aod New Harmotiy one fear, and, finding it a Tail- 

*u at tbe battle «f Bnmdywine, where he waj nre, settled down ua brewer nt Shiupiiigport, 

■Ufbtlj wDQDded by a eannon-boll. Er. In 1B29, he bailt a brewer}r in Uouisville, 

AgaJTPe (l-g^r'-rft), Lofk db, a Spaniib wbich waa mined bj en inanilatioD of the Ohio 

adTentureT. He went lo Pern daring the in 1832. Another in New Albany, Ind., wm 

exped. of Oraia, in qn«t of the imaginary deatroTed by fire in 1B34, He hu since eia- 

Eldorado (I5GO-61), a hiitorj of which hu plojed himself in >aperincending the erection 

' ~n written by Sonthdy, and committed great of breneriee, mills, and djatillcriei, at ihe 

--'-'ee. He prompted Onou to seize «n- West, and is a resident of LouidTillc, Kj. 

power, then killed him to obtain hi* On the eve of his departure from Svoiland, 

place ; and fiom that time committed fVeqnent Ainslie pub. " A Pilgrimage to tbe Land of 

murders. He d. by *iolence in Veneioela. Bums," a valnme of nolea interspersed wiib 

Atanitsol, emperor of the Aztecs ah. the nnmerons songs and ballads suggested by a 

close of Iba IStb centniy, is said to have en- visit to his early borne in Ayrshire. These, 

larged hi» empire, and to hare expended larKe with his other songs, ballads, and poems, 

sniBt In bnilding canals and public ediQces In which originally app<»ied in Tarious maga- 

Ueicico. Tradition sots, that. In UBS, he in- lines wars pub. in 1S55; d. Mar. 12, IS78. 

■ngnraled a temple by the slaughter of 71,344 AlDBWOrth, Lxaxv, minister of Jaffrey, 

prisoners, the butchery lasting 43 days. N.H., b. Wooilstock.Ct., Jnlj 19, i;67;d. Jaf- 

Aiken.WiLLiAM, statesman, b. Charleston, fVey, N.H., Mar. IT, IS5S. Dartm. Coll. IT7B. 

S.O., (806. B.C. Coll. 1825. After travelling Bon of Capt. Wm. Ainsworth, Ord. first 

for some lime in Europe, he returned in 1839, nastor of the church at JaSrey, Dec 10, 1783, 

and in 1830 became the proprietor of Jehossee he continued 49 years withoot a colleague, 

Islanii, 30 miles south of Charleston, where and was pastor over the same people Tfi years. 

heemploved 1,000 neeroes, and cultivaied near He relaiited hia bodily and mental ^wers so 

2,000 anvs of rice. Member of the Stale legisl. as to participate at the public services at the 

in IS38-(0 ; State senator in 1842 ; governor church, celebrating his 100th Urthday. 

in IS4(-«; and teprenentative to Congress Aitken, RobbM', printer and bookseller, 

from IS51 to IBST. A Democrat of the Col- b. Scotland, 1734; d. Phila, July, \Ba-i. He 

boon school : be was supported by that party came to Phtlo. in 1769 ; pub. the Ptnmi/lfaaia 

in Congress for the speakership, and Inckod Uagaiint.ir Arnfrlcan Monlhti/ Slvienin, Irom 

but one role. He has contrib. largely to the Jan. 1775 lo Jnne, !7TB, with Uopkinson and 

k>eal enterprises of that fijigion, making large Witherspoon (or contribators, and, for bis at- 

donations to the Orphan Asylum of Charles- tachmcnt to the cause of liberty, was thrown 

ton. and contrib. to tbe endowment of the into prison in 1777, andnarrowlyescaped a resi- 

Charicston Coll. and other pablic inslitutians dence in the prison-ships of N, Y, In 1782, 

of hi> nanvQ city. He took no part in tbe be pnb, the first American edition of tbe 

Bebellioo. Bible, br which he was pecuniarily a loser. 

AlkmaD, AtfiAnoEB. loyalist editor, b. He is the supposed author of "An Inquiry 

8eoiland,l755; d. Prospect Fen, St. Andrews, cancembK the Principles of a Commercial 

Jamaica. July, 1838. At 16, he emigrated lo System for the U.S.," IT87. 

Charieston, 8.C., and was apprenticed to Bob- Akerlyi S*iii;el, M. D., physician, b. 

ert Wells, printer. He led tbe conntiy at the 1785; d, Staten Island, Jnly B, 1845. Col. 

Bevol., and settled in Jnmaica, where he estab- Coll. 1804. He studied medicine with bis bro.- 

Itthe^ the Jamaica Mrram/, afterward the in-law, S, L. Miicbell. Besides being a large 

Boyai Gawttr. He was many vears a member contribntor to medical and scientific journals, 

of the House of Assembly, and printer to that bo was a (bunder and most efficient supporter 

body and to tbe king. In 179S, he sailed for of the institutions for the deaf and dumb, and 

Great Britain, bat was captured on the pas- for the blind. Author of " Essny on Ibc Geot- 

•oge, and compelled to ransom his property. — ogy of tbe Hudson Kiver," IBSO ; " Observa- 

Salnar. tions on Deafness." 1B21. 

Ailleboat, Loms d', gov, of Canada Akermsn, AhosT., U.S., at^.-gcn., app. 

t«47-5l ;d. Qnebec, 1660. He came to Cana- Jan. 15,1870, b. N.H. 1819; adm. to ihv bar in 

da with colonists for the Island of Montreal; 1841; removed to Elberton, Ga. in 18M>; U.S. 

odminisiered its government in the absence of aity. for Georgia, 1866-70. 

Maisonnenve; was afterward gov. of Three Akers, BESJiMiK Paul, sculptor, b. 8ao- 

Rirers, and, while gov. of Canada, endeavored, arappa. Mo., July 10, 1825 ; d. Phils., Mny 21, 

ansuccessfully, to form a combination with the 1861. At IS he went to Portland, where he 

N.-England governors to slop tbe encroach- worked in a printing-office; but Ihe ti^bt of 

meols of the Iroquois. — Morqim. Chanlrcv'a statue of Washington in the State 

AinaUe, Hxw, poet, b. Baugcny Mains, Bouse, busion, led him to become a siulpior. 

Carrick Dislrirt, Ayrshire. Scotland. Apr. 5, In 1849, be opened a studio in Portland, and 

1792. He received a good education, and in modelled busts of Longfellow, and othtr^. In 

his 17th vear arent to Glasgow to study lew, I85I-2, he visilcd Italy, and, on returning to 

bol.dislikingthcpursnit.oblained a situation in Portland, modelled a statue of "Benjamin in 

the ReEisier House, Edinborgb, jiBssing some Egypt," which was exhibited al ihc N Y. 

nf hi] time at Kinnlel House, as the amanneo- Crvsial Palace in 1853. Dnrirg a sulise<)uenl 

fi* of Dngaid Siewart. and left it in 1833 lo visit lo Washinclon, he produced \ia^i* ot 

lotlwU.S. He landed at N.T. City JadgoMcLeaa,KdwBrdEvcreit,Gcrrit Smith, 



IvV^iOC^le 



AX^A. 12 AU3 

•nd Sam Houston. In Jan. IS95, be agaJD vol. in Borceloni, 1634. Soma oT hU {deec* 

Tuiied Earope, reaidiag two f eare in Bome, have iioce been repab. in some Spanish coIIcl. 

where he prodaced bis " Una and ti\« Lion," Ciona; d. in Spain in IS39. 
■ Biatue of "St Eliiobelh of HnaKar]'," the Aloott, Amos Bbon»ok, teacher and 

"Dead Pearl-Diver," and an ideal head of philosopher, b. Wulcoti, Ct., Kov. 39, 1T99. 

MiltoD, bis last, and perhaps bia best prodac- While a boj, he was a vender o[ merchandise 

tion in Rome. In 1859, be reviHited Rome, in a small wa; amon;; the plantations of Va. 

where he modelled a statue of Com. U. C. On bis return to Cc, he taught an infant 

Perry for the H.Y. Central Park. On return- school ; removed to Boston in 1S2B, and ac- 

ing to America in 1860, he established himself qaii«d Tepaiation as a' teacher of jont^ cbil- 

first in Poriland, and then in Phila., where he dren at the Masonic Temple. (Bee "Record 

died of coosumption. He executed about 40 of a School," E. P. Feabody, Boston, 1834.) 

KrtrBit baits and statues, besides some mar- Mr. Aloott [hen removed to Concord, intereal- 

I copies from the antique. Ho contrib. ing himself in the stadj of natural theolog;, 

£apers on art and artists to the Atlantic MbbIA- and the various ijneslions of reform in educs- 

J. Bis wift, Eliiabeth Akers, has contrib. tion, diet, civil and social institutions. On bis 

to Juvenile literature under the pMndonjm return fh>m Eng. in 1842, he brousht with 

of " FloicDce Percy." A. vol. of ber poems him two of his English friends, Charles Lane 

was pull, in Boston in IB66. and H. Q. Wright; and Mr. Lane havioK 

Alanum (A-la-man'), Don Ldcab, Mexican boogbta ^m called "FruitlandB," at Harvard, 
siateaman, b. in the Stale of Gnanaxuato ; d. Hs., they all went there to round a new corn- 
Mexico, June S, 1855. Edocated at the monitv. Messrs. Lane and Wright soon re- 
Coll, of La Minerva, he entered the Mexican turned to Eng-, and the scheme was aban- 
army soon after the bceaking-ont of the war doned. Mr. Alcott removed to Boston, and 
of independence. Soon relinquishing tlie mil- has led the life of a peripatetic phQosopher, 
itary profession for that of tbe law, be devowd conversing in cities and in villt^es, whenever 
bimeelf assidnouslv to politics. After the de-' invited, on theoretical and practical questions. 
position of Itnrbide, Alaman became minister He attaches great importance to diet, and gov- 
of foreign afhics ; retiring on tbe retam of emment of iat body, and to race and com^ex- 
the former in 1S24. He then visited Europe; ion. Author of " Tablets," pah. in 1S6S, and 
bnt upon the overthrow of Guerrero in Dec. " Conversations with Children on the Gospels," 
1829, at the invitation of Bostamente, he re- S vols., 1336. Louisa Mat Alcott, bis dau., 
sumed his former office. Out of a state of is the author of " Little Women," " The Uld- 
tbe greatoat confnsion, under his hands, the fashioned Girl," " Moods," " Hospital Sketcb- 
country soon emerged to a settled and orderly «s" (1B63), " Aunt Joe's Scrap Bag." and 
condition; and, during the years 1830-31, Ata- "LitUe Men." 

man effected many useful reforms. He intro- AlOOtt, Wx. Albx., M.D., physician and 

duced European machinery, encouraged Indus- andior, cousin of A. B. Aicotl, b. Wolcott, Ct., 

trial undertakings, and established a bank for Aug. 6, 173S ; d. Aubnmdale, Ms., Mar. 29, 

the encuuntgeinent of those engaged in man- 1859. Educated at a dislriL-t school, he aup- 

ufactures. Banta ABa, however, believing ported himself until 29 by farming and teach- 

Alaman to be interfering with bis plana, sue- mg. His health being poor, he studied medi- 

Meded in driving him from public life. He cine at Yale Med. School., practised phyaic a 

re-appeared in 1837, upon the return of Busta- few years, and in 1833 engtiged with William 

mente to power; and afUrwords became recon- Woodbrid^ in preparing scbool-geographies 

died with Santa AHa, who, Mar. IT, ISM, on and in editing " The Annals of Education " 

again coming into power, conferred on bim tbe and " The Juvenile Rambler." Ho wrote upon 

office of minister for foreign aSairs. school reforms in Che Hartford and N. Haven 

Al&rcoili Hjebnahdo db, a Spanish navi- papers, gaining a premiom from the American 

SHtoruf the IGtb century, to whom we owe the Insliiute of Instruction for bis article on Che 
rsi precipe knowledge of California. He " Construction of kjchoolhouses." Abandon- 
sailed May 9, 1540, in the service of Spain; Ing animal food and all drinks but water in 
missed a junction with the exped. of Corona- 1^0, his health gradually improved. Remov- 
do on the western coast of America, and, re- ing to Boston m June, 1833, he engaged In 
turning to New Spain in lfi41, drew op hi* various reforms In morals, education, and physl- 
maps and abservationB. His discoverie* and cal traiuing, having for his object tbe proven- 
those of Ulloa were so complete, that tbe map tion of vice, disease, and povertj, and tbe dis- 
of California of 1941 difibrs little ftom that semination of physiological knowledge. He 
made in our own day. lectured in different parts of Che country. He 
Alaroon y UeadOBa (it-lar-kon e men- pub. above 100 works, among them "Young 
ddthH), DON Jcui Rniz db, a celebrated Man's Guide;" "The House I Live In;" 
Spanish- American poet, li. of a noble family "Yonng Woman's Guide;" "Young House- 
at Taahco, Mex. ab. 1600. He was employed keeper; " " Library of Health," 6 vols. ; 
in Spain in 1G29; and in 1628 is named i^- " Moral Reform ; " " My Progress in Error;" 
tor del real CoRteio de iai Indiat. Atacelebrat- "Young Mother;" " Toung Husband;" 
ed^fein Madrid in 1634, be was a competi- "Toung Wife;" and "Prize Essay on To- 
tor, and bore off the prise, for a dramatic com- bacco." 

position. A writer In the Noai-elle BiagraphiK AldClli EnENBZKB. M.D,, b. Randolph, 

i;i.iViTs«tf«(Ferd. Denis) calls him "The great- Ms., Mar. 17,1788. H. U. 1808. M.D., U. 

£st poet that America has yet produced." His of Penn. I81Z Practii:es medicine In R. An- 

comediet were pub. Itladrid 1S98; a second tbor of " Alden Memorial," 1B67; "Memoii 



t.Google 



AI^ 18 .AJ^I> 

of Mr« M. A. O. Clark," IS37; and "Hist. 1799, to Aug. II. tS05, minuter oT Pom- 

Skvlch of Ha. tied. Soc.," 1838. month, N.H., where he taaght school rrom 

Aldeil,IcaAaoD, col. Rovol.uray.b. Dux- 1800 to 1803, and in l8IO-tT taught m ilie 

bnrj, Ms., Aug. II, 1739 ; d. Nov. 10, 1TT8. acad. at Newark, NJ. RomoHng to M.T., he 

His faiher, CapL SbisubI {J. 1781, a. 92), vas prepared aud pub, his collccdon of Epitaphs 

grandson oF John, one of ihe original acttlera in i Tola. 1814, ontl while leaching in Bos- 

of Plymonlb. Ichabod was lieut..col. of the ton, in 180S-10, made the valuable Catalogue 

Ptrnioath r^t. before the Revol., Iieuc..<a3l. of of tbe Lihrar; of the N. Y. Hist. Socictv. He 

L. Baldwin's regt. at the sie^ of Boston, and next remov^ [o Ueadfille, Ps.., where be 

col. Tih Mass. regt. DDtil alam by the Indians foundol Alleghany Coll., of which he nnsSrst 

at Cberrj Valley. pre*, (inaog. July 28, 1817), and for whith he 

Alden, Jambb, TeaFadmiml U. S. N., b. collected a yaluable libroiy. Want of putron- 
Pordand. Mo., Mar. 31, 1810. Midshipmaii too caused his witbdrawal from the college 
Apr 1,1828; iient. Peb.aS, ISll ; commander, Nov. 11, 1S31 ; and he resumed educolionnl 
Sent. 14, 18S5; capt. Jan.S, 1863; conunodore, labors in CiDcinnati in IS3S, and in 1834 look 
JulyiS, 1866. Attached lo Wilkes's tutploring charge of an acad. at East Edbeny, nearPitts- 
expml. io 1839-43. During the Mexican war burg. Pa. He pnb. "An Account of Sundry 
wu.4at VeraCrns. Tuspan, and Tobasco; com. Missions among the Senecas," N.Y. ISmo, 
Mcamer "Smith Carolina" early in 1861; re- 1827; " NewJeraey BeRisler," 1811 and 1813 j 
enfoiTtd Fori Pickens; attacked the batteries in Ailtghmtg Magaanr, 1816; "History of the 
the rearof OBlTeiiUin,and captured 13 schoon- Pine^reek Ch.," 1839, Daring the rear be- 
ers laden with merchandise; com. steam.stoop fore his death, he preached as stated Bupplr 
" Richmond " at the passage of Forts Jackson to the people in Soaipsborg. — Sprague! At- 
and St. Fbilip and capture of N. Orleans ; at dm Meitional. 

the passage of the Vicksborg batteries twice ; Alden, TixoTBrr, inventor of a machine 

at Port Hndjon, 1862-3; com. sleam-sloop for sotting and distributing type, b. Barnsla- 

"Biuaklyn" in the action with Forts Morgan ble, Ms,, 1819; d, N,Y., Dec. 4, 1858, He 

and Gainesand rebel gunboats in Mobile Bay J was 6th in descent from John Alden, the 

and in the two attacks on Fort Fisher, He took Mayflower Pilgrim. When very young, and 

part in nearly all the great naval battles of the a compositor in his bro.'s priniing-oQlce, he 

war, and was- honorably mentioned in the offl- said, " If I live, I will invent a mnchine to do 

dal reports, App. in Apr. 1869 chief of the bn- this tiresome work." He steadily pursued this 

rean of nsvigation, rear adm. July 1871, object, and after 20 years' labor aceora pi Ished 

Alden, JoBv, Pilgrim, b. England, 1S99 ; ic It was improved after bis death by Henry 

d.Uuxbary,M9.,Septl3, 1687. He was hired W. Alden. 

as a cooper at Sonthampton, where " The Aldrloh, James, poet, b, near tlie Hud- 

Marflower" victualed, signed the compact la son, Suffblk Co., N.T,, 1810; d. N,Y,, Oct. 

ber cabin in 1630, and ab, I6SI m. Friscilla 1896. Educated partly in Orange Co., and 

Mullens, He was many jpears an assist, to the partly in N.Y. City. In 1836 he quitted mer- 

govemor; and by his wisdom, ioi^tity, and caniile for literary pursuits. He edited sev- 

deci!,ion attained a commandiog influence over eral popular periodicals, and in 1840 cstab- 

bis associates, altbongb the youngest of the liahed the LiUrarv Giaetu, in which first 

Pilgrims. appeared many of the poems which established 

Alden, Josbpr, D.D, (Uu. Coll. 1838), hu repncailon. One of these, "A Deaih-Bed 

LL D. (Coll. Col. I8S7), b. Cairo, N,T., Jan. Scene," is familiar to moat readers. He sub- 

4, 1807. Un. Coll. 1829. He studied 2 year* seqnently engaged again in business under the 

at the Princeton Sem. ; was 2 years tutor in »tyloof Aldrich it Barton, — 5m iWi'merno/ 

Princeton Coll. Ord. pastor at Willi am stown, hii podry in Griiiaild'i " Poets and Poetry of 

Ms., Jnly 3, 1834 ; prof, in Williams Coll. A<«riea." 

from Aug. 1835 to 1852; prof of moral philos. Aldrioh, Thomab Bailbt, poet, b. Porta- 

io Lafayette Coll., Fa. 1852-7; pres. of Jeffer- mouth, N.U,, Nov. 11, 1836, He passed bis 

■on Coll., Pa , 1857-6?; and, since 1867, pres. vouth in La. ; was 3 years In a counting-house 

of the N.Y. Siaio Normal School. Anihor of in N. Y. ; then became " reader " for a large 

numerous Sabb.-school books, "Elements of publiahinK-house ; and was afterward a writer 

Intell, Philos.," " Science of Government in lor Ihe N. Y. Evening Mirror, and an editor 

Connection with American Insiilatioiis," and on Tha Home Journal, and Satardag Pifti. 

" Christian Ethics." At one lime editor, and He hascontrib, many poems and prose sketches 

long a contributor 10 the JV. Y. Obterver. — Al- to Putnam'i Moatkly, The Knidctiiocker, Harjr- 

J'n ileiHOrial. er"! MonllJi/, ini the Allantic, His writings have 

Alden, &o«(H, maj. Rerol. army, b. Leb- been reprinted in Lond. He pub. " The Belts," 

anon, Cl., 1748 ;d. West Pointi Nov. 5, 1836. 1854; "Daisy's Necklace." 1856 ; "The Bsllad 

Y. C, 1773. Some time aide to Gen. Greene; of Baby Bell, and other Poems;" "The Course 

acL-ni of the Holland Land Co., residing at of True Love," &c , 1853; "Fampinea, nod 

Ueailville, Pa., from 1799 to 1829 ; ordnance other Poems," 1861 ; " Out of bis Hfsd," a 

Eturckeepcrat West Point from Jan. 20, 1825, "" 

till his death. i^u.,, ..,. 

Alden, Timotht, D.D., Cong, clergj-man Duvcklnck. 

andedDcau>r, b, Yarmonth, Ms,, Aug, 23,1771; Aldrldge, Iba, a mulatto actor of merit, 

d. Pitubnrg, Pa,, July 5, 1839, H. U, 1794. h. at Bellair near Ball., Md., 1804; .1. Loili, 

Son of Rev. Timothy of Yarmouth (H. U. Polonia, Aug. 7, 1867. Entering in 826 the 

1*63 1 d. Not. 13, 1828). He was from Nov. SO, Mrrice of Edmund Kean, be is said to have 



vV^iOC^le 



AZJD 14 

acconiiaaied him ic 

. H , 

DnsQcceufal attempt at the Mud Tbeatn, tribuMd 

Bait., bai Bhortlj anerwards retorned to Eng. periodicals, and left a t __ .._ ... 

Be made his lUbai at the Royaln Theatre, nuDDscripc (See kii life by his xn. Dr. J. 

liOQd., oa Othello; met wllh slriking succesi W. Alexander. N.Y., 1854.) — Spragtie. 

at once; and though. In Eag., he waa pre- Alexander, Babtoh Store, brev. brig.- 

terrcdinsachplayBaa"OthelIa,""Merchantor gen, U.S.A., b. Ky. 1819. Woat Point, 184S. 

Ven ice," " Zanea," " Orozemba," " Piiairo," Sd lient. Eng. Corja Sept. 30, 1S43; rapt. 

" Hugo," &c., he waa generalW regnrded as Jal; 1, 1856 ; brer, maj. Jul/ SI, 1661, IbrBuIl 

one of the ablest and most faithful interpret- Run; breT. lient.-col. May 4, 186!, forsiege of 

ers of ShakBpeare'a best cbaracteis. He Sr«t Torklown ; maj. Eng. Corpt Mar. 3, 18&3 ; 

appeared at CoTent Garden Theatre, Apr. 10, lieut.-col. Mar. 7, 1867 ; brer, brig.-gen. Mar. 

18.^3, BsOtheUo. At Belfast, Ireland, he played 13, IB6S, for merit, services in the RebelliuD 

Othello to Kean's lago, and also Orozemba to He has been mach engaged in the consirnjiloD 

his Alboin. Upon the Continent, where he and repairs of Torts, and in the erection of Mi 

performed in the principal citiea, he recured not'l Ledge Lighthouse, 1855-61 ; was a.d.c., 

tokens of high approbation. The Eing of rank Driieat,-col.,on theslaS'lo Va.duriaL' the 

Prussia wrot« bim an aalograpli- letter acc«m- Rebellion, and was consnltiag eng'r in Sheri- 

panying the Srstclass medal of art and aci- dan's army, Shenandoah VaUvj, Va., and 

encc. The Emperor of Austria conferred present at the battle of Cedar Creek, Oct. 9, 

on him the grand croas of Leopold ; and at 1864. -~ CidUm. 

Berne he receiTed the medal of merit in the AlexBjideriCALEB,D,D., clergyman and 

shape of a magniSrant Maltese ctdsb. Hit scholar, b. Nortbfleld, ib., SS Jul;, 1755; d. 

wite was a white woman. Onondaga, M.T., April IS, 1828. Y. ColL 

Alemany, JoskpB Sadoc, C.S.D., R. C. 1777. Minister of New Marlboro' 1781-3, and 

archbishop of Califarnia, consec bishop of of Mendon from Apr. \2, 1786, to Dec. 7, 

Monterey, June 30, 1850; made areht/p. Joly 1803. Not succeeding in the attempt to es- 

29,1853. tabtish a college at Fairfield. N.Y., he look 

Alexander, Abbaqah, chairman of the charge of an scad, at Onondaga. He pub. 

famous Meckleobnrg Convention in May, Latin and English grammars: an "Essay 

1775; d, near Charlotte, N.C., Apr. 23, 1786, on thsDeity of Christ," 1796; "Qrammnr Ele- 

a. 68. He was a magistrate of Mecklcnb. Co., ments;" a translation of Virgil into literal 

and represented it in the colonial leifisl. English prose, Worcester, 1T9S; "Colnmbi — 

Alexander, Archibalb, D.D. (NJ. Dictionary," 1800 ; Arithmetic, """" - 

Coll.l810),Pre»byteriandivino,b.RockbridKe "Young Ladies' and Gentlemi 

Co., Va., Apr. 17,1772; d. Princeton, N J,, tor." — Spraqat. 

Oct. 22, 1851. His gmndfather, Archibald, AlflXantUr, Edmund B., col. U.S.A., 
came from Ireland 10 Pa. in 1736, removing b, Va. ah. [802. West Point, 1823. Asat. Q.- 
ab. 1738 to Va. At the ase of 10, he wai H., rank of capt., 6 Dec. 1833 ; capt. 3d Inf^. 
■ont to the acad. of Bev. Wm, Graham at July 7, 1838 ; com. his regt. in Mexico in 
Timber Ridge meetlng-honse. At the age of 1847 ; m^j. 8th Inly. Not. 10, 1851 ; col. lOth 
17, he became tutorin thefamilyof Gen. John Infy. Mar. 3, 1855. Brev. for Cerro Gordo, 
Posey. He studied theology ; was licensed Contteros, and Churabosco. In the aprin([ of 
Ocl. 1, 1791 ; and was for seven ycara an ilin- 1863, he was ordered to St. Louis ai acling- 
erant missionary in his native State. Succeed- assl. proro.'ioarahnl-cen. Brev. brig.-gen. Oct 
Ing Dr. Smith in the presidency of Hampden IB, 1865. Retired Feb. 22, 1869. 
Sidney Coll. in 1796, be resigned Ibat, and Alexander, Jaxbb, sec. of the prorinca 
alaohispastoralcharge, in 1801. In 1802, he of N,Y., b. Scotland; d. N.Y.Apr. 2,1756. 
m. Janetta, dan. of the celebrated blind In 1 715, he came to America in conseqnence of 
preacher. Dr. Waddel, and resumed his former the pan he had taken in favor of the fteieoder, 
position at Hampden Sid, Coll., but, ow- accompanied by Wtn. Smith, al^erward chief- 
ing to the insubordination of the students, justice of N.Y, He was the first recorder of 
accepted a call from the Pine-st. Church, Perth Amboy in 1718, but, having served as an 
Phila., where he was installed pastor. May officer of enirineors in Scotland^os mode sjr- 
20, 180T. From 1811 10 bis death, be was veyor-gen. of NJ. and N.Y. He devoted his 
prof, of the theological semin'y at Prince- leisure to the study of the law, in wliich he at- 
ton. Author of "Outlines of the Evidences taioed eminence; was many years a member of 
of Christ ian it r," 1823; "Treatise on the Can- the legisl, and council; waa depi;ty-clerk of 
on of the Old and New Testament," 1826; the council in 1719, attomey-gcn, in 1721-3, 
"Lives of the Patriarchs," IS39; " Essays on naval officer 1723-33; was a particular friend 
Religious Experience," 1B40; "History of of Gov. Burnet, and h; his industry and aliil- 
AfVican Co Ion nation," 1846 ; '* History of the ities acquired great wealth. One of the conn- 
Log College," 1846; "Advice to a Yonng leHbr Zenger, the printer, he was orbiirarily 
Christina; "Bible Dictionary;" " Counsel) excluded from the bar on Uiat account in 1735, 
of the A^ed to the Young," 1833; "Brief bat, on a change of adminiattstion, was re- 
Compendium of BiUe Trulli;" "History of stored in 1737, A aianch advocate of liberal 
the I-reelitish Nation," in 1852 ; " Moral Scl- principles, ha lost his life by repairing to Al- 
ence." 1852 ; a Memoir of his old instructor, bany while snfiering from aevere illneas, to op- 
Mr. Graham ; a " Hiaiorv of the Pre^ibrterian pose a ministerial project oppressive to tna 
CbaTch in Va.;' and biographical sketches colony. He, withFianklinandotliers. foanded 



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AT.T« 15 A'*'-^ 

ihe AoKr. Phitowphiol Socielj. H« wu the iBngdaf^ei and lilencura in his nlma mater, 

faibtrof Wm. AJexander, commonly known and wm prof, of biblical critician nnd ecclesi- 

at Lord Stirling, and preinmptirs heir to tha astical history al Frinculon Theol. Scm. from 

earldomof SlirUne 1838 to 1852, wben hs was imnatcrrcd lo ibe 

Alexander, Jutsa Waddbll, D.D., an chair of biblical and cccleiiaaiicnl hisioiy. 

c1o<|iicn[ Prenh. clergyman and author, b. near vbicb be held till hia doath. He received (be 

GordonsTille, Loniia Co., Vn., Mar. 13, 1804; decree of D.D. from Mnrahail Coll., Pa. His 

d. at ibe Va. Springs, July 31, 1S59. NJ. worka are "A Tranalatiun of and Commen- 

Coll. ISao. Eldest aon of Ur. Archibald. Tq. tary on tbo PaalrDS," 3 yols, ; " A Critical 

lor in N J. Co!i. in 1824. He waj a minister Commentary on ibe Prophecies of Isaiali," 

In Charlotte Co., Va., from 1829 to 182T ; in and an abridgment of the same ; a vol. on 

Trenton, 'SJ., R^m 1829 to 1832, and of the primilive chnrrh gorcmment, and numeroos 

Daane-su Church, N.T. City, from 1844 lo essays in the Bitiical Bmertory and Priaivlon 

183), irben he iras elected pallor of the Fifth- RtBum. He subsequently aided Dr. Hodge in 

ave. Cbnrcb Editor of Ibe t'TtAyttnaa ne*». preparinR ■ commentary on the New Te»u- 

paper pub. in Pbila. from 1830 lu 1833 ; prof. ment. He was an excellent llDguisi.— 6~e< a 

of rbeioric and bellea-lettrci ia N.J. ColL in meioDir^ H. 0. AUxamUr, 1869. 

1833-14; and from 1S49 to IBSl prof, of Alexander. Db. Mitbahibi., gov. of N. 

ecclesiastical history and ehnrcb government C. 1605-7, b. Mecklenburg, \7M; d, Saiis- 

in the theological aem. at Princeloo.' The bni7, Mar, 8, 1808. Princeton Coll. IT'S. 

degree of D.D. was coaforred on him by La- Be serred in the Kevol. army, and afterward 

fayelte Coll. Pa., in 1843, and b; H. Coll. practised medicine at the High Hills of Sanlee 

In 18M. He pab. a toI. of temions entitled and Mecklenburg. He was several years a 

"Consolalion;" "Tbougbia on Family Wor- member of tbelegisl. audM-C. 1803-5. 

tbip;" "TboAmer. Mechanic and Working- Alex&nder, Stbpbrs, LL.D. CCol. Coll. 

man;" abiograpbyof hisbther, Dr. Archibald 1852), astronomer, b. Scbenectadj, N.T., Sept. 

Alexander; "Discoarsea on Christian faith 1, 1806. Un. Coll. 1824; Princeton Tbcol. 

and Praetiee," 18S8 ; a vol. of " Sacrameulal 8em. 1832, Tutor in NJ. Coll. in 1633, ad- 

Discourses," and " Qift to the Afflicted;" juncl prof, of mathematics from IB34 to 1840, 

"Geography of Ihe Bible," 1S30; "Plain prof, of astronomy from 1840 to 1845, of 

Words to a Toung Commonicant," ISmo; mathematics from 1845 to 1854. Hehassince 

" Amer. Suuday School and its A^jnncis," that period held the prolbisorship of mechan- 

Phila..lS56; QDmeronacontributionstotheSift- ics and astronomy. Anlbor of many sden- 

Ucai Repertory and Prineetan Reviae, and some tific papers, some of wbicb have beeii tTBii*' 

of the publications of tbe American Tract laled and pob. in Enrope. Among them U 

Society. He wrote for the LiUrary World one on Iho " Physical Phenomena attendant 

under tbe signatnra of "Casariensls. Afial upon Solar Eclipses," one on " The Fnq^a- 

his death, 2 vols, of his letien were pab. by mental Piinciples of Mathematics," one on 

Dr. Hall of Trenton. "The Origin of the Forms and tbe Present Con- 

Alexander, John Hbnrt, chemist and dition of some of ibe Clusters of Stars," on 

physicist, h. Annapolis, Md., 1813; d. Balti- " The Form and Equatorial Diameter of the 

moTcMar. a, I86T. In lB50,be pnb. a "Uni- Asteroid Planet," aod also on the " Horoio- 

TCTSal Dictionary of Weight* and Measures," niei in tbe arrangement of tbe Solar System." 

^t j._j ._., — :— g igjj^ jig ^^^ ;j(,m. j^ iggd^ (,g [jj gj, oxped. to the coast of Lab- 

on international coin- Todor to obaerve tbe solar eclipse of July 18. 
imcr of 1866, wa« app. Alexander, WiLLtaM, flist earl of Stir- 
commissioner u> the Uoff, created earl in 1633, b. 1580 ; d. Lond., 

... was taken fatally iU inst Fob. 1640, Throoghtlie friendship of Sir Fe^ 

before he was ah. to set soil. He had neld dinando Gorges, Sir Wm. received, Sepi, 10, 

many wsition* of honor and trust, and was 1621, a patent, embracing the whole territoi? 

leamea on the subject of wctahls and meos- of Acadis. which was connrmed to him and bis 

ares and coins. Autborof" TieatiseoD Math- heirs by King James, and erected into a pala- 

cmatical Insirum«nt«," &£-, Sto, lS3fi; " Treat- tinate to be holden as a flef of Ihe crown of 

ite on Ltrelling by F. W. Simms, with laise Scotland. It resulted, however, only in lossei 

■itditiuns," Sto, 1838; " Con triba lions to the and disappointment*. He wo* fcnighied in 

Ui-mrj of tbe Metallurgy of Iron," 1840; 1613. Charleal. (bunded the order of Nova- 

" Intruits. or Ante-Commnnion Psalma," 12mo, Scotia baronets in Scotland to further the 

1944 ; " Reports on SUndards uf Weights and settlement. Sir Wm. was subsequently mnde 

McasurcitforMd.,"Svo, 1846 : " CatenaDomi- sec. of State (or Scotland, and creatid 

nica." Pbila. 12mo, " Beports on the new Map Tisconnt Canada. He was a poet of some 

of Md.." 1838-10; "International Coinage, merit. His uncle, John Alexander, was tbe 

Sto, Oxford, 1857. Various mpen by aim anceetor of Lord Stirling of Ihe Hevol. army. 

are in [he scientific jonmals of Enrope and the Be developed his coloniiation scheme in a 

U.S. A memoir by Wm. Pinkney, read before pamphlet, " An Encouragement to Colonies." 

tbe Md. Hist. Socie^, was pub. Baltimore, 1625 ; " The Map and Delineation of N. Eng- 

8to. 1867. land," &c., 16-10. 

Alexander, Josxra At>i>iao)i, D.D., a Alexander, Wiluah, " Lord Stirling," 

learned divine and author, b. Pbila. Apr. 24, mnj.-gen. Kerol. army, b. N.T. Ciiv, i 726 : d. 

1809; d. PnDceion,NJ., Jan. 28, 1860. N J. Albany, 15 Jan. 1783. Son of Hec James 

Coll. 1826. Son of Dr. Archibald. From Alexander. He received the best educnCton 

IBM to 1833, he was adjunct prof of ancient the conntiy ofibided ; became the partner in 



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boiioess of big molher, the widoir or David 
Provost; joined t]ioconimi««»riaiof the British 
arisf .and, mtmctiag the naiiceof Gov. Shirlej', 
wu for three veara his aide-de-camp and pri- 
Tale sec Accompanvina Shirley to Etig. 
Id BTiSS, he wai ezainined before the Houie 
of Commoni in 1757, and commenced the 
prosecution of his claim to the earldom of 
StirlioSi in which he was nnnicceasfal. Soon 
lfter.hu return ia 1761, he m. the daa. of 
Philip Livin|{>toa. He sncceeded bit bthcr 
u surrejor-gen., «nd, naiil the Revol., was a 
member of the prov. council. A prominent 
patriot, he was app. a col. in 1775, and Mar. 

1776, iTtu commia. brig.-gen. by Cougresi. 
Whet) Gen. Lee left for Uie Sonth, Stirling 
was left in command at N.T. His braTerr 
was conspicuous at the battle of Long Island, 
37 Aug. 1776, and he wu mtde piisoncr, 
bnt was soon exchanged. MuJ.-gen. Feb. 

1777. Disiing. at Braodjwioe and at Qer- 
rauntown, where he com. the reserre. At 
Alonmouth, he eom. the left wing, and «o 
liaposcd hia command as to aid in £e aucceii 
>f tbe da/. In 1781, be took command at 
Albanj;. He aided in fbanding a library for 
his native city in 1754, and In the Ibtiiidingof 
Sing's, now Col. Coll. His youngest dan. m. 
Ceil. Wm. Duer. He pnb. ''An Account of 
(lie Comet of June and July, 1770," in Am. 
Phtlos. Coll.. and " The Conduct of Maj.-Gen. 
Shirley BrieSy Stated." He was convivial in 
his bnbils, and dignified in his appearance, and 
displayed considerable scieulific atuinments. 

■ — See Life of Lord StiTting bv hii graniimt, 
SVm. A. I>"fr", !n N.J. Hitt. CM. 

Alexander, Wiluih, of the D. of Penn., 
author of " Poeiical Works," and sketch of 
his lil'e. FhilH.. 1847. 

Alford. John, founder of the professor- 
ship of natoiat religion, moral philosophy, and 
civil polity in Harrard ColL.bap. July 5, 1685; 
d, Charlestown, Ms., Sept. 39, 1761. He had 
been a member of the colonial council. His 
exi-'cntors divided his bequest for "charitable 
uses " equally between Harvard Coll,, Prince- 
ton Coll., find the Society for the Propagation 
of the Goa|)el among the Indians. To the 
latter SI0.675 tvas paid in 1787. 

Alger, Ctrci, iron-founder, b. W. Bridg«. 
water. Ms., 1763 ; d. Feb. 4, 1856. He com- 
menced earlv in life the business of an iron- 
founder at 'Ension, hut in 1809 established 
himself in South Boston ; made many improve- 
njcnis in iliu art of easting, and was partic- 
nlarlv celebrated for the excellent caunon 
whicL were made at his establishment. He 
WBs prominent in various projects beneficial to 
South Boston. He was liberal and charitable, 
waa a memlier of the city council the first year 
of its organ izntion, and aldemuui in 1S34 and 
1827. 

Alger, Rev. Hobatio, Jnn., author, b. N. 
Chelsea, Ms ,Jan. 13, 1834. H. 11,1853; Camb. 
Theol. School ISSO. From 1853 to 1857, he 
was a teacher, and wrote for the Boston and 
K.V. press. In 1861, be made a European 
tour. From 1861 to 1864, he was a private 
tutor at Cumbridge. Dec. 8, 1864, he whs 
ord. over a Unitarian Church at Brewster, Mi. 
He pub. " Bertha's CbrUtmas Vision," 1S55 ; 



" Nothing to Do, a Tilt at our Beit Society," 
a poem, 1857; "Frank's Campaign; or. 
What Boys Can Do," 1864; " Paul Preston'l 
Charge," 1865; and has contributed a number 
of poems to Uarpa't Wtddy and other period- 

Alger, WiLuui RocNBBTiLLK, clergy' 
man and author, b. Freetown, Ma., Dec. 30, 
1832. Camb. Theol. School, 1847. In that 
year be became minister of a Unitarian society 
at Boxbury,Bnd in 1855 exchanged for a similar 
charge in Boston. He now preaches at the 
Music Hall, Boston. He pub. " A Symbolic 
History of the Cross of Christ," 1851 ; ■' The 
PoetiT of the East," 1866. His chief work is 
" A Critical History of the Doctrines of a 
Future Life," with a Complete Bibliography 
of the Subject, by Esra Abbot, 1864. Pie 
also edited with an introduction, in 1858, 
" Studies of Christianity by James Marlineau." 
Contrib. to the ChriMtian Kxa-mmer and other 
periodicals. — Daycldnrk. 

Alison, Fkancib, D.D., Presb. divine 
and scholar, b. Lac, Donef^ Co., Ireland, 
1705 ; d. Phila. Nov. 38, 1779. U. of Glas- 
gow. Be came to America iu 1785; was 
pastor of a church at New London, Pa., uoiil 
'"52, when he took charge of an send, in 



Phila. 



IV London, and was the tutor of many of 
eminent men of the Revol. From 1755 
il his death, be was vice-provost, and prof. 



34, 175S, he preached before the svnods of 
N.Y. and Ph. a sermon, entitled " Peace and 
UnilT rrcommended." — Sprague. 

Allan, Col. Johx, Eevol. patriot, b. 
Ed in biiruh Castle, Scotland, Jan. 13, IT46 ; d. 
Lubec, Me., Feb. 7, 1805. Wm. his father, a 
retired British officer, emigrated to Nova Scotia 
In 1749. Joho engaged In agricultural and 
mercantile pursuits near Fort Camberlaud ; 
became a justice of the peace, clerk of the 
Supreme Court, and was a member of the 



he secured to them tbe friendship of the Indian 
tribes in his vicinity, and applied personally 
to Congress, who app. him snperinlondent or 
tbe Eastern Indiana and a col. io the umj 
in Jan. 1777. The authorities of N. S. odl^t«d 
a reward of £100 for his apprehension ; and 
during the struggle, his house was burned 
-id his wife kept for months in prison at 



elected the exposed north-eaaiern frontier. 
In 17S4, he sellfed in Maine. He received 
from the govt, of Ms. 33,000 acres of wild land 
(now the town of Whiiing) in 1793, and in 
ISOl, in consequence of losses incurred by bim 
in the war, a grant from Congress of S,000 
acres in Ohio, where Columbus now stands, 
but then ol liiilc viilnc. — Set " iliUlary Opt- 
raliOHi in Eailem Maine and Nova Scotia," tf 



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Allan, Rev. Benjamiti, recurof St. Piul'i fbrd ; and Edvnrd itloK and Noah Pbclpi with 
Ctiurcb, l'bit&.; d, al lea do bii relum from IS men were jotiiul by Cul». £iiBtou and 
Europe, Jan. 37, 1BX9. Aaihor of " Uisc of Brown at Piiufiuld, anil by Allen ui Benning- 
ibe COarcb of Christ," 3 vols. 1833. Editor ton, wbo waichoMin to comtDHncI. At Castle- 
of the CAntftan Alagaaiie. — See Memoir by hit ton, they were joined by Arnold, who bad iitea 
bndta; Pkila., 1E133. commiisioned <i/ the MiusBchuietta Cuinmii- 
Alleo, CoxsLBS, LL.D. (H. U. ia&3), jn- tee to raiu 4U0 men fur the same ohjcui, and 
rill and luiteamaTi, b. Worcealer, Ms., Aug. 9, who, it is said, accompanied the cxpediiiau a^ 
1797; d. there Aug. 6, 1869. AdiD. to the a Tolnnteer. They atrired at the luku oppo. 
bar in 131 B, be begun practice at New Brain- «ite the fortreM,oa the evening ol May 9 ; un<l 
tree, bat soon ramoved to Worcealar. Many at daybreak, Allen, with &3 men, KurpriseJ tlio 
ysarsa member uf ibe State legist.; memberof garrison, and captured the sCionijhold nitli nil 
Ibe N'ortb-easlem Boundary Commission in its valuable slorei. The capture of Crunii 
l^tS; JuJ;.-eC. C. P. lMS-4,- chief-jnstice Suf- Faint b; Col. Warner the same day, and ul a 
fiilk Co. Sup. Conrt 1858-9, and of [he Masa. sloop-of-wsr soon after, gave them the mastorv 
Sap. Conn 18»»-67; M. C. IM9-53. One of Lake Champlaia, and gave a brilliant ^/uf 
uf the founders of the Free Soil party ; aditor to the opening of the war. liii bucucss as n 
of the Boilun Whig, afterwards called the Rt- poftisaa, occasioQed his being twii.'e de^putcbeil 
piblicaa. An inaaenlial memberof the Const, into Canada, dnring the fall of 1775, to gain 
Coor. of 1853, and a delegate to the Peace over the Canadians lo the American cause. 
Congress in IBGl. A sound lawyer, and an In the last of these eipediiions, he underUHik, 
able and upright j^ndge. He rec'd an hou. in conjunction with Col. Brown, tbo capture 
deirree from Y. C. m 1B36. State senator in ofMontreal. Crossingihe rirer nitb 110 men 
1835. IS38 and 1839. on the morning of Sept. 25, he was attacked 
Allen, Uatid Ouvbb, D.D., misaioQary, by a large force, before Col. Brown could ef. 
b. Barre, iU., 1804 ; d. Lowell, Ms., July IT, feet a junction, and made prisoner. Be was 
IB63. Amb. Coll. 1833. After working on a pat in irons, and created with gyem severity by 
brm, and teaching, he stttdjed at the And. Gen. PrCKOtl ; then sent to Eng., and truateil 
Tbeol. Sam., and in Sept. 1827, went to Bom- with extreme cruelty on the passage, bv 
bay. There he Ubored until his return in BnMke Watson. After three woeks' con. 
Jane, 1B53 ; and in IsnB pub. a " Hisioiy of linement in Pendennis Castle, he won, in Jan. 
India." From 1856 to 1B60, be preached at 1776, sent to Ualifax ; and, five months after, 
Weaham and other places. Mtba bis wife d. was removed to N. T. He experienced great 
Bombay, Feb. 5, 1B31. Uecontrib.Bxlensive- kindness from the captain; and, while on the 
ly to jonmnlsin India and America. Member passage, his refusal lo join in an attempt to seiie 
uf the " Boral Asiatic " and " American Ori- the vessel, prevented the execntion ot the plan, 
ental" sucieiiea. Hay 6, 1778, be was exchanged for Cot. Camp- 
Allen, Kbehbzbr, Revol. soldier, and one bell, returned to Vt., where he wax received , 
of tbu fbnnders of Vi, ; d. IBOS. Ue was al with honors, and given the command of the 
the capture of Ticonderoga and Moant Ued- militia ; receiving elso from Congress the cum. 
ance, and disting, bimmlF in the battle of Ben- mission of lient.-col. in the Continental Armv, 
nininon. — Hogert. A fruitless attempt was made by Che BrilisEi, 
AUeo, Ei-iiBiiH W., nrinter, and 30 years through Beverley liobinson, to bribe him tu 
t/Avax of t\\» Neabargport Uer-ddib. abonC17B0; lend his Support to a union of Vc with Cona. 
d. Mar. 9, IB46. da, the only result of which was, that, by 
Allen, ETUAn, Revol. soldier, b. Litchfield, feigning negouations, Allen was able to secure 
Cl.. Jan. 10, 1737 ; d. Bnrlin^n, Vc, B'eb, the neatrality of the British towards his moon- 
II. i;b9. His parents remov^ to Cornwall, taineen until the close of the war. As a 
and subsequently to Salisbury ; where, in 1762, member of the State legisl. and a special dele- 
i^cban was one of the proprieion of the iron gate to Congress, hesaecoeded in bis great ob- 
lamacc. Of six brotnera who received cho ject, — the nlcimate recognicion ot Vt. u an 
bare rudiments of education, foar emigrated independent State. Before the end of the war. 
in 1772 to the lerriiorj west of the Green he removed to Bennington, thence to Arling- 
Moancains, where Ethan bad preceded chem in con, and finally to tbe ricitiity of Onion River, 
1766. and where iher became renowned in the where he died. Twoof his sons, graduates of 
border ^ods and in the Revol. struggle. This West Point, became capts. of artillery. Be- 
lerrilory called " Tbe New-UampsbireGrancs," sides a narrative of his captivity, and some 
was claimeil by N. Y. ; bnc the settlers, pamphlets on the Controversy with N. Y., t.e 
under the lead of Allen, seconded by Sech pnb. in I7S4 " Allen's Thoo!u;;y, orthe Oracle) 
Warner and Remember Baiter, resisceU '.heir of Reason," the first publication in the U. S 
sbeciffi and constables, and held them at ba^ , openly directed against the Christian reli^jion. 
oaiil ihe Revol. tarnod the efforts of all m Ue was a brave, generous, and indvpetidi'nt 
another direction. Dnring this controveraj, man.butwaseccantricandambitious. ALifuby 
•ereral pamphlets were written by Allen, and Hugh Muore was pab. Plattsburg, tSmo, I8;<4 ; 
in his peculiar manner, which were well suit. " Ethan Allen, and the Oreen Mountain 
ed to the state of public feeling, exhibiting Che Heroes of '76," by H. DcPuy, Svn, Rutfalo, 
iajnitice of the claims. The State of N. Y. 1BS3, There is also a memoir in Si)arks'a 
declared Allen an outlaw, and offered a re- Amer. Biog., vol. J. 

ward of £150 fbr bis capture. Immediately Allen, Hem AN, LL.D., lawyer and poliii. 

after the battle of Lexington, a plan for the cian of Colcbeaier, Vt, b. Poultney, Vt.. Feb. 

cipiare of Ticondaroga was matured in Hart- 89, 1779; d. Hlghgaie, Vt, Apr. 9, 1852. 



vV^iUC^le 



Dartm. Cott. IT95. Son of Maj. Heber, Rnil Warner, did good semcein tbe baltlsoFBeo 

nephew uf Ethao Allen. He adopled the pro- nin^lon. With Mesara. Bnulluy and Fox, ba 

^c9^iiun of the Ian, was sheritf of Chiitcnilen n'lw acoinmiaaiuner to Congreas ia ITSO-Sl.iD 

Co, inlSOS-9; chief-jn^ticeof (hewnnty coart behalf of Vt, and in oppoaitionlolbeclaimaof 

from 1811 to 18U; aa active member of (he neighboring States, jn Apr. 17B1, he wu 

6iaie IcgUt. from 1612 to 1817 ; quartermBiitcr app. 1« settle a cartel, and al»o to agr«e to an 

of loilitifi with the title of brigadier ; and a armiitiM with the British troops in Cuiada, 

irunice of the U. of Vt U. C. 1817-18. U. which was accordingly done. Tbem politic 

S. murahal for the District of Vc 18IS-S3. measures brought about a final settlement of 

Ha was minislac to Chili in 1B23-7, and held the difficulties with N.Y., whose claims were 

the Presidency of the U. B. Branch Hank at extin),'Ut>hcd upon the payment of S30,000. 

Burlington, from IB3U until the expiration of In 1789, be drew np a memorial in favor of the 

its charter. — Darim. CoU. Alumni. establishment of the University at BurlingCio. 

AUeDt Ebkbt, a religious enthnsiast, b. In Mur. 1792, ha was a delects to the coo- 
Newport, R.I., June U, 174Si d. Nonhamp- vcniion wbirh ratified the U.S. Consiitntioa. 
ton, N.H., Feb. S, 17S4. He was settled at lu 1795, Iiavingbeconieseiiiornuij.-geD.of nii- 
Falmoatb, N. S., where he taught that our litia, he weot to Kurope to purchase arms foi 
first parents were Aot corporeal before the Fall, the supply of his Slate. On bis way home with 
that there will be no roaurreciion of ibe body, the muskcia and cannon purchased of the 
and (bat men are not bound to obev the ordi- French Republic, he was taken and carried lo 
nances of the gospel. He pah. some treatises Enj;., where, after a litijjiaiion of eight years 
and sermons, and a hook of lyrics. in the Court of Ail miralty, on the accusation of 

JUleiXf Henri Wateikb, statesman and intending to supply the Irish rebels with arms, 

soldier, h. Prince Edward Co., Va., Apr. !9, the case was decided in bis fiivor. In 1 798, be 

1830; d, city of Mexico, Apr. 33, 1866. His was imprisoned in France, and returned homo 

lather, Dr. Thomas AUen, removed toLexing- in 1601. Ue waslheantborof a "Natural and 

ton. Mo. Dislikioe mercaalile lift, the son Political History of Vermont," evo, Londou, 

was placed in Manon Coll., but ran away 1T9S, and of " Siatemenis Appended W the 

two years after ; became a teacher at Qrand Olive Branch," 1807. 

Gulf, Mpi. 1 studied law, and had altnined a Allen. Ihaao, lawyer and loyalist of 

Bucccsslul liraclice, when, in 1842, he raised a Trenton, NJ.; d. Fledericklon, N.B'., 1806, a. 

company for the Texan war. After iij close, 65. NJ. Coll. 176i. In 1783, he was lieut- 

fae returned, murried, and in 184G was elected col. of the ad baiL of NJ. Vols. One of tbe 

to tbe State legisl. He afterward settled on his grantees uf St. John, N.B., he held a seat in 

•stale at West Baton Bouge; ami in 1853 was tbe council, and was a judge of tba Supreme 

in the La. legist. In 1854, he went to Cam- Court. — 6'aMne. 

bridge U. as a law-student. He visited Europe Allen, JxMBS, clergyman, b, Eng,, 1632; 

in 1859, one result of which was a volume of d. Boston, Sept. 23, 1710. Fellow of Sew 

"Travels of a Sugar-Planter," Re-entering Coll., Oxlord. Having been tyected for non- 

ihele^al., hobecBmeapromincnt8poalLer,and, cunlormity, he came to N.E. in 1662, with a 

when Bucbanan became Prvs., left the Whig for high reputation as a scholar and divine, and 

the Democ. partv. When tbe Itebellion broke was ord. Dec 9, 1668, as colieagne with Mr. 

out, he was matle lieat.-col., and then col., of Davenport in the First Church, Boston, la 

the 4tb La., and af^rward military gov. of 1669, 17 ministers pub. their testimony agaiajt 

Jackson. He was wounded at Slitlob, com. a tbe conduct of Allen and Davenport in regard 

brigade at Baton Rouge, where be wM dospe- lo the settlement of the latter. This conlro- 

rateiy wounded ; wai rnade brig.-Keo. in Sept versy between the Ist and 3d churches inter- 

1864, butalmost immediately afierwasetecicd ealed the whole Colony. The General Court 

gov. of La. In this position, be showed gniu having, in 1670, declai^ the conduct of those 

"" ■'■ " ving the flna ■■-■-- '■ — -■ ■- -■ -•' - — ■-- ---■ — j ■ — . :■ . 



ability, improving the flnancea of the Scale, churches and elders who assisted in establish- 

— -__ n^an^nclures, and enforcing the ing the 3d church illegal and disorderly, at ii> 

le close of the war, he took up his next session, some of the members being 



encouraging manofaclures, and enforcing the ing the 3d church illegal and disorderly, a 
laws. At the close of the war, he took up his next session, some of the members b 
evidence in Mexico, where be established the chsnged, the censure was taken off. Mr. A^ 



Mexican Timet, which be edited until his len posaessedgrent sealand influence, and took 

death. — See" Ricclltaitms t^'ffturg W.Men," a deep interest in Harvard Coll, of which cor- 

!»! Mn. Sarah A. Uorw^. N. Y., 1867. poration ha was several yeara a member. He 

AHpIj Iba, one ot the founden of Vt., pub. occasional sermons and essays on polemic 

b. Cornwall, Ct., Apr. 21, 1751 ; d. Phila., divinity. 

Jan 7, 1814. A younger bro. of Ethan, he AUen< Jambs, first minister of BrooUine, 

went with him to Vc, and took part with Ms., b. Roxbury, 1693; d. Feb. 18, 1747. 

bim ir. Ibe controversy with N.Y. He was an H. U. 1710. Ord. Nov. 5, 1718. In 1723, be 

active patriot ; was a member ot the legisl, in pnb. a " Thanksgiving Sermon," in 1 737 a 

1776-7i a member of the convention which " Discourse on Providetice ;" a " Fast Ser- 

fiamed the constitution of Vt. in 1778; was monon the Great Earthquake in 1731." 

SBC. of State, and subsequently surveyor-gen., Alien, Jaubs, poet, b. Boston, Jnly 24. 

Uld treasurer, and member of the council. 1739 ; d. there Oct. 21, 1808. The son of • 

Upon Buigoyne's advance, Allen, then a mem- wealthy mensbant, be studied at Harvard Coll. 

berof the Committee of Safety and a col. of but left it at the end of the third year. 

militia, suggested the raising a regt by tbe His chiefproduction," Lines on tbe Massacre," 

confiscation andsaleof Tory property. It was written at the reijuest of Dr. Warren, lo ac- 

•oon raised, end. together with that of Col. company tbe oration which he delivered, wu 



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•appreued bj the cominiltM haTint; the anb- 

^i in cham, owing to suspicions of his polit- 
icti Uth. Bis friends, indigOBiit at (his tresl- 
mant, cub. it, with extracts from the " Retro- 
ipecl, also b^ Alien, which ihe; accompuiied 
bj ■ Tiodiotion of the aathor'a political soand- 
nest and poetical merits: pub. Boston. 1772. 
He also wrote a patriotic epic, entitled " Ban- 
ker Hill," now sapposed to be lost, and a few 
OUguinG pieces. — L)u\/ddack. 

*11ff ti, Coi.. Jobs, b. Rockbridge Co., Va., 
Dec 30, 1773 ; killed in battle of the River 
Raisiti, Jan. 23, IBIS. His fatlier wiu an early 
settler ia Ky. The son was ednciitcd at Dr. 
Prieatlej'a acad. at Bardstown i settled in the 
praclieeofUwat ShelbfTillein 17», and at- 
tained high rank in the proroa>ioD. Earlj in 
ISIS, he raised a regt.of rifietCien, panofn-hicli 

1813. Itfonned the left wing of the American 
force at tbe disaittaos battle of ilie River Uai- 
dn. — Calliiu't BiM. of Kenttckj. 

Allen. JoMra, b. Boston. Sunt. 2, 1749 ; 
d. Worcnter, Bept.3, IB27. H. 0.1774. His 
mother waa a sister of Samuel Adams. He 
was a merchant in Leicester, Ms., and an ac- 
tive Whig ; a member of the State Const. 
Conr., 1778; clerk of Worcester Co, ooart 
from 1776 to 1810; M. C. lSII-13; coancil- 
lor ISI^IS ; a founder and patron of Leiceitei 
acad. He went to Worcester 177S. 

AUen. JoHETH, D.D. (H. U. latB), b. 
Medlield, Ms., Aug. IS, 17B0. U. U. 1811. 
Ord. 1BI4. He studied theolog; under Bev. 
Dr. Wara at Cambridge. Ord. minister of 
Hortfaboro' Oct. 80, IBIS, died thereFeb. 2S, 
1873. Delcg. to the Peace Congress at Farts 
in 1849. Author of " Hist. Accoant of North- 
bOTo" " in WoratltT Mag., Jn!v, 1826 ; " Ser- 
mon on Completing the SSth fear of bis Miu- 
istrr." 1841; "Centennial Discoarse," 1846; 
■■ Memoir of Eev. Dr. La^hrop of Springfield," 
1823; "Hist, of ibe Worcester Association," 
IB6S; " Allen Gcnealo(r;," 1BB9. 

Allen, MossB, minister of Medwa}', Ga., 
b. Northampton, Ms., Sept. 14, 1748; d. Feb. 
8.1779. N.J. ColL 1772. Ord. at Christ's 
Charch parish, near Charleston, S.C., Mar, 16, 
1775 ; resigned Jane 8, 17T7, and established 
him«eir at lledway. Hi« emigrant ancestor, 
Samad, d. Windsor, Ct, 1648. An ardent 
patriot, he became obm 



liipersed h 
ij^tunisa. 



AUbUt Paol, editor and poet, b. Providence, 
R I.. Feb. 15. 177B ; d, Baltimore, Aug. 18, 
18:6. B.n.lT96- Aner studying law, he went 
to Phila,, where lie wrote for the Portjbtio and 
U.S. Gtutllt. In 1801, he pnb, a smnll vol. of 
poems, I aperin tended the pnblication of" Lewis 
andClnrkc'iTravels,"iniei4;andprojoctBd8 
" Life of Woihinzton," and obtniai^d a great 
nnmbcr of subscribers, but from indolence made 
no eflbrt to rolfll tbe obligation he had in- 
cnrred, Sacceuirelr editor of the Fcdrmi lie- 
fuU'caa. the JoanuJ of (A« Timet, and a con- 
tributor to the Poriico, a magazine, be sank into 
povenj, and was for a time insaoe. He final- 



ly became editor of the Horning (^roaitit, w 
Baltimore, which he conducted uniii his death. 
lo IS19, B history of the Amer. Rovol, appeiireit 
in hill name, but realty written by John Keal, 
and another friend, named Watkins. Allen 
contrib. a portion of the preface. His poem 
of " Noah, pub. in 1821, was judicioualr re- 
duced tram SS to 5 cantos, by his friend fleal. 
He also pub. a " Life of Alexander L," IB 18. 

Allan, Philip, politician, b. Providence, 
R,l., SepL 1, I7B5; d. there Dec. 16, 1865. B. 
U, 1803. He was long and socciesafullj en- 
gaged in the cotton menufacture in K.I, ; was 
a member of the State legisl. in 1819-21 i gov. 
of B.I. 1851-3; and U.S. Senator, 1853-9; 
pres. of the U.S. Branch Bank, 1827-36. He 
constructed the Brat Watt and fioullon steam- 
engine in I'rovidence. 

Ailan, Phineib, editor, b, Northampton, 
Ms., Aag. II, 1776 ; d, Pitlsfield, Ms., May 8, 
I860. Son of Bev. Solomon, After serving an 
apprenticeship in the office of the Hamfwiirt 
GozeUe, he established, Sept. 16, ISOO, the Pitts- 
field Sun, which he continued 60 yean, He 
was often in the Siale legisL 

Allff ti, RicHABD L., agiicnltnrist, b, Hamp- 
den Co., Ms., OcL 1803 ; d. Stockholm, Sweden, 
Sept, 32, 1B69. He was a merchant in N.Y., 
but impaired health led him to farming 
on a tract on the Niaf{ara River, in 1B32. In 
1843, with his bro., A. B, Allen, he foanded 
the ..Inierican .^•nvcu'lurtil, contributing, co- 
editing, and poblishing 14 years; when the 
brother* rclinquisbed editing to carry on the 
agricul tural -implement bosiness, which became 
very ejiiensive. He pnb. " The Araerlcan 
Farm-Book," 8vo, 1856; a valuable Cteatiae 
on " The Diseases of Domestic Animals," 1848 ; 
"American Agriculture," and "American 
Farmer's Muck-Book," IBmo. At the time of 
bis death, he was tDaking the tour of Northern 
Europe. 

Allen, Col, Bobebt, soldier and politi- 
cian, b, Augusta Co., Va., 1777 ; d. near Car- 
thage, Tcnn,, Aug, 19, 1844. Bred a merchant, 
he settled in Carthage about 1804, and was 
many years clerk of the county court. He 
commanded a regl. in the War of IBIS, serving 
under Jackson with honor and credit. He was 
of Congress in 1819-27. 

_ a." 

made 1st liout. July 7, I83B; asaist.-quarter- 
master, May II, 1646; brcv. maj, for gallant 
and merit, conduct at Cerro Gordo, Apr. 
IS, 1B47 ; quartermaster of Twiggs'a divinioa 
in the Valley of Mexico; capt. Oct, 19, 1847; 
maj. May 17, 1B61 ; aide-d&«Amp, rank of 
col,, Feb, 19, 1B62; brig.-gen. May 23. 1863. 
He was stationed at St- Louis, where bis services 
were of the greatest value during the Rebellion, 
since which he bes been chief quartermastei 
dir, of the Piicific ; brev, maj.-gen. Maroh 13, 
IS6S for merit, services in the Rebellion ; col. 
and assist, quartermosler-gen. Julv 28, 1866. 

Alien, Samubl, gov. of N.H, ; d. New 
Gaulle. Mays, 1705, a, ab. TO. A mercliani 
of I>ondoD, he bought into Mason's patent it 
1691 ; and was gov. in 1691-9. His purchase 
brought to him and bis ~ 
ment and contention. 



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tinned to agitate hiscUim. which wag conieaied ibe Coll. of Phila. Being a tovalist, he nitb 
by varioas persons. The final verdict in ITOT drew to Eng. in 1774. Ho pub. in Lord., 1774, 
being B^ainKt Mm, he appcaleil ; but his death " The Amcricnn Crisis," lugi^ting a iilanror 
in 1 71 S, before the appeal was heard, put an end restoring the dependence of America, His eon 
to the sail. Akdbew anoceeded Mr. Chew as attomey-gen., 
and after being a member of Congress and of 
the Committee of Snfet/, together with his 
Ma., Feb. 8, 184S. Darcm. Coll. 1794. He was bros. John and Williani, put himself, at the 
from I79S lo 1798 pastor of a Cong, church in cloae of 1776, ander the protecdon of Gen. 
Norihfield ; afterward practised law in Green- Howe at Trenton. This son d, in Lond., Mar. 
field and Northfleld; was in the legist, in 1806- 7, 1825, a. 65. His bro, W11.1.IAX had been n 
10; SlHte senator, 1812-15 and 1331; M.C. lieul..col. in the Continental service, but in 
tS17-39;and executive conncillor, 1839-30. 1776 raised a regl. of Pa. Loyalists. He was 
Afterward lecturer on political economj in notad for wit, gocd humor, and for affiible and 
Arnh. Coll. He delivered a enlogj on Dr. gentleniBnlj roanncra. — Saiitu. 
Wbceloek, pres. of Dartm. Coll. 1817, and an Allen, Willi am, D.D. (D. C. 1820), clei^ 
oration, Jul; 4. ISOS. — Dartm. CiM. Alvmni. gyman and aalhor, b. Pitlafield, Ha., Jan. 1, 
At I nn KBV. Solomon, b. Northampton, 17S1 ; d. Northampton, Ms., Jul; 16, 18S8. 
M3„Fer.. 23,1751; d. N. Y., Jan. 20, 1831. H.U, 1802, Son of Rev, Thomas. Allerbeing 
He with fonr of his brothers served in the licensed in 1604, he preached for some months 
Bevol. armj ; Moses and Thomas as chaplains, in various places in the western pari of N.T. 
At the time of Andre's capture, be was a lient. While a regent in Harvard Colt, he prepared 
and adj., and conveyed bitn to Lower iialem, the tirstedilion of his "AraeHcau Biographical 
Lieut, Allen then proceeded to West Point to and Historical Dictionary," pnb. in 1809. The 
deliver to Arnold the letter from Col. Jameson, second edition of this work appeared in IS3S; 
his coiDmnnder, which enabled the traitor to es- the third, in 1857. In 1807, he prepared the 
cape, by giving him the information EO essential liresofAmer, ministers for Rev. David Bogae's 
lo his safety. After the war, in which ho rose to " History of the Dissenters." In Oct. 1810, 
the rank of maj. he was actively employed he was ord. pastor of the church in PIttsfield, 
in quelling the insnnection of Shays. At the as his father s snccessor. In 18IS, hem. Maria 
a^e of 50, though his education had been M.. dan. ofPres. John Wbectoclt. He was made 
scanty, be became apreacher, and was exceed- pres. of Dartm. Coll. in 1817, and from 1820 
ingi; Bnccessfnl. His labors were perfbnned to 1839 was pres. of Bowd. Coll, Among his 
in the western part of Ms. and the State of writings are contributions of " Words not 
N. Y.,in aconnaynewlysettled.Bndwhosein- found in Dictionaries of the English Lan- 
hahitants were mostly ^xir. guage," to Worcester and Webster; "Bacca- 
Allen, Tbohas, minister of Charleatown, lanreate Addresses," 1823-9; "Junius Un- 
Ms., b, Norwich, Eng., 1608; d. there Sept. 21, masked," identifying hiro-'with Lord Sack- 
1673. He grad. at Cambridge; was minister rille; "Acconiiis of $hipwi«cks;" "Psatins 
of St. Edmund's ; was silenced by Bp, Wren and Hymns," 1835 ; " Memoirs of Dr. Eleaier 
In I&%, for refusing 10 read the"8ook of Wheelock and of Dr. John Codman," 1853 ; 
Sports," as required of Ibe cleigy ; and in 1638 "An Historical Diiyourse on the Fortieth An- 
came to Boston. Ho preached at Cliarlentown niversary of the Second Ch. in Dorchester," 
from that time till 1G51, when he reiumud to 1848; "A Disconrseal the Close of the Sec- 
Norwich, continuing his ministry until ejected ond Ceniory of the Seltlcmeiit at Northamp- 
in 166S, bnl continued to preach till his death, ton, Ms.." 1854 ; " WnnDisaoo. or the Vale of 
While in thiscountry, he pull, nu ' Invitation Housatvnnuk," a poem, 1856; besides a 
toTbirsty Sinners to come unto their Savioor," "Dudleian Lecture at Cambridge; "Chris- 
He also pub. "The Scripiure Chronology," tian Sonnets," 1860; "Poems of Nazareth 
1559; ■' Way of the Spirit in bringing Sonis and the Cross," 1866; "Sacred Songs," 1867, 
to Christ ; " and several sermons upon " The and various sermons and reports. A discoars« 
Ncccwiiy of Faith." — CbK. commeraomti™ of Dr. Allen, by Dr. W. B. 

Allen, Taos., minister of Pittsfield, Ms,, Spraeue, hns been pnb. 
from Apr. IS, 1764. to his death, Feb. 11, 1810. AlleQ, Wk, Hgnbt, a distingnished naval 
H. U, 1762. Bro. of Moses and Solomon, !>, officer, b. Providence, R.I,, Ocl. 21, 1781; d. 
Northampton, Jan. 17. 1743. A chnplnin in Aug. 15, 1813, His father. Wm. Allen, was a 
the Kevol army at White Plains and atTicon- maj, in the Revol.army, andin 1799 brig.-gen, 
dcn);.'H. He was conspicuous at the battle of of State militia. His mother was a sister of 
Iteniijiigton, and was one of the first to enter Gov. Jones. At a very early period, he ditcov- 
ttiu German breastwork. He visited Eng. in ered a surprisingly inquisitive mind, and a ro- 
IT99. He took an active part in the politicnl mentic inclination lo visit foreign countries. He 
discussions of his lime. He pub. some ser- entered thenavyasamidshipman,Apr.28,1800, 
tnons, — Spragst. and sailed in the frigate "George Washing- 
Allen, WiLLiiH, chiefjiisticeof Pa., 1 750- ton," Capt. Campbell, to Algiers ; subsequently 
T4, and a distinguished friend of literature and sailing to the Mediterranean, under Barron, in 
the arts; d, Eng., Sept. 1790. Son of Wm,, "The Phil«delphia;" under Rodgers, in "The 
an eminent merchantof Phila., who d, 1725, John Adams; and a fourth time, in 1804, as 
His wife was ■ dnu. of Andrew Hamilton, sailing-master to "The Congress." Inthisvoy- 
— '-~a he succeeded as recorder of Phila. in age, he narrowly escsped death, having fallen, 



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"* Tb« CooBtitDlion " ID leon, bu visited Mom eoiMeqaencc of a difficultj oiih the colon;, 
■odV^aaviai.flercalaneiiDiiiidPompeii: niul, "bevai itiamiued bs ilwir a^nt." Quitting 
KtumiDK>i>ISUS,iTaa3<llieuLof"The Chesa- tbam, he, in June. 1632. hired (be " White An- 
p«ake"vrheaibegiruck her colors to (ho British gel." and attemptf d to e«tablish a trading-bou9« 
mgale "Leopard." He drew up the ktMr of on the Kennebec River, and nlsout Penobjcuc; 
die olBcen to the >ec. of the nnvy, arging the but (he latter was destroyed by the Freoeb 
UKM and triat of Barron lijr ncelecc of aniy. In 1633, be established a trading-house at Ma- 
in 1809, he became Isl lieul. of the ftignte chias, which was attacked and plandL-red by 
"UnilodStalw," aDderDccalar.and.soonaTtcr the Frenrh and Indians in 1634, and burned 
tbebmkinK-ODloftbe Warof 1813, bi^hl.rdis- soon afterwards. In 1634, his pinnace, relum- 
(int:. himself in the action with " The Mace- ing from a tradiog-Toyage with the French ab. 
doniaa," and brought her salelr intuN. Y. bar- Purt Royal, was cast awav ; and in ihe seme 
bor. Vramoleil, Jul}' 24, 1813, to be master- year his wife was carried 'off by a " pestilent 
CLimnundant, he camcd Mr. Cniwfonl, the miii' fever." In Mar. 1635, he " was to be nolifieil 
ister, in the brig "Argus," lo France, and then by the civil authorities that he had lenve tode- 

Eracceded to the Irish Cbanael to harass Eng^ part from Marblehead ; " and during this rear 

sb cummetce, in which he was highly success- auother of his coasting-vessels was wrecked ni 

fob Aug. 14, 1813, he fell in with the British Cape Ann, and 31 persons perished, includinij 

brig " Pelican," and, iu the engagement which Rev. John Avery, his wile, and 6 children. 

enined, was soon tnonally wounded, and his From 1643 nntil his death, he resided at New 
■ " ...... ^1^^ ^j p^^ jj^ 1646, as "of 

_ . n the province of New Neth' 

wa< buried witb military honors. erlands, merchant." Chosen a member of the 

Alien, William HowABU, a navaloffieer, council of New Amsterdam in 1643. Point 

b. UudMin, N.Y., July 8, 1790. Killed near Aldertoo in Bolton harbor is supposed to be 

Uatanus, Mov. 9, 1833, while ^llantly lend- named from him. His third wifed. 1684. Ilii 

■ng a boat-attack upon a piratical squadron, ion Isaac grad. at EI. U. 1650. 

Midshipman Jan. 1,1808; hent. July ^4, IBia. AllibOlie, S:IKDEl Austin, b. Phila , 17 

UcwasSdlient.of "The Argus," Capi. Allen, Apr. 1816, author of a "Critical Dictionary 

when she was taken by "The Pelican," on the of English Literature and Authors," 3 vols. 

English coast, in 1813, and commanded in (ho roy. 8vo. 1859-70. A work of immense labor 

latter part of Iha action; both bis superiors and research, and of very great importance 

having been wounded. His native town erected and aiitity. 

a moanment to bis memon'. Allitl, John, flrst minister of Dcdham, b. 

AIIeDde(iil-yen'-dej, Jcisfi,aU«Kicuirev- Eng., I59G; d. Dcdham, Ms., Aug. 36, 1671. 

oluiionist, shot at Chihuahua, July UT, 1811. Driven from En^. by the pcrsecntion of the 

A captain in tbe scmir, ha lent to the revoln- Faritani in 1637, be was settled in Dcdham, 

lion ists the military skill the; so much needed, Apr. 34, 1639, and continued there till bisdealb. 

andapowerfolinliuenceover thenatives. Nov. Assisted by Mr. Shepherd of CamhridBe, he 

19, 1810, he joined Hidalgo, aad iiansponed pub. his" Defence of the Kine Proposition^!" 

over tbe COTdiUeras, with the aid of tbo na- of Cbuitb discipline, also a " Defence of the 

tivea, heavy guns from San Bias. Hidalgo Synod of 1663 against Prcs. Chaunccy," and 

having fought a battle agninst bis advice, be a few discourses. Dr. Mather calls' him a 

was defeated. Alleode broughtoff tbe ivmnant diliaient student and good scholar. — E/i'al. 

of his army, but was taken near Sallillo by tbe AUiSOn, Patbick, D.D. (U. of Pit.l7S3|, 

tnachcry of Elizondo, and was shot soon after. 3.S years pastor of the Presb. Church, Balti- 

Allerton, lai.io, a Plymouth Pilgrim, b. more, b. Lancaster Co., Pa., 1740; d. BalL 

sb. ia83; d. 16S9. He was one of those who Aug. 21, 1803. Phila. Coll. IT60. Ord. ITtiS. 

len Eng. iu 1608, and sealed iu Levden. His He ranked hi~h as a preacher, naa an active 

liame il allacbod to the memorable compact patriot in 1 77S, and was app. chaplain to Con- 

•igned on board " The Mayflower," Nov. 11, j;reis, Dec. 23, 1776. He pub. treatises on 

1630. His vrifb Mary d. tcb. S5, 1631. He Liberty, &-. An original founder of Baltimore 

pOMessed a considerable estate, and was one of Coll. and Library. — Spragae. 

tbe leadingand enterprising men of Iheculony. A li on an Clacdb. a Jesuit missionary. 

Mar. 33, he, witb Miles Standish, " went ven- who visited Lake Superior in 1665-7, founded 

turouslj " to treat with Massasoic He was a mission at Green Buy in 1669, where he en- 

fubseunently for some years an assistant. Ab. dured many hardships, and in 1687 was ut 

16i6, lie m. Fear, dau. of Elder WilliamBrew- Bt. Lonis. 'While conlincd to his bed at that 

ster. and in tbe autumn of that year was sent place by illness, he stole away on hearing of the 

to Eug., panlv to obtain supplies, and partly approach of I^ Salle, whom he bad injurcil, 

to QCgutiale with the adventurers. Having in — Set Parlaiiaa'M Discorery of At Great iVtil. 

a lerond trip purchased for his associates their Allstoa, Geh. Joseph, gov. of S. C, 

rights for £1,600, payable in nine yearly in- 1812-14, h, 1778; d. Sept. 10, 1616. Son of 

sioluienu, and obtained also a patent for a Col. Wm. His wife Theodosia, dan. of Aaron 

Irading-ntntion fur Kennebec, bo retnrncil early Burr, was lost at sen in 1813. He was a planter 

iu 1628 to Plymouth. In a fourth trip, after of education and ability, and several years a 

much delay and difficulty, tie sui-cccded in <!>■ distini;. member of the S.C. legist. 

tainiiig tbe enliirgcment and correction of t.ie Allston, Robcrt Fiiakcis Withbbb, 

Kennebec patent, and aUo another for PIv gov.of S.C, 1856-8, b. All Saint*' Parish, S.C, 

■ujuth, and facilitated the removal of ihu re- Apr. 31, 1801 ; d. near Georgetown, S.C, Apr. 

mauider of tbe church ai Leyden. In 1631, in 7,1664. WestPoinl, JS31. Retiring from iht 



lyV^iOC^le 



army in 1823, upon a ric&planutloa on ihe 
Pedes, he beanna rery succesarnl. Surrey.- 

gen.oftbeSute, 1623-7 ; memberofche lower 
branch of the legul. l828->?3 ; of lbs Senate, 
1S32-56, and pres. of that body in 1850-4. He 
wai a Siate-nghu politiciiin. In the legiBl. 
he fostered the Bgncaltural and educational 
.iiterasts of the State. TnisUie of S.C. Coll. 
I841~&1. Author of "Memoir on Uira," 1 843; 
" K<])ort on Public Schuoli," 1S47 ; " Essay on 
Sea-(onBt Croijs," 1854. 

Allston, W /tiaisaTOV, en eminent point- 
er, b. Wacfamaco, S C, Not. 5, 1779; d. 



ill Newport, R. I., where ho made the acquaint- 
ance of Malbone, and first esaajed his artistic 
ulent. In 1801, he went to Ettrone, having 
sold his palriiDonial estate to enable bim to 
cultivate hU love of the art, and became a 
student at the Royal Acad. During 8 ytara' 
residence ftbroad, be made himaelr ^miliar 
with iho works of the great maiters. Ketum- 
iae to Cambridge in 1809, he delivered a poem 
before tbe Phi Beta Kappa Society, and m. the 
sister of Dr. Wm. E, Cbanning. From 1811 
to ISIB, he was again in Eng., where, besides 
producing Bomo of his beat pictures, he pub. 
in 1813, "The Sylphs of the Seasons," and 
other poems. He built himself a house and 
Bludio in Cambridge, and, having '"" ■"'" """ 

wife, lll.inl83C 

his best works 

Endor." "Elijah in the Desert," "Jacob's 
Dream." "The Angel Liberating Peter from 
Prison," "The Dead Man Restored to Lifs 
by Elijah," "The Angel Uriel in the San," 
" Anne Page and Slender," and " Belsbazzer's 
Feast," wliicb, tbough left nnBnished, is no in- 
adequate munnmunt to tbe genias of this 
great paiuler. Uis works exhibit a power- 
liil imai;ination ; and his skill as a colorlst 
earned him the title of the" American Titian." 
Tbe execution of his pictures was marked by 
a rare combination of strength, freedom, and 
grace. Besides his poema, which arc much 
esteemed, be pub. " Monaldi," a prosa tale, 
1841, and " Loctnres on Art and Poems," 
IB.W. 

Allston, Col. Wm., UovoI. tol.licr, b. 
1T57; d. Charleston. S.C, June 26, 183M. 
tlu was a capi. under Marion, was afterword 
a Fuccessful planter and a large slaveholder, 
and manv years a member of the S.C. Senate. 
He m. a dan. of Rebecca Moite. 

AUyn, John, D.D. (B.U. I6I3), pastor of 
Ihe Cong. Church, Dnxbnry. Ms,, from Dec. 
3. 1788. till his death. B. Barnstable, Mar. 
31, 17ti7; d. Doxbury, Jnly 19, 1833. B-U. 
178S. He studied theology with Dr SninucI 
West. He pnb. "The Chrialian Muniior." 
"Memoirs oi Dr. West and of Rev. David 
Barnes." and occasional sermons. A memoir 
by his son-in-law. C. Francis, is in Ms, Hist. 
Coll. ill. vol. 9. Uis son Rurtis liBADFOBO, 
h. Mar. 27, 1793;d.Belfiut, Mc.,Jnn.25, 1637. 
H. U. 1810. Was adisting. lawyer and schol- 
lar of Belfast. 

Alm^gro (Hl-mft-gra), DiEQO, one of the 
S|<a'iish conquerors of Peru, b. ab. 1463; <l. 
Jnly, 1938. His diligonce and perseverance 



portance to the success of his great enterprise. 
In 1535, he took Cnico, the ancient capital of 
the Incas, by storm. His barbarity to the moQ- 



his companions about the division of s[ioil and 

rower, AlmagTO was defeated, made prisoner 
y Piiarro. and strangled. The friends of the 
father, rallying round the son, assasainaied 
Fixarro, July 26, 1541, and were thontselves 
executed by order of the Viceroy of Pern in 
IS4S. Almagro's frank and winning manners 
made htm veij popular with tbe soldiers. 

Almon, JoHM, an English political writer 
end pqblisfier, b. Liverpool, 1738; d. 1805. 
He was apprenticed to a bookseller; went to 
scain 1759; afterward settled in London. He 
pub. on edition of "Junius," and eltempted lo 
prove Hagh Boyd its author. A man of 
strong sympathies and liberal ideas, he placed 
his pen and press at the service of John Wilkes, 
whose " North Briton " he pnbiished. He also 
pnb, " The Remembrancer," in 17 vols., agreat 
magazine of information on the war of the 
Amer. RctoI. In 1777, he added a vol. of 
"Prior Documents" to this work. Ha also 
imphlela during the Am- 
il legnlar publication of 
s was begun by him in 
774. He also pub. "Anecdotes of Lord Chat- 
ham," and "Biographical Anecdotes of Emi- 
nent Persona." 

Almonte (al-mon'-ti). Juak Nepoko- 
CBNO, Mexican gen. and statesman, h. Valta- 
dolid, Mexico, 1804 ; d. Paris, Mar. 20, 1869. 
Reputed son of tbe priest and partisan chief, 
Uorelos. Rt^cciving a soperior education in 
the U.S., he early disting. himself by his 
talents and courage. In tbe Texan war of 
1836, he served under Santa Alia; and the 
records of the massacre of the Alamo were 
chiefly made up from his journal. Distiug. at 
the battle of San Jncinto. aud made minister 
of war by Prcs. Bnslamente. He displayed 
great courage in quelling the insurrection of 
Urrea in 1840 ; but was deprived of his otBca 
by the rcvol. of thai year, and supported him- 
self by Bcicntitic lectures in tbe city of Mexico. 
Afterward ambassador lo the U. S.. he de- 
manded bis passports upon the annexation of 
Texas, and, in the war which followed, was 
dieting, in the battles of Buena Vista, Ccrro 
Gordo, and Churubusco. He was re-app. 
minister to ihu U. S. in 1853 and to the court 
ofSt. James in 1856. He returned to Mexico 
vrith the allied exped. in 1862. holding, for a 
brief period, the supreme power there ; and 
was aflcrward one of the triumvirate Ibr iha 
management of Mexican atTuirs, having charge 
of finances and the foreign dcpt. ; made a 
marshal of the empire in 1864 by Maximilian, 
on whose fall he became an exile in Europe. 

Alm7, JoHM J., commodore, U.S.N., b. 
R.I , Apr. 25, 1814 ; midshipm. Feb. 3, 1329; 
licut. Mar. 8, 1841; com. Apr. 24, 1861; 
ca;it. Mar. 3, 1865; commo. Dec. 30, 1869; 
attached to " The Ohio," and present at Vera 



t.Google 



Crui and TniBan, Mexican war ; coait nrrej in I77G; member of (he H. of Commoiu. 

16il-7i com. "The Fulton " at Nicaragna 1791-3; M. C. I799-1S03. Uu son WiLua, 

in IS57, when Walket and his Glibiuten snr^ Jna,, b. Eali&uc Co., N.C. : d. there Apr. 

retidered to lier, and '~ "'"- " '' '" ' """ ' """" " — '----' '- ■— •■ --■• 

1Si8-9: com. aieamei 

block, (quad., ISGS ; 

cut," 1803-4, nnd captured u ... 

Siiiea ; and in 1865 com. the " Juniuta." S.A. AlrSf OdO (al-vii-ts'-du), AlOHtO DB, One 

block, iquad. Chief signal-officer of tho nary, of the Sjpaniah conqaarors of Mexico, Riidaftcr- 

— Huaertlf. ward of Fern ; held a hi(ch comtnund under 

Alms, WlLUAH, philanlhroinst of Pror- Piurro. Seat with AOO men to re-enforce the 

ideDoe, K.I., b. Feb. IT, 1761 ; d. Feb. 5, 1336. bros. of Piuuro, bo wai defeated and made 

He belonged to the MCietf of Friends, and wai pn^ner by Almafro in 1&37. After ■'ledeaih 

a teacher ; manTing the only dan. of Mow* of Pizatro, he took arm* against Almugro the 

BrowD, be engaged in biuiues* with her bro. younger, and joined his force to that of Dr 

Ouadiah in mauafacturing cotton Koods, and Caatro [1543J. He was lient-gen. of tlie aioiv 

became oealtby. Among bis chanties was which suppressed the rebellion of Gotiialu P!- 

(Iiu endowment of the N. E. Yearly Meeting xairo in IMS. 

Boanlin^ School, at ProTidetiec, in which be AlT&radO, Pedbo qb, one of the con- 

psiii the expenses of the education of eighty qucron of Spanish Amer., b. at Bedajos: d. 

yuun^ persons placed there by biin. 15-11. In 1518, be soiled with his four bros. for 

Alsop, Gkobuk, author ol " A Character Cuba, whence be accompanied Grijalns on 

Ql tbe ProTince of Maryland," Lond., 1666, bis exploring oxped. along the Coast. In Feb. 

reprinted by Wia. Gowans, N.Y., 1669. Alaop 1519, he accompanied Corteii in his expcd-, in 

wash. 163S; was an apprentice ia Lond., and which he took an important part: left by 

resided in Maryland in 1658-63 : of his sub^iO' Cones in chargo of the city of Mexico, hi* 

quenl career nothing is knutm. Uis truct cruelty and rapacity caused an insurrvction, 

was desiinied to stimulate emigration to Md. ; and be notrowly escaped with his life. In the 

and denies its chief value from its " Belatioa famous relreut of the night of Jnly 1, 1520, 

of iba Susquehanna Indians." Alrarado again diatlng. himself by bis ex- 

AJJOp, JoiiK, member of the Continental ploitsj in commemoration of whicb, an 

Cougreai in 1774-6, b. Middlciowa, Cl i d. enormous diteh, over which he leaped to 

Newtown, L- I., Kor. 22, 17M- An opnlent escape tbe enemv, is called to this day, "El 

merchant, his ability, patriotism, and integrity Salla de Mearado." On his retnm to Spain, 

•einrcd his elociion lo that remarkablei body. Cbarle* V. mode him gov. of Guatemala. He 

On the occupation of N. T. by the British, he m. a dau. of ibe iUoBtrioiu Albuquerque : 

withdrew to Middlciowa, Ct., retnmiDg after suhseqaently be had riolent coiitetts with 

Ibe peace. His dau. Mary m. Gntoa King. Pizarro ; but the emperor appointed him gor. 

Alsop, BiCHiRD, poet and wit, b. Middle- of Honduras, as well as of Guatemala- Ue 
town, OT., Jan. £3, 1761; d. Flstbuib, L.I,, made man; discoveries on tbe California coaiil, 
Aui;. SO, 1S15. He was brought up a mer- and continued to colonize and explore the 
cbuui, but prefened literary pursuits i for which Amer. Continent until 1541; when he was 
he «as fitted both by his talents and attain- killed in a skirmish with the Indiana. ' 
tnents. He ts heel known by bis principal Alrarez (al'-vil-reth), Bsbdahso db, a 
share in the "Echo," — • senea of burlesque Spanish adventarer, b. Seville, 1514; d. 15B4. 
pieces, begun in ITDl.aud ended in 1605, — the At the ago of 14, be joined the Mexican army, 
cburacMr of whicb underwent a change, from but was expcll<»] for misconduct, and traoi- 
a tnirth-provokiog essay to a hitter political parted to the Philippines ; escaping thence, he 
•acire directed against the Democ. party, went to Pern, and acquired a. fortune, with 
Uwl^ht, Hopkins, and othcrt, known as the which he established hospitals in Mexico and 
" U.irtford Wits," were joined in tbe author- other cities of New Spain. These hospitals 
ship. Thij, with other poetna, vras repub. in were supponed by the charitable society of St. 
ISn:. In leoo. he pub. in heroic verse a Hypfoliias, which be foundad and endowed. 
*' Monody on the Death of Washington," and AlTOres, JcIlH, leader of (he MexiCBn 
in 1308 'The Enchanted Lake of the Fairy revol. of I8j5, b. 1790. His energy and cour- 
Unrgana." Besides a number lA fugitive age, as well as his repub. principles, had 
l^'ui in prose and vene, he pub. in IS08 preriously made him popular in Southern 
" Tbe Natural and Civil Uiiiory of Chili, Mexico. Ho ended the dictatonhip of Santa 
I rum the Italian of Molina," and in 1815 a ABa by the decisiva battle a( SoltUlo, JulyiZ- 
narraiive of the captivity of John B, Jewett. 3, 1B55, The " Plan of Ayutla," prouiulkKd 
He was fond of fleld-aports and natural historv, by Alvarex, Alar. 1, 1854 announced the dep- 
His youngest bro., Joaa, also a poet, b. Feo. osition of Santa Ana, and i ' ~ 



, 1776; d. Not. 1, 1841. Ue practised law principles. Proclaimed pres. by the assembly 

at New London ; and was alierword a book- at Cuemavaca, Oct. 4, 1855, Not, 15, he ea- 

itller at Hartlbrd and N.Y.— ^ i^nansss I'a tered the city of Mexico, escorted by his In- 

Earnt't Pocii o/0.,aad LhfdiMJc dian body-guard, whose borbariaii appearance 

Alston, PniLip Whitiibi., rector of Cal- excited the apprehension* of ibe citiaens. 

vary Chnnb, ^iemphis, Teon. A vol. of h)* Dissensions in tbe Cabinet, and the opposition 

sermons, with Memoir by Bishop Oiay, WW of the arm; and the clergy, caused by the 

poll. Phila, 8to. 1854, abolition of their ancient privilcp^s, induced 

.i_. — ,n __i .* .1.- Ti.i:r — 3!.. •■ : — ri„ a He p.accd ComOB 



,,Google 



Ton. his Riinbter of war in power; took £200,- 13. The poronyuf hiatviJoifcd oioihcr coin- 

000 frum [he [re>sai7, and ancb anus and ma- pelled bim to teacb acbool fi>r a Hii|ipott aatil 

nilions as he conld wtie, and ntiimed with 1T8I, when hs bq,'aQ loprsirtiie law, and suon 

hii Indians to their homea in Sontbeni Hex- displayed brilliant orulorical pon-en. His 

ico ; d. in 1870. ^at abilities first became kaown bv bit polit- 

Alvord, BmijjLiiitT, brer, brig.-gen. U.S. ical writings in tbo Boston newspapers nnder 
A,, b. Iluiiand. Vt, Aug. IS, 1613. West ibe lignatnret of " Bratns" and " CaiDilli»." 
Point, IS33. Enterin([ihe4ib lnf.,heeenredia In ibe convention which ratified tbe U.S. Cun- 
ihu Scininote warin 183^-6; was aaiiit. prof. atitnlion.bewBBadisting. speaker, especiailyon 
of matbeniaiics at Wot Point in 1837 ; and the subject uf biennial elections. In the legial. 
nnlil 1839 was assist, pnjf. of natural and ex- of 1788, he was so conr.picnouB for oratory and 
pcrimcntHl philosophy. In tlis Mexican war, businese-lalent, that be was elected to Con- 
jv won ilie brevets lif capi. and maj. for gal- Erets (or tbe Suffolk dtat. over Samuel Adams, 
laiiiry at Palo AIiu, Resaca de la Falma, and Ue cotiiinued in that body during the wbu^e 
II lier engagements. Juno2S, 1854, be became of Waabinglon's admin iitratton (l7B9-37r> of 
wym. wilb rank of mnj., and April 15, 1863, which be was the zealous defender. H'u great 
(rig.-gen., and was put in command of tbo speech on the British treaty, Apr. 28, 173!V, is 
Hit. of Oregon. Chief paym. diat. of Omnhn considered the era of bis political life. At ita 
iiiid Kebr. binee May S5, 1867. Brer, bri;;.- clow, a member in opposiiion moved to post- 
men. U.S.A., Apr. 9, 1S65; A.M. ofU. of Vc pane the deciaion ol the qaesiioo, that tbcy 
iHJ4. AntJior of nnmerons acientific papers, migbt not vote under the influence of a sen- 
e»Hys, and reviews. — Cuilum. sibility which their calm judgment might con- 

Alzate y Bamtrez (iil-th&'-te e ril-me'- demn. He was acknowledged to be tlie most 

rStli), Jost Akiomo, Mexican scientific writ- «ioaaent dcbaier in i be house, and waa the 

er. b. Mexico ; d. ab. 1799. A correspondent anihor of the addreat of that body to Wosh- 

of the Acad, of Sciences, Paris; be pub. tha ington on bis retirement from the Presidency. 

Uaivia lie Lileratuni, aUo an eiaay mr la limitt He was several ycara a member of the coaneil 

del Tttii/es perpetueUea at valcaa Poeoeatexetl, of Ms., and, while in that body, delivered a 

AID6S. Adelbebt, brev. maj.-gen. U.S.A., eulogy Dpon Washington before the Slate 

b.Me.,183S. W.Pt.,1861. 1st lieut. 5th Art. legiil Chosen pres. of H. Coll. in 1801, but 

May 14, ISGI ; brev. nuy. July SI, 1861, for declined. Ue wrote a number of essays on 

Bull Hun; brev. lieut.-col. for Malvorn Hill, the French l{evol.,thecharncterand[endencie* 

July 1, 1862; col. 20ih Me. Vols. Aag. 29, of which inspired him wiih horror. Tbo con- 

l8ul; lirig.-uen. U.S. Vols. May SO, IB 63, for veraalion of Mr. Ames wmi iuslrucliva and da- 

CluinLrllorsville ; brev. col. July 1, 1863, lor lightfut, and bis churacler one of amiable sim- 

Gettysburg; cum. div. or brigade IStb Gorpa plicity and moral purity. His writings, witb 

in the operations before Petersburg, and en- a memoir by Dr. Kirkland, were pnb. in 1809 

gnged at Port Walthall Junction, May 7, and in one vol. Svo, and an enlarged edition iu S 

Cold ilurlior, June 1, 1864 ; capi. Bth Art. vols, in 1854. edited by his son, Seih Ames, 

Juni' II, ISG4; Com. div. lOtb Corps, Oct. 10 jadge Ms. Sup. Coart. 

to Dec. 2, IS64, in BCiionsof Darbjiown, Oct. Ames, Jost^Pii, b. Boxbory, N.n. Has 

13 and 27; com. div. S4lh Corps in assault end painlcd many porir.iiid in Brsion und Balti- 

caplurc of Fort Fisber, and m operations in more. Anwnt; ibcm Hre " Pius IX." ' liui- 

K.C. Jun.-Apr. 1865, for which brev. maj.-gen. zaniga," " President Felton," and " Ileaih of 

vols, and bng.-gcn. U.S.A.; com. div. lOth We&lerr" he bas also produced "Mand 

Corps Apr.-May, 1865; lieut.-col. 24th Inf. Mailer," and the "Old Stone Pitcher;" d. 

July 28, 1866. U.S. senator from Mpi. 1871; New York City, O.l 30, 187!. 

prov. gov. Mpi. June, 1868-9. AniMi HiTaxviKh, phvsirian and mntho- 

Amee. Ldw^rd B., biabop of the M.E. matician, b. Bridgewater, tAi., 1708; d. Dcd- 

Church, b. Athens, 0., May SO, 1806. His bam, July II, 1764. He inherited a taste for 

(.Tiinill'ntber was a chuploin at Valley Forge, astronomy from bis btber, Niithunicl (1677- 

Edwiird wasedueaied in the Ohio U.; was an 1736), and from 1725 till bis ilvatb pub. his 

instructor in McKendreeCott. in 1823-9 ; was famons almanacs. They were continued until 

Weiised to preach in IB30; waasoon after a«- 1T75 by his son Nathaniel. Keiiiuvtiig to 

signed 10 the Ind. conference, and ord. dea- Dedham, where he kept a house of pnlilic en- 

cun and elder. He took part in the general tenninmcnt, he m., in 1735, Mary Fisher by 

conference at Baltimore in 1840, when he was whom he hiid Fishes the celebrated 01 ator, and 

elei'led corresponding sec. of tbe missionarr Nathaniel (1741-16^3), H.U. 1761, also a 

socieiv, and travelled in its bebalf tbrougfi physician, and a sur^on in the Rev-ol. amv. 

the Western States and among ibe Indian AmeB, Nathakiei., seaman and aathor, 

tribes — a distance in all of over 25,000 miles, b. Dedham, Ms.; d. Providence, R.l„ Jan. 18, 

tn 1842, he officiated aa chaplain lo a council 1835. He was the son of Fislicr Amos, and 

of ChtMTtaws. From 1844 to 185S, when he author of " Mariner's Sketches," 18.)0, " Kou- 

WBS made n bishop, he travelled as preeiding tical Reminiscences," I632,and " AnOldSail- 

slder throueh various dislriela of Ind. A or's Yams." 

Ksidcrit of Ualiiniore since 1861. Ames, Nathah P., a skilfnl tdanufaclurer 

Ames, FistiEB, Ll..l>. (N J. Coll. 17»6), of cannon, swords, cuilerv, &c., at Chicopee 

ormor und siaiciiiian. b. neilbani, Ms., Apr. Falls and CabolviUe, Ms.,'b. 1803; d. Caboi- 

9. i:j3: d. there July 4. 1808. H. U 1774. ville. Apr. 23, 1847, Uc commenced the col- 

Son of llr. Naihanicl. His prHKH'ity is indi- Icry business in 1829. In 1834, the Ames man- 

lati'dby liisbaiingirnieredcollegeai iheageof ufociuring Co. was incorporated, wiih N. P, 



t.Google 



25 ANTt 

Ame* u tgeat. ThU compia; hu lupplied to Aapinirall, in Maj, 1864 i com, sieamslixip 
the D. S. CkiTemment with svrordi uoce 1831. " Mohican," N. A. B. uaad. ia boih mucks on 
In IB40, be 'rUiled Earope to inipect fbrei^ Fort Fieher ; chief of bureau of yards and 
•rmotica, and acqnire information m r^ard lo docks, 1869. — Bamerili/. 
toola, catlery, and imprarements in armi. In Ammen, Jacob, brig.-gen. Vols. b. Bol»- 
1836, ihebronce fbundiy was erected, which hw tonrt Co., Va., Jan. T, I80B, West Point, 
become the most famoni in the U, B. : liace 1B3I, Entering the 1st AniJIerf, he was for 
its erection, nearly bII tin brass gnna made for some yean an inscractor at West Point, and 
the Amei. army haTe been cast nt this esiab- resigned in Not. 1837. Ha was piof. of maih- 
li<hmcnt. Here the celebrated statues of De ematics aacccssirely !□ Bacon Coll., George- 
Will Clinton in Greenwood Cemeleni, Brook- town, Ky., Jeff. ColL, Mpi., the IT. of Ind,, and 
Itd, Washington in Union square, N.Y., and Joff. Coll. again. In 1861, he became col. 24th 
tbat of Franklin in School St., Boston, were O. Vols., and July 16, 1862, brig.-gen. for ser- 
CBst. In 18M. the British Govern menl ordered vices at Fittsburg Landing. From Apr 1864, 
of thia coiDjjany a complete eet of tbe machinet until after the battle of Nashville, he com. the 
for perfecting the stock of the nmsket. The; 4th Div. 23d Corps at Enoxville. Reaigntd, 
are now in use at tbe government armory near Jan. 14, 1865. 

Woolwich, Eog. Ampndia (&ni-poo'.d&fc), Pedro he, a 

Ambfirst, Jkffbiv, baron, a celebrated Mexican gen., promoted by Santa Aila, in 

British gen., D. Eeat,Eng., Jan. 29, 1717 ; d. IBiO, to that rank; in 1842, ted a party under 

Anz. 3. 179T. He was pB({e to the Duke of Gen. Wolt to attack the Texan frontier ; took 

' '""' — "■ ■" ae aD a prominent part In theconBicis at Lorcdoaud 

___„ ^ , _. Lord Mierwith the Texans, and in Dec, 1842, com. 

Ijgonier at Dettingen, Fontenoj, and Roa- at the siege of Campeochy in Yucatan. Com- 

conx, and afterward to the Dnke of Camber- pelled lo retreat by Comtaodoro Moore on the 

land at Laffeldt. Made mnj -gen. in 1756, in night of Jane 26, 1848, Ampudi a proceeded 

1TS8 be was given tbe comniand of the exped. lo Tabasco, whure, in the samiuer of 1844, be 

against Louisboiv. Landing June 8, a lodge- aroaacd great indignation by his cruel esecn- 

meni was effected July 26, and the place but- lion of Gen. Sentmanat, who 'hod attacked tbat 

rendered, as did also St. Johu's and other town. Ampudia was removed, but Apr. II, 

French stroaghotds. App. commander-in- 1846, appeared before Matamoros, as gen. in the 

chief Sept. 30, 1758, the sarrendcr of <Jnebec lo Mexican army, under Arista. lotrusied with 

Wolfe's farces, and that of Fort Niagara lo the command at the siege of Mon lerey, he was, 

Townibend and Johnson, was followed by that after a spirited defence, compelled to snrrender 

of Crown Point (July 26), and that of Ticon- that city to Gen. Taylor, Sept. 24, IS46, 
dero^ (Aug. 4, IT&9), to Amherst in person. Anblirey, Thoh^ib, author of " Travels 

Obtaming the naval supremacy on Lake Cham- in Amcriut, 2 vols. 8to, Lond., 17S9, w:i9 a 

EUin, Fort Nevis end Isle Anx Noix tell into capt. in the army of Gen. Burgoyne, whose 

is hands ; and Sept. 8, 1760, Montreal and conduct in the campaign of 1777 lie attempts 

tbe whole of Canada became a British posses- to vindicate, and returned to Eag. soon after 

sion. lie was rewarded with the thanks of the capture of Cornwallis. 
parliament and the insignia of the Bath ; was Anchieta (an-she-a'-la), Josi:, a Porlu- 

made uov. of Virginia in I7G3, and of Guem- guese Jesuit, surnamed " the Apostle of the 

•ey in 1771, created a baron in 1776, com- New World," b. TeneriSc, 1533 ; d. near Espi- 

mandur-in-chief of the forces from 1776 until ritu Santo, Jane 9, IS97. He was a relative of 

)79&, and field-marshal in July, 1796. His Loyola, and was stationed at Cuimbra. Scut 

bro. William, licat..gen,, col. 32d Foot, and in 1553 lo Bnuil, he (bonded tbcrc the first 

gov. of St. John's, Newfoundland, d. May 19, college for theconversion of die natives. App. 

1781. He was aidode-cainp lo his bro. in gov. of the converted Indians, bo contrib. 

Amer.. and was at (be capture of Louisbnrg. with them to the foundation of St. Ijebastian. 

Anddas, Philip, navignior, b, Hull, 1550; Both the Portuguese and the savages ascribed 

d. Eng. 1618. He com. one of the (wo ships to Father Anchieta tbe working of miracles. 

fitted out by Raleigh, under Arthur Barlow, Of his many writings, one, on " The Natural 

and sent to North Amer. 27 Apr. 1584. En- Productions of BrazU," was pub. by the Acad. 

terine Oeracock Inlet, 13 July, they landed of Sciences at Madrid. 

on Wocokea Island, of which they on their Anderaoo, Albxandbs, the first wood- 
return gave glowing accounts. Reaching Eiig. engraver in Amer. (1798), UN. Y. City, 1775; 
in Sept., their discoveries were made known by d. .Jersey City, Jan. 16, 1870. He was origt- 
RaleiL-hlo QneenEMiabclb, who called the new nally a pbvsician, having grad. M. D. at Col. 
__ .."— tr- .--t. 1 __ij_; i._j ..1 _r Coif- N "^ '""' — "'■ " ' " ' 



country Virginia, Amidas had charge of an Coll., N. V. In IB04, he pub, "A General 

exped, TO Newfoundland some years after. History of Quadmpeils," with wood-engrav- 

Ammen, Dasikl, Capt. U. S. N., b, O,, ings. Among his best-known works are 40 il- 

Jaly7, 1319. Midihlpman, July 7, 1836; licui. lustrations of Shakspeare, and those in Web- 

Nov. 4, 1849 ; capt. July 25. 1866, Attached ater'a Spelling-book, Mr. B, J. Lujsing pre- 

to the coast-survey, 1813-62 ; com. steamer pared a memorial lecture of this pioneer en- 

•'Seiicca."S, A. B. squad. ntibebnitleofPort graver. — Sw Harper"! WeeHy, Feb. 5, 1870. 
Royal, Kov. 7, 1861 ; at Tvboe Island; com. Anderson, Geo. B,, gen. C. S. A.,b. Wil- 

moniior "PBtapsco," S, A.'B. squad, at Fort mington, N.C, 1831 ; d. Ealcigh, N.C., Oct 

McAllister, Mar. 1863; attack on Fort Sumter, 16,18612, West Point, 1852. Entering the 2d 

Apr. T. 1863 ; suppressed a mutiny while on Dragoons, bo became 1st lienl. Dec. 13, 1855, 

board theCalif.st<;amer"OceanQueen,"bound a^jt, Aug, 1357, but resigned, Apr. liS, 1861, 



vv^iuc^le 



Aim : 

and wM made a brig.-Koa. tn the rabal uinj. 
He commsiKlei] th« S. C. coBgt-defencM id 
Sov. 1861, BDd iod a bri^e at tbe battle or 
Antiotam, where he received a woond in the 
foot, whicli cauied his death. 

Anderson, Dk. Henki Juibs. LL.D. 
jlBaO), b. 1798. Prof, mathemuim Col. ColL, 
N.Y., I82&--13; Emeritai {irof. 1866. Col. 
Coll. 181B. M.D. Coll. Phy. and S. I8». 
Author of" O«olog7 of Lieut Lynch'i Enped. 
(o the Dood Sea," " Oeological B«connoiMance 
of part of the Holy Land,^' I84B; pub. by the 
U. S. Go'emmenl. 

Andaraon, Qhob J., lawyer, b. Me. ISDl. 
Clerk Waldo Co-coorta 18S7-^7; U.C.1B37- 
41 ; gor. of Me. 1844-7; cotDmUBioner of 
customs in Waabiugton 1853-8; app. 6tli aa- 
dilor U. S. ti«aa. Oct. 1866. 

AnderBon, Ihaao, D.D., cleravnian and 
pioneer preacher in the West ; b. Uockbridge 
Co., Va., Mar. 26, 1780; d. Kocklbrd, Teon., 
Jan S8, 1857. At the age of 7, he had i««d 
the easier La^n authors. At 14, he entered 
Liberty Hall Acad., al^mrds Waihington 
Coll., and, alter learing the academy, stadied 
theology. BemoTiDg with his fatber'i family 
to Ddiod, Tenn., be «ai in 18U3 licensed to 
preach by the Union Preabyterj ; preached 
there 9 yean, and in 181 1 iMianie pastor of 
a church in Muryville, where he eatabliahed 
the south-west Theol. Sem, — Spragat. 

Anderson, Jtuei, first Preab. miniiter 
of N. y., b. SoodiAd, No». 17, 1678; d.Done- 
gal. Pa., Jnly 16, 1740. Be wis onl. by Ir- 
Tine Presbyury, Nor. 17, 1 70B, with a view ta 
hi) Hltlement in Va., where he arriTed in 
Apr 1709, but seulcd at Newcastle, Dei., nn- 
til, in Oct. 1717, he took charge of the cbarch 
forming in N. I. City. A dinaion took place 
in 17VU;and in Ane. 17S7, ho was iniialled iu 
Donegal. I'u. His bro. John of Perth Amboy 
was made in 17IS oue of tbe council of the 
proviace, and d. Mar. 1736, a. 73, prea. of the 
council. 

Anderaon. Janes, U. D., phvaician ; d. nt 
bia seat near Chcstertown, Hd., Dec B, lB20,a. 
66. Oommeiicii^ his medical studio audor his 
father, a physician from Scotland, ho contin- 
ued tbem At Phi la. and at Edinburgh, but was 
obliged to return home before taking n degree. 
For more iban 30 years be enjoyed a most ez- 
tensive practice, wbicb bii infirmiKea com- 
pelled bim, when at the ago of 60, to relingnish. 
Ue was a zealous disciple of Wesley, and was 
exceedingly liberal and benorolent. — Tiaehcr. 

Anderson, James Patton, gen. C. S. A, 
b, Mpi. lie was lieuL-coL commanding of 
batt. of Mpi. Kifie Vols, in Mexican war. He 
com. a brljfade in the Sd corps of the rebel 
army at Shiloh and at Stone Rlrer; was highly 
commended forralor and ability. 

AndersOD, John, lawyer and politician, 
b. Camberlaod, Mo., 1793; d. Aug. 31, 1853. 
Bowd. Coll. 1813. Us studied law with Ste- 

fhen Longfellow, and was ndm. to the bar in 
BIS. Member of the Me. senate in 1BS4 ; 
M. C. 18:25-33; mayor of Portland in IB33aad 
^i ; coll. customs at P. 1837-41 and 1843-8. 
Aciiiely initmmenlal in secoring the con 
tioa of tbe Atlantic and St. Lawrence 
U.S. dist BUj. for M«. tS39-7. 



18 Ain> 

Anderson, Job* Wallaoi. M. D.,phy 
siciao, b. Hagentown, Md. 1803: d. Liberia, 
Apr. I!, 1830. M. D. I'hila. CoU. 1828. Son 
of Col. Kiehard, a Bevol. officer. Ho pratv 
tised medicine at Hagerstown, but in Jan 
1B30 sailed to Liberia to promote the cante of 
temperance there, and died of terer soon after 
his arriTal. 

Anderson, Jobbpu, Etnleenian, and Rerol. 
Bobiier, b. N. JerKy, Nov. S, I7S7 ; d. Wtih- 
IngtoD, Apr. 17, IB37. He receired a good 
education ; stadied law ; was app. an ouign 
in the N. J. line in 1775; fought at Moninoath 
as a capt.; was in 1779 in the exped. of Sulli- 
ran against the Six Nations ; in IT80 was at 
Valley Fom ; in 1781 at the sit^ of York ; 
uid alter the war received the brevet of m^j. 



Washington jodge of the territoiy south o 
tbe Ohio Birer, and remained in that positiOD 

ontil tbe consiiiuiion of Tenn. was (bmed, atid 
in which be assisted ; and was an jnBnentia] 
member of iho U. S. SenaKi from Tenn. tnm 
1797 to IBIS, serring upon many important 
committees, and acting on two occasions as 
pres. pro Miii^ioirv of the Senate. From 181 S lo 
1836, he was first comptroller of tbe U. S. 



inderBon, 



Ophelia Beows, ae- 

3. Boston, Jnly 24, 1813; d. Jamaica 
Plain, Roxbury, Ms., Jan. 27. 1852. Dan. of 
Mrs. Pelby ; mads her lUbai at the Washing- 
ton Garden Tbeatre, Boston, in 1615, as Co- 
ra's child in "Piiarro." Afterword appeared 
at tho TremoQt Tbeatre, wMle it was under 
her Other's management; and, after he took 
the National, she was for many years the chief 
attraction there. She was a superior actreM 
and a great favorite. She flrei appeared at the 
Cbeslnat-st. Theatre, Phila., Sept 7, 1840, as 
Julia in " The Dnke's Bride." 

Anderson, Coi- Kichabd, Rerol. officer, 
d. Pbila., June 23, 1835, a. 84. App. cspt. 4tli 
Md. r^ct. Nov. IS, 1777, be fought at German, 
town, and was wounded at (he battle of Cow- 



dH. 

Coll. 1804. Son of R.' C, aBerol. soldier, who 
d. Not. 6, 183S, by a sister of Gen. Geoi^ 
Rogers Clarke. He studied law under Judge 
Tucker, and practised with distinction in I.Aa- 
isvillo. Member of tbe Ky. logial. ; M. C. 
1817-21 ; again a member and speaker of the 
legist, in 1822; minister to Colombia in 1823, 
and envoy eilraordinaiy to the Panama Con- 
gress in 1826, but died while on the way iheie. 
Anderson, Richaod Hehbt, lient.-gen. 
C.S.A., b. S. C. ah. 1833. West Point, 1842. 
He was brer, for gallantry at San Aagustin, 
Mexico.Aug. 30, 1847, and woaacapt. 2d Dra- 
goons, wben, Mar. 3. 1 861, he tvsignod, and was 
made a brig.-gen. Confed. service. Mw.-gen. 
in Aug 1863, and com. tbe Cth div. of Bragg's 
army in Tenn. Wonnded at Antielam; com. 
a division at Oettysbnrg, Jnly 4, tS63; made 
lieuL-gen. May, 1864. June 23, 1864, be made 
a sncceasfnl attack on Gen. Wright's divisiuD, 
in front of Petersburg ; Oct. 7, he attacked and 
rooted the U.S. (wvaliy near New Market I 



,v Google 



jlnh 2 

•nd com, tba 4tb mrpi of Lee'i annj, at in 
tarraiider, Apr. 9, 18GA. 

AuderBOn, Robebi, brig.-g(in. U.S.A., 
b. near LoDiiviJie, Kj., Jnne 14, 180&. Wsil 
Point, 1S3S. Hii father ku Col. Joaejih of 
the Rerol. aztnj, and bu mothBr a cousin of 
Cbief-Jtuticc AurahaU. Eolaring the artilierj, 
ha was an insmclor at Weit Foinc; iraa brev, 
Gspt. for gallanirr in the Florida war, Apr. 2, 
l^S; capt-Oct. 93, 1841; brer. m^. Sept. 8, 
IMT, for galUntrji at Molino del Hey, where 
be wu MTereljr woanded ; maj. Ist Artillery, 
Ucl. a, 1B5T ; col. Majr, 1861 ; and brig.-gen. 
Majl&,lH6l. HswasincommandBtCharlea- 
ton harbor when th« KebellioD broke out, sad 
tran^lcmd hii small Torce to t'on Sumier, 
which he held oDtil Apr. 14, when, after a 
hnrj bombardmeni of two day*, he waa obliged 
to tarrcnJer. Promotad, and aiisigned to the 
dcpl. of tba Camberland, ill health caused him 
to withdraw (him actire duty. He has traoc- 
land trom the French " iDsmictions for Field 
Artillery "and "Eroluiioni of Field Batter- 
ie>." Brev. nw.-Ken. Feb. S, 1865 ; t«tired 

t. S;. 1863. D. Nice, Ocl. 36, 1871, 



uUa. W«[P 

Inf. in 1B61 ; Iciiled at the battle of Joneaboro', 
Ul, Sept. 1, 1864. 

Anoerson, Burtra, Cong, minister, b. 
Londonderry, N.H., Mar. 5, 1769; d. WenbiuD, 
Feb. II, 1814. Dortin. Coll. 1791. Oct. as, 
liM, be was oid. pallor in North Tarmoath, 
Ue. ; diBmiiUKal Kept. 1B04 ; inaulled at Wen- 
ham, June 10, 1809, and diamiiied in 1810. 
Ue pub. two discoorsea on ibe Fast, 1802, 
■od levEn ietrera against [he close com- 
manioD of the liaptiuLi, 1805. — S/ntujue. 

AnderBon, Hiv. Rurua, U.D., LL.D., 
SOD of the preceding, over 40 years sec. of tbe 
A.B.C,F.H., b. Me., 1796. Bawd. ColL 1818 ; 
And. Theol. Sem. ISM. Ord. May 10, 182S. 
Lecturer on Foreign missions at And, Sum. 
1867-9. Antbor of Obteiralioiu upon Ihe Peto- 
ponnam and Greek Iilandi, ISmo, Boston, 
1830; Uittary of Ihe Sandwich hUaali Mistitm, 
1871; "Foreign Misnons, their Helations and 
Claims;" "luimoirol Catharine Brown," 18:t9. 

AnderaOD, Sahdel, « N.r. loyalist; d. 
DearComwaU, Can., Oct. 6, 1136, a. 101. At 
the cotnmeacenient of ibe Bovol., he went to 
Canada, wu a capC under Sir John Johnson, 
and after tbe war received half pay. Ue b»- 
came « magistraie, judee of a uistrict court, 
and aasociaie justice <A tbe court of King's 
Bench. — JiiiiM. 

Anderaon, Wiuian, Bevol. officer, b. 
Cheater Co., Pa.,ab. 1759; d. there Dec. 13, 
1829. He joined the army early in the slrui;- 
ste, and at ila close wai a capt., parlicipaling 
in the auGferings of Valley Force, the battle of 
Gcrmanlown, and the siege of Yorklowu. Ue 
held many public trusts; wai a Jetfersonion 
UeuMvrai; M.C- from 1809 to 1815, and from 
181*10 1819; and in tbe latter pan of his life 
>a< a jud;;e of Delaware Co. court, and was 
eaployed in the cotleclioQ of the cuatoms. Uii 
daai;hter. Evelina, m. Com. Porter, U.S.N. — 
SniU-'i l>rJ. Co. 

Andrada e Bylva (&n.drii'^lft & sei'Tft), 
BoMficio Jost DB, a Hrazilian naturaliat, b. 



7 JlNI» 

Santos, 1765; d. IS38. He Studied at' the U. 
of Coimbri, I'ortagal, aod reluraed lo Bnuil 
in 1819. lie poesea^ great couragt, ubilicy, 
and eloquence, and took the lead in oiakiDg 
Brazil an independent empire In 1833. Ue wa« 
prime-minister of Brazil for a short time in 
1833-3, and guardian of the dtnpcror's minor 
children in 1831. Ue wrote several works on 
mining. His broe., Antonio Carlos (d. 1845) 
and Martin Francisco, were both diating. for 
talents and eloiiiieni.'e, and held high ofllce 
nnder the Bruiilian Gurentment. 

Andrd, Jouh, maj,, a British officer, uhv 
suflercd as a spyin the lierol, war, b. London, 
1751 ; d, Uct. 3, I78D. Uii father, a London 
merchant, and a native of Geneva, d. 1769. 
After receiving his education at Geneva, be 
returned to London befora he was 1 8, and en- 
tered a counting-honse. Uia literary taste and 
geniua procured bim tbe aeqaaintancc of seve- 
ral of the writers of Ibe day, among whom wai 
Anna Seward. Between Andrd and this lady's 
cousin, UoDora Sneyd, a reciprocal attachment 
spmng up; bnt their marriage was prevented 
by tbe girl's lather, and she became, a fbw 
years later, the wife of Richard Lorell Edge- 
worth. Andr^ entered tbe British army. Mar. 
4, 1771; visited tbe courta of Germany in 
1172-3; and, in Sept, 1774, as Uent, of the Roy- 
al Foaileora, laadod at Phila. Taken prison- 
er by Montgomery at St. John's, Nov. 3, 1775, 
ha was seat to Lancaster. Pa. ; but was ex- 
changed Dec. 1 776, and promoted to a captain- 
cv Jan. 18, 1777, having gained Ihe bvor of 
Gen. Howe by a memoir with which he pre- 
sented him, oo the existing war. In a letter to 
* fncnd, bo said, " I have been taken prisoner 
by tbe Americans, and stripped of every thing 
except the picture of Uonora, which I cod- 
cealed in mv mouth. I'rescrving that, I yet 
think myself fortunate." This picture he had 
himself delineated on his fliil acquaintance 
with her, at Buxton, in 1769. In the summer 
of 1777, bewBsapp. aide to Gen. Grey, and wa« 
ia the engagements in NJ. and Pa. in 1777- 
On Ihe departure of Grey, he was app. aide to 
Sir Uenry Clinton, by whom be was. in 1780, 
promoted to Ibe rank of maj., and made adju- 
tanl-;;en. Selected by hia commander to ar- 
range with Arnold [be dciaila of the [reasonable 
surrender of West Point, he had, on bis return 
from that post, passed safely all the American 
posts and guards by meana of a pass from Ar- 
nold, when, on the 23d of Sept., be was Ktopped 
by 3 militiamen, whom he soug'ht to bribe, tiut 
without aucceI^B. They found in one of bi* 
boots, in Arnold's handwriting, exact rciumg 
of the state of the forces, stores, ordnance, and 
defences of West Point, with those of all its 
dependencies, wiih voriotis other kinds of in- 
formntion nocessaiy to the aucceas of ihe plan. 
Tbe board of officers composing the court- 
tnartill, at whose bend was Greene, and among 
whom were Lafayeiia and Steuben, found him 
otiilly of being a spy, and sentenced him to 
be hanged on hia own admissionH, he hav- 
ing thrown off all dlaguiso, and acknowldl^ed 
every Ibing. Every effort was made by Sir 
Henry Clinton to procure a remission of the 
verdict, but without avail. When led forth to 
manifested some emotion at thfl 



,,Google 



tight of the gibbet, Bud ezclaimGd, "Maac I tho tUrei, and at Kxepting the tcrvices of coV 

die JD (bis maoner ? " and in a momenc added, ored (Toope. He declined the presidenc/ of 

" BqI it will be only a momcnCar; pang," and AnE. Coll. fa 186S. In that year, he presided 

met his fate with digoii; and compoaore. The otct the fiist nedonal Cuicarian convention, 

Bjmpathv of the American officers was unirer- and was a leader of its conscrrative wing. He 

mI lor one so ;oting, lo gallant, so Bccom- was a powerful dolmter and ao eloquent orator. 

plifcLed.aad bo nnfortnoate. He contrib. poetry Prea, of the N.B.Hiat.Geneal. Society 186ft-7. 

la the loyal newspapem; and it ia a aingalu A memoir of hia " Official Life" by A. G. 

fact, that the laat canto of his satirical poem, Brown, Jan., was pnb. ISBB. 

"Tbe Cow-Chase," was pab. in Rivington't Andrews, Ethi.n Allbh, LL.D., b. New 

(^diffre, in N.T., on tho day of bis capture. It Bril«in,Ct.,1787; d, thereMar. 2S,1858. Y.C. 

ends with tbe foUowiag-atansa: — IBIO. Ho studied law, and was some yean 

■' And, now IVe doied mj eplo xialn, «ie«B«d in practice. In isaa, he waa prof, of 

I tremble as I ibaw It, ancient languages in tho U. of N. C. at Chapel 

Leat thla Bame wanio-drorer Wbtub Hill. After thia he taoght at Hew Haven, Ct., 

ahoold ever cotcft «iepo«." ^j ^t Boston, a high ackool for young ladies ; 

Wayne com. tbe division of the army at Tap- reEnniing in 1339 to his native town. In con- 

Ci, where Andrf was executed. His memoir JnuctiOD with Prof. Solomon Stoddard, be 

been embalmed in verse by Miss Seward, Pab. a Latin grammar, of which S& ediiiooa 

aud perpetuated by a beandfhl monument near nar- "■ - ■" " ■■ 
tbe "Poet's Conor" in Westmini let Abbey, 

His remains were placed near thb moaumeot largo Biclionaiy on the basis of Frennd. 

Nov. 28, isai. A pension wai settled upon AndreWB, Bbto.-Obs. Geobqe L., b. 

bia family, and tbe honor of knighthood wa« Bridgewater, Ma., ]8!7. West Point (Isi in 

conferred upon bis brother. Antia Marguerite, class), 1851. Entering the engineer corps, he 

hia last surviving lister, d, in London in 1S48 superintended, under Col. Thayer, the erection 

a. 90. {Loitiry). — See hit Life, by WinlAngt of fbrtifications in Boston harhor. Acliug 

Sarpeid, 8vo, 1861. assistprof-of engineering at WestPoint,lS54; 

Andrew, Jameb Osgood, B.D., bishop reeigned, Sept. 1, 18SS. He was subsequently 
of the M. E. Cbnrcb, South, b. Augusta, Ga., a civil engineer in tbe employ of the Amos- 
May 3, 1794 ; d. Mobile, Mar, S, 1B7I. His keag Manuf, Co. Aj lieut-co), and then col. 
fiither was a Rcvol. soldier and a Methodist !d Ms. rcgt., he was dialing, in all its bard- 
minister. Entering the S. C. Conference in fought engagements, first nnder Banks in (be 
1813, he waa ord. deacon in 1814, and bishop Bbeuandoab Volley, conducting the reargnerd 
in I83S at Phila. His marriage with a ladj in his memorable retreat, at Cedar Mountain, 
who owned slaves was one of the canses of tbe in the campaign under Pope, and at Aniieiam. 
division of the cbnrcb into two independent Mode brig.-gen. Nov. 10, 18SS, and com. a 
bodies in May 1845. brigade in Banks's cxpod. and the Port Hudson 

Andrew, Jobs Albion, LL.D.. states- Campaign; com. the Corps d'Afrique, July, 

man, b. Wi:ndham, Me., May 31,1818; d. IS63, to Feb. 13, 1865; and, for service at the 

Boston, Oct. 30, 1867. Bowd. Coll. 1S37. capture of Mobile, brev. maj.-gen. Vols,, Mar. 

Robert bis ancestor settled in Rowley, Mi., 96,1865. App. Apr, S, 1867, D. S. morriial for 

and d. there in 1668. Adm. to the Boston bar Ms. App. prof, of Fiench at West Point, 

tn 1840, be became especiallj^ conspicuous in Feb. 27, 1871. 

cases arising andor tbe Fugitive Slave Act of AndreWB* Johr, D.D., Epia. clergyman, 

1850; and inI858, after being 10 years an anti- b. near tbe head of Elk, Cecil Co., Md.. Apr. 

slavery man, was chosen to the legial. In 1B60, 4,1746; d. Pbila., Mar. S9, 1813. Phila. Coll. 

he was a member of the convention which 1765. Ord. at London, Feb. 1767. He oEBci- 

oominated Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency, and ated in diflerent paru of Md., but, not sharing 

was himself chosen gov. of Ma. by the largest in the patriotic sentiments of the day, left his 

popular vote ever cost for anv candidate. An- pariah in Queen Anne Co., for school-leaching 

tkipeting the conflict with tlie seceded States, in Yorktown. Principal of the Phila. Epis. 

he took early steps to render tho State militia Acad. 1785-9; prof, of moral philos. U. of Pa. 

efficient, and within a week aner tbe President's in 1783, vi(«-provost, 17S9-1S10; ind provoti 

proclamadon of April 15, 1861, despatched five from Dec. 1810 till hia death. He officiated 

regts. of inf., a battalion of riflemen, and a some years at St. James's, Bristol. ' Antbor ot 

battery of nrlillory, to the osaistance of gov- " Elements of Logic," 



He was re-elected bj large majorities parable of the umost steward, 1789. 
in 1861-4, evinced great ozecniive ability, and Andrews, Josepb, one of tbe best line- 
declined a renomination in 1865, on account engravers of this country, b. Hingham, Ms., 
of impaired health and the ptessuie of private Aug. 17, 1806 ; was apprenriced to Abel Bonen 
afliiirs. Daring the war, he waa very active in of Boston in 1821, and in 1836-7 received in- 
raising troopa, animating the people by his stroction in London from Goodyear, a leading 
fervid eloquence, and in providing comforts Idt English engraver. Of his best-known works 
lick and wounded soldiers ; frequently confer- are, " Annette do I'Arbre " by West, " Duke 
ring with the govemmeat officers on national d'Urbino" by Titian, "Head of Waahing- 
<6hir». Ho took part in the conference at Al- ton " by Stuart, and '■ Plymouth Rock, 16207' 
toona, Pa., in Sept. 1862, prepared the address by Rotiiennel; d. Hingham May 9, 1S7S. 
which they presented to the President, and was Andrews, Lobiko. joamaliBl, d. Charie;- 
Dne of the most urgent in impressing upon the ton, S.C, Oct. 19, 1805. Bro. of Rev. John 
ndmiuistraiion the necessity of emancipating of NewburypoR(1788-1845; H.U. 1786). Ha 



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pab. in Bosun the Saald of Frredam, after- were, however, prcrerred agninii h[in bv Com 

ward, at Stockbridi:e, the IFatem Slar, and in miasarj BInir, as an encmv to religion, iht 

1B03 edleUiKhed the Charlatan Coarier, an able church, ftnd the college, end he was removed, 

political jonmal. Got. of Gaemser, 1T04-6. His narrative o( 

Andrews, Stefhih Pbabl, anibor, b. his proceedings in New England was pab. in 

Ha.,lgl2. Fub."CompansoD or the Common 1S91, and repnb. in 1773. The "Andros 

I*w with Ibe Roman, French, ix.," " Phono- Tracts," edited by W. H. Whiimore, were 

gniiliic Clasi-boolts," "Love. Marriage, and pab. by the Prince Soc., Bosti>n, 1868, 9 toU. 

Dirorce," l2mo, "Frsnch with or without a <to. — CCo^iwAon. 

Ma»er."lSmo, "Tme CoaitiiuiioQ ofOorem- AndrOB, K. S. S., poet and anihor, Min 

mcn[."&c. Contrib. to tbe £onfbn Tiaami of Rer. ThoB., d. Berkley, Ms., Ang. 1868. 

other journal 1. — Allibont. In early life, he was editor or aevernl tiev.-9|>i- 

AndreWB. Cui..Ti]idthtFatbicb, U. S. pera, nndcontrib. poems of great beamy to tbe 

A., b. Ifi;iiind, I'M; d. Washington, D.C., liemoc. Rev. Some years dcp.-coUcctor of ihu 

Mir. 11,1868. He offered hisservices to Com. port of Boston, and latterly confidential agent 

B.iniey, who»e flotilla was confronting the en- of the treas. dept at the South. Anihor ol the 

emyiluring the WarofieiS, and wasempioved " Custonu Guide," a standiinl aaihority. and 

as his aide. He waa sabseqaently engaged in " Chocoraa. and other Sketches," 1838. 

active serrice in the Geld, and in 1822 was AndrOB, Tiiob , minister of Berkley, Ms., 

spp. pavmnsMr in the army- In 1847, ha re- from Mar. 19, 1788. to June 15, IB34, b. Kor- 

sij;ned to uke command ol' the regt. of Volti- wich, Ct., May 1, 1759; d. Dec 30, 1B45. He 

IKurs raised for the Mexican war. He was joined the army at Cambridge in 1775, and 

diiiing. in the battle of El Molino, and brer, was in the bettica of Long Island and While 

■ brig.-gen. for gallantry at Chapultepec. Plains, and other eagagementa. In 1781, he 

At the cloae of the war, he was reinstated as enlisted inaN.London privateer, wascaptured, 

paymaster, and in 1B51 was made dep. pa;- and placed ia tbe Jersey prison-ship at N.Y., 

moitcr-gen. On the death of Gen. Lamed, he bat escaped a ^w months later. He then 

iDKeeded him as paymasier-gen. of the armj, studied theology with Dr. Beaedict of Ptoin- 

Sepl. 6, 1863. Kelired Nov. SO, 1864. Held. His last sermon was preached Oct. 9, 

AadreWB, Wu.D., inventor of eentrifngal 1845, after walking 3 miles lo church. Ha 

fnmps and oaii I la ring engines, h. Grsfton, Ms., pab. some sermons, and n narrative of his im- 

818. In 1828, his father removed toNeedham, prisonmant, and escape fhim the Jersey prisoD- 

where he attended the dislriei school. Removed ship. 

to N. Y. City in 1840, and tnmod inventor be- Ange. Ebahcis, d. 1787, a. 134. He lived 
cBose of his connection with a wrecking com- between Broad Creek and tbe bend of Wico- 
pany ; the pampc then in use becoming choked moco River, Pa.; remembered the death of 
with sand, &c. His pcmp was patented la Charles L ; was in good health at the age of 
1846, was snbseqaently improved by iiim, and 190; and his memory and other faculties of 
nanaf. by Wm. £>. Andrews & Bro. in K. Y. mind were perttet wb<^n he died. 
CiiT. Augoll, Ibbael. col. tat R. I. regt. in the 
AQdr08,SiHEitii(rHi>,Bco1onialgoveniOT, Revol., d, Smiihfleld, R.I., May, 183!. a. 91. 
h, Lond., Dee. 6, 1637 ; d, there Feb. S4, 1714. Maj. of Hitchcock's regt. at the siege of Bos- 
He was disting. ia the war with the Datcb, ton; commissionedcol.Jnn. 18.1777, andserved 
which closed in 1667. M^j. in Prince Rnpert's throngh the war; disting. at Springfleld, N.J., 
dragoons in I67S. \a 1674, on the death Jane S8, IT80. 

of his father, be incceeded bim as bailiff of Asgell, Jobbph Kinhicdt, legist, b. Prov- 
Guernsey. He was gov. of K. Y., when he Idence, B.I., Apr. 30, 1794 ; d. Boston, May ), 
bad previously held a command, from 1674 1857. B.U. 1813. Adm. to the bar ab. 1SI6, 
to 1681 ; gov. of New England from 16BS to he went in 1820 to Bug., where be prosecntcd, 
1689,' anil of Ya. in IG9S-3. Knighted by withont success, a claim to a large esta'e. 
Charles IL in 1678. While in N. Y., he wm From 1829 to 1831, he edited the £aic h.uUi- 
principally occupied in passing granu to the gtneer and Revieu); was for some years re- 
subjects, and presiding In the Court of Sea- porter to the Supreme Court of R, 1., and 
lions. He arrived at Boston, Dec. il, I68S. editor of the earlie.H vol. of R. I. Reports. In 
Here he interbred with the liberty of the connection with Sam'l Ames, be pub, a "Trea- 
Dresi. levied enormous taxes without anthority, tise on Corporations." His other palilli.'n<iQns 
d required the proprietors of lands to oblaia are, the " Law of Watercourses," "LawofTide- 



from him new titles at great expense. In Oct. waters," " Limitations of Actioi 
1637, he demanded at tbe head of his troops in Eqnity and Admiralty," " L 
Ibe surrender of the charter of Cl. ; but it ers," " Law of Fire end Life Insurance," 



n the tumaus Charier Oak. In Practical Summary of the Law of Ass 



16S9, he canscd an Indian war by his oggres- menis," " Ailvcrso Enjoyment," 8vo, 1 837. Hi 
•ions on the Penobscot tribes. Apr. 18, 1689, " Law of Highways w" mniTi(i>i«l nfipr hi 
ibe people of Boston deposed and imprisoned death by Thos. Durfee. 



the Penobscot tribes. Apr. 18, 1689, " Law of Highways wai completed after his 
opio of Boston deposed and imprisoned death by Thos. Durfee. 
The abdication of James II. prevented Angers, Real, an eloquent Canadian ad- 



with the British Government ; but no vocaie and author, b. 1823; d.Apr. 18G0. 

judiciat decision was rendered in his case, sides some poetical essays, he pub. lUcfla- 

While gov. of Va., be founded Wm. and Murj liont da Crime, and a treatise on stenogrophy. 

Coll., encouraged manafaclurcs and the cotton With M. Aubin, he reported end pub. th« 

calinrc, and by tbc»e and other commendable Speeches in the Lower House in 1857-60. — 

acts gained the eaieem of the poopl» Charges Morgan. 

Dolized by Google 



Ai^-Q SO Airr 

Anghlera (in-g&i'ii), Pibtbo bUktlRO and t ;reara leacber of muiH: in the Asjlnm Am 

tiE, or Pet«r Martjr, Italian historian and ge- the Blind, So. Boslon. In 1863, he remoredto 

ogniphor, b. Arona, Lake Mngsiore, ItS5 ; d. Chicago, nhere he wai n aucceurul teacher of 

Granada, 15!6. Of noble birlb, he wu edn- mnaic. He took great inlerasc in edacalian, 

eatcd St Rome, serred in 3 campaigna asainst and km a ihoroagh mosician. 

the Moore, and entered the chnrch, bnt,% de- Aiupaoll (ftns'-pak), Rer. L. A., a magis- 

'■ — ' "— n habella, opened a BChool for the — ' — ->■--' - -<- ■"■ '-'- 

' foang noblemen. Sent in ISOl 
1 from the kin^ to the Sultan of 

c^jjii, uD iidited the Pvramidi and ochermon- juuuuac. 

nments of anticjaitf. Made prior of the chuivh AnUlOIl, Crarlbs, LL.D., a claaaical 

of Granada in 1505, Charlea V. afterward pre- icholar, b. N.Y., No>. 19, 1797- d. there Jaly 

teiitedbimiritharichabbej. Hia " Hialoi? of 39, 1867. (Col. Coll. 1815.) Hia father, Ur. 

tbo New World " is the best of the earl; vorks George C. Ambon, a German b; hirth, attained 

extant npon that inbject. Origiaal materials the rank of siir^eon-gcn. in the British armj^, 

were furnished for it by Colambns, alio from in which he served from the commencement al 

the minutes of the Council of the Indie* ; and the French war until the final snrrrnder of 

ii contains a notice of newly-discovered islands. Detroit, ab. 17B4. He then resigned bis com- 

Anffoa, SiMCBL, capt. U. S. navy, b. mission, and settled in N.Y. Charles, the 

Phila., 17841 d. Geneva, N.Y., May E9, 1840. fourth of his six sons, studied law in the office 

Entering the service in 1790, he was made lieut. of his bro. John, and in tS19 was adm. to the 

Feb. 4, leOT; mastercommandant, Jnly 24, bar. In 1820, he was app. adjunct prof, of 

1S13; capt Apr. S7, 1816. He was several langaages in Col. Coll.; m 1830, he produced 

times Bcverely wounded, — in the action between hiaediiion of "Horace," and became rector of 

"The Constellation" and the Freocli fKgate chegrBmrnarscboolattacbedtothBcollege; and 

"La Vengeance," Feb. 1, 1800, and soon af- in 1835 auccceded prof. Mooie at the head of tbe 

ter in an action between tho schooner " Enter- classical dept. of that instiiatioD. Besides his 

prise" and a French lugger; in an attack on tabors both in college and school, ba produced 

tbe English opposite Bla^ Bock, in 1819, and some 50vols.,chiefly editions of tbe L«tinclas- 

afterward while commanding the flotilla in «ics,andaidB toclassicalstudy. Hewasnnac- 

Delaware Bay. He was selected to carry to curate and thorough scholar, and an acute and 

Europe Messrs. Adams and Clav, Commis- ingenious critic of the ancient langu^s. Bis 

sloners to Ghent. Owing to wounds received works have often been repnb. in Eng., and 

in the service, his mind as well as his health are used extensively in schools. Uis " Clas- 

became impaired; and be was dismissed Irom sical Dictionary," pub. in lS4I,entirelv super. 

the navy June 21, 1834. seded that of Lempti^i^. He excelled as an 

Anschuts, Kasl, a German mn^cal di- instnictor, and conJen«d on tbe public schools 

Toctor and composer, b, Coblentz, Germany, of lus native city 6 free scholarships. 

Feb. 1613; d. K. T. City, Dec. 30, 1870. Ed- Antboo, Hehkt, D.D. (183!}, bro, of tbe 

DCaled by his father a muiucal prof., be was, preceding, redor of St. MBrk's,N. T. City ; d. 

nnlil 1848, Royal Musical Director at Cob- there Jan. 6, 1861, a. 69. Col. Coll. 1813. 

lent! ; waa aftrawards a musical conductor in Author of HisL Notices of St. Mark's Chnrcb, 

London ; came to the U. S. in 1857 ; founded from 1795 to I84S, 8vo, N. Y., 1845. Rev. 

the German Opera of N. T. City in 1863, and Wm. H. Aothon, D.D., isabro. 

established a conservatory of miuic there. AntbOU, Jobs, LL.D., b. Detroit, 1TS4 ; 

Anselme, Jioqdes Bbkvaiid Modbbti d. N.Y. City, Mar. 5, 1863. Col, Coll. 1801. 

B", a French gen., b, July aa, 1740; d. Sep. LL. D. 1B6I. Son of Dr. George C. Anthon. 

1814. Son of an officer of the r«^ Sotuormait, Duringthe War of l81S,hecoiD. acompany at 

tn which, according to custom, his name was the Narrows for the defence of S.Y, He prac- 

enrolled at the age »f 3 years. He became its tised law with great assiduity, and is said lo 

lient.-col. July 17, 1777, and made with it the have tried more causes than any man that ever 

eampai^s of the war of Amer. Independence, lived. He was instrumental in establishing the 

Made lieul.-gen. May 82, 1792, in the follow- City Snp. Court and the Law Institute, of 

ing Sept. be passed the Var. at the head of which he wss prea. at the time of his death. 

his rorps d'armd, took Nice and the fortress -Author of " Digested Index lo the Reports of 

of Montalban, and also the castle of Ville- the U. S. Conns," vols. 8vo, 1813; " Re- 

franchc, defended b; a hundred pieces of can- ports of Cases at Nisi Prins in the N. Y. Snp. 

non, cnining a complete victory. Defeated at Court in 1820;" "AnalyL AbridjimL-nt of 

Sospcllo, accnsBtion and imptiaonment at FAb- Blackitone's Commentaries, with ptcfatorj Es- 

tow soon followed The revolution of the 9th say;" "Antbon's Law Student;" "Amer. 

ThermidoT (July 27,1794) restored Mm to lib- Precedents," Bvo, ISIO. 

eriy, and hed. in an obscure retreaL — Biog. AnQlO]iy,BKSBTB.,staleemBu, of Quaker 

Vnxv. Suppl. ancestry, b. Coventry, R, I., Apr. 1, 1815. 

Ansorke, CHABLGa, teacher of muric, and B.U. 1833. Edited the fnnnifence Jounut/ from 

editor of tbe ifi. TeatAer, b. Spiller, Silesia, 1838 to 1859; gov. of R.L 1849-51, i«-elected, 

1817 ; d. Chicago, 28 Oct. 1866. He grad. at but declined ; Tl. S. senator, 18B»-7I. — £<»- 

the Collegiate Instimte of Breslau, was a teach- miu. 

(r and editor, and for his liberal sentiments Anthony, StTBui B., reformer, b. 90, 

was expatriated by the government of Prnssla; Adams, Ms., Feb. 15, 1820. Daniel her Either 

came to Boston in 1849; was 13 years on^anist was a Quaker, and a cotton manufactoreT. Ba 

and chorister of the First Church, Dorct^Kr, moved in 1826 lo Washingtoo Ca, N. Y., and 



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JLBF 



In IB46 to RocbesECT. SKb wu edneated in a 
iidbII Klect school in her luther's boDse, and at 
a buunlinfr-scbool in Philo. 15yean of Isach- 
in); ill N. Y.. «.[ oae-lhird of cbe lainrv paid (o 
oien, tnnghi ber tbo lesson of woman's rights ; 
and. since 18S2, she has beenonci of Che leaden 
in (hal movenicnt, and its acting sec. and gen- 
eral agent. As early aa 1848, sho ongaged in 
the temperance caoie, Ibrmiag iocictiei, and 
lectnrin;; , and in 18S1 she called a Stale con- 
vention in Albany. With her co-worker, Mrs. 
£. C, Staulon, she succeeded in obtaining the 
adnussioD of women to oilucationni and otber 
eonimuons, witb tbe right to speak and voie, 
lo be pat on commitleaa. and to make reports. 
Uiis Anlhoity in 1S5S, at Troy, read an able 
report on adacating the sexes toother. From 
I8ST to 1866, she was an agent and a faithful 
worker in the anCislavery causo. She bos been 
nniinng in her efiorta to secure liberal legis- 
lation for women in N.T., assailing each jear 
itstegisl. with petitions, appeals, and addresses. 
In the winiar of 18M-5, she hold 54 conven- 
tions in different counties of the State, to de- 
mand eqoal proper^ righn and the ballot. In 
tbaaoCuninori887,ahewentwith Mrs. Stanton 
and Lucy Stone to Kansas, and ancteeded In 
obtaining 9,000 rota in that State for woman's 
•nShig*. Her bro. Daniel R. ha* been maTor 
of £ie*r«Qworth. She has since establisned 
'■ The BeTolntion," with the aid of Geo. Fran- 
cis Train, and has been one of the editors. 
Hot style of speaking is rapid, vehement, con- 
cise, and in her beat moods iha is sometimes 
«loqaent. — Women of Uia Tiiiu. 

ADthony, Subakha, of Quaker parentage, 
eminent lor piety, b. B.L 1716; d. Newport, 
June S3, 1791. Dr. Hopkins pub. her mem- 
oirs, with many extracts from ber writings. 
ISmo, 1799. 

Auville d' (dSn-Til'). N. vm u Boob>- 
poucttiLD, duke, b. ah. 1700; d. of grief, Sept. 
16,1746,atChiboucton,nowHalifax,N.S. He 
early entered the French nary, and in I74B 
was sent witb a fleet of 14 ships of the line to 
iwoTcr Loaisbni^. A violent tempest dis- 
peraed bis si)uadron, and ruined the exped. 
Ha had ibe literary laste and elegance of man- 
ners characteristic of bis lUustrioas family. 

^peB, WiLLitK., an Indian preacher of 
the Fequot tribe, pnb. " Indian Salliflcaiion," 
Boiton, ISmo, 1835 (written by W. J. Snell- 
ing);"Eulo«yonKingPhllip," pronounced at 
the Udeon, Boston, Bto, 183S; "ASonof the 
Fureel,"I83l ; "Experiences of Five Christian 
It>diana of the Pequot Tribe," 1833. 

Appldtaa, Dasiel, founder of the exten- 
sive bujk-pnblishing house of Appleton ft Co., 
b. Haverhill, Hi., 1785; d.N.y., Mar. 37, l»4g. 

Appleton, JisBi, D.D. (H.U. 1810), di- 
vine, b. New Ipswich, Nov. 17, 17T! ; d. Bruns- 
wick. Me., Nov. 13, 1819. Dartm. Coll. 1792. 
Samoel. his ancestor, came lo Amer. in 1635. 
He taught an acad. in Dover ; was Uceosed to 
preach in 1795; and Feb. S3. 1797, wo* ord. 
paator of the Cong, ebamb at Hampton, N. H. 
From Dec. 1S07, nniil his death, he was pres. 
of Bawd, Coll. Under ibe signature of Ctiihr 
m, he contributed viloahle essays to the Pit- 
ealaqaa Eeaajtticai ifiyaiiM. His works, 
braciagleetorrB, ~~— "' ' ' 



and aermona, with a memoir, were pnb. in 1 
vols., 18^7. Hswaaa member of the Acad, cf 
Arts ami Sciences; and was, while lit Hanip- 
ton, a trostee of Phillips (Exeter) Acad. His 
dan. Jnne m. pres. Franklin Pien«. 

Appletoo, John, lawyer and politician, 
b. Beverly, M»., Kebmary H, 1815; d. Port. 
land, Aug. S3, 1864. Uowd. Coll. 1834. He 
commenced the practice of law at Portland 
in 1837 ; was editor of a Democ. paper, the 
E<attrn Ar^Ht, from 1839 to 1844, and part of 
the time was also register of probata fur 
Cumberland Co. In 1849, he became chief 
clerk in the navy depL; subsequently suc- 
ceeded Ur. Trisi as chief clerk of the Sutu 
depan. ; and in 1848, was app. diarm d'af- 
fairet to Bolivia- On hia return from thai 
mission, early in 1S49, he reanmed the practice 
of law at Portland ; was elected to Congress in 
Sept. 1850; in 1855-6 woe Air. Bnchanan's sec. 
of l^ation in Ixind. In 1BS7, having been 
obli)^, from ill hEsltb, to decline the editor- 
ehip of the Wathitytan Union, he was assist. 
•ec. of Stala ) app. minister lo Buisia in May, 
1860. 

Appleton, JoBN, LL.D., b. iBOi. Bowd. 
Cull. 1B9S. Judge of the Bnp. Conrt of Me. 
1832; chief-jus^ce, 186!; anthor of" Reports of 
theSup.Jud. Court of Maine," in 1841, 2 rots. 

Appleton, JoBH JaMBS, diplomat, son of 
John, who was U. S. consul at CaJais, b. 
Prance, Sept. sa, 1793; d. Rennes, France, 
Mar. 4, 1664. H, U. 18)3. He was sec. of 
legation to Portugal in 1819-S2; lo Spain, 
1823-5; charoi d'affhoT to the Two SiciUei, 
less.and 10 Sweden, lBS6-aO. He resided in 
France, where ha owned a valuable estate. 
While at Stockholm, he negoliatetl a treaty of 



, writer 00 political economy, b. 

New Ipswich, N.fl., Oct. 6, 1779 ; d. Boston, 
July 14, 1861. In 1795, be left Danm. Coll. 
to engage in business with his hro. Samnel, in 
Boston, and, on coming of age, became a part- 
ner. He was one of the first proprietors of the 
Wallham cotton manQfactory, where, in 1814, 
the poweMoom was flnt put in operation in 
this country ; was one of the fonnders of 
Lowell ; and was the projector and largest 
proprietor of the Hamilton Company. He was 
several times in Che Stale legisl., and in Con- 
gress in I83I-3 and 1849. Author of speeches 
and essays on currency, banking, and the 
tariff, and of an account of the introduciioD 
of the-power loom, and the origin of Lowell, 
1SS8. He was a member of the Acad, of 
Sciences and Arts, and of the Ms. Historical 
Societr. A memoir of bis lif^ was pub. by Tt. 
C. Winthrop. 

Appleton, Natraitibl, D. D. (H. U. 
1771), Cong, minister, h. iMwich, Ms.. Dec. 9, 
16SS ; d. Cambridge, Ms., Feb. 9, 1784. H.U. 
1713. John, bis fother, 30 years judge of pro- 
bate for Essex Co., and one of the king's coun- 
cil, wosdisting. for his exertions to Christianise 
the Indians. The son was ord. to succeed Mr. 
Brattle, Oct. 9, 1717, and remained 66 year*. 
He wot a fHend of dril and nligiuus liberty, 
uniting UMfiil talents with cxemplarj piety. 
He ws« one of the corporation of H. U. from 



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APP 32 ASC 

1717 to IT79. He pnb. a nnniber of Mrmona 1830. Stalioned Tor manr jean on the froa 

and QCCBBLonol disco uraeg. — Spragae. lier, be win well acqaainted with ihe Indian 

Appleton, Sjimdel, pbilanthropiat, b. N. characur. and by hi* good conduct acquired 

IpsiTiL^, N, U., Jane S2, 1766 ; d. Boston, their confidence, Ue coin, a snccesaful eicped. 

Jalj 12, IS53. One of twelve children. Hii againat the Fowltown Indiana, Nor, 23, IS17, 
early years were spent oa a farm and in ichDol- Arbnthnot, Makbiot, a British ailm., b. 

teaching. He next kepi a iiore ; batremoTed nb. 1711 ; d, IxiiiU,, Jan. 31, 1791. Ncpbewof 

to Boston in 1794, where he engaged in the Dr. Arbnthnot the pocL After eoiDmanding 

importation of English goods, with his bro, Tarions ships, be was naval commissioner, resi- 

Nathan, nnd acquired ereat wealth. He snb- dent at Halifax, in 177^^, and returned to 

nequently engo)^ in tne cotton mamtfaclore Eng. a rear-adm. Made vice-adm. or the bine, 

at Waltham and at Lowell. From 1799 to and coni,-in-(.-liief on the 2f. Amer, station, hit 

leso, he passed mach of his time abroad. His proceeded to his destination io Mar. 1779; but 

liberality and beneflcence kept pace with his was confined to port soon after his arrival, by 

means to indnlge Ihem. In 1893, on his retire- D'Estaing's fleet. Dec. 26, 1779, he cornered 

mem from active busineaa, he determined to Sir Henry Clinton's troops to the sjegv 

spend bis entire iDcomeanQDallyi and he i^ve, of Charleston, in which be co-operated, anil 

each year, the som of t9G,000, He also be- which was soon forced to surrender, and 

slowed hia boonty upon various philanthropic, earned by this success the thanks of parlin- 

reiigioni, charitable and scientific associations ; ment. Mar. 16, 17BI, in a distant action wirli 

and, at bis death, 1200,000 was distributed for the French Btet off the capea of Ya,, he ob- 

similat purposes. He r^olarty placed large tained some advantage, but was prevented, liy 

■urns in the hands of physicians and others, a thick hue, from following it up. Madeadm, 

who were in the way of seeing those in ofiheblue, Feb. I, 1793. 
desiitntlon, to be distributed m their jndg- Aioo {ar'-thi), Hancbl Jos6, prcs. of the 

ment should indicate. A memoir by I. A, Bepublicof Central Aroer.in 182*-9. Having 

Jewell, pub. Svo. Boston, 1850. incurred the enmity of the aristocratic cleric^ 

Appleton, Wk., merchant, b. Brook- party to which he belonged, a civil war broke 

field, Ms.. Nov, le, 17S6 ; d, Longwood, near onl,'and Arce was, in 1827, deftated at Anopa 

Boston, Feb, 15, 1862. Son of Rev. Joseph and Santa Alia, In April, 1829, Gen. Mom- 

of Brookfield, He came to Boston in 1SU7. i;in, leader of the liberal parly, entered Gna- 

He was a successful merchant; was pres. uf tcmala, assumed the government, and seized 

the U.S. Branch Bank in 183^-6 ; and M. C, Arcs, who, together with some of the superior 

in 1851-5 and 1861-9, Hfl devoiod hissorplus clorKy, were expelled the country, 
means to benevolent objecw; giving, at van- Arohdale, John, gov. of N, C. 1695-6, 

UU3 limes. S30,000 to the Ms. Qen. Hospital, author of a " History and Description of Car. 

ufwhich, as. il»o the Provident Institution fbr olina," Lond,, 1707. Son of Thos.ofLoaks 

Savings, he whs president. in Chipping; Wycomb, Backs Co,, Eng, Gov, 

Appling, CoL, Daniki., b, Columbia Co., Gorges of Me. m, hissisterMary ; and in 1661 

Gh,, Aug. 25, 1737 ; d. Fort Montgomery, he came as his a^ent to N, EL Archdale was 

Ala,, Mar, 18, I8IT. He entered the army as in N,C. in Mar. 1686, and was a commissioner 

lieut. of Ridej. May 3, 1808 ; was made capl. for Gorges in Me. in I6B7-B, landing first in 

Apr. 1813, major )st RiAes. Apr. 1814 ; brev. B.C., he formed a new commltsion of sensible 

lieut,-col. May 3(1, 1814, "for gallant conduct and moderate men ; arrived in N.C. in thesnm- 

in captnring a superior force of the enemy in mer of 1695, and bad a sncceesfnl and highly 

Sandy Creek, N,Y ;" brev. col, 11 Sept. ISI4, popular administration. He was a proprietor 

" for distin;;. services at Flattsbnrg;" resigned of Ihe province, and was a man of great pm- 

June 1, 1S16, — Gardner. dence and sagacity. Though a Quaker, he 

ApUlorp, Eabt, Episcopal divine and promoted a militia taw, exempting the Friends 

author, b. Boston. 1733 ; d. Cambridge, Eng., Dtora miliinrv service. Elected a member of 

Apr. 17, 1816, C. of Cambridge, Eng.. 175B. pariinmeni in 1698, he woold only afflnn. in- 

Cliarics, his father, was a merchant of Boston, stead of taking the required oaths, and waa not 

While a.mii<ionary in N, E., for the Society permitted to uke his seat. — ffCatlaiihaa. 
for the Projiagation of the Gospel in Foreign Aroher, Dr. Bbihcs T.. Texan revol'ist. 

Parts (1T61-5), he engaged in a warm contro- b, Va., 1790; d, Brazoria Co,, Tex,, Sept, 22. 

versy with Dr, Uayfaew, on the design and 1896, He studied medicine in Fhila., prac- 

conduct of that body. The hostility of the lised for many years in his native State, and 

people to the Episcopacy dedded him to return was olUn a member of its legisl. Removing 

to hng.. where he eventually filled the stall of to Tex, in 1831, he becanM a prominent acior 

Fiuabur:? in St. Paul's Cathedral. Among in her revolution; presided over the" Consul- 

hi» writinfTi are " Letters on Christianity, in tatlon " in Nov, 1835, and was by that body 

replr to Uibbon," "Disconne* on Prophe- elected a commissioner to the IT, S, with S. F. 

cr.'' 2 vols, Bvo, He m. Elitabeth, dan, of Austin anri N. H. Wharton, to solicit aid in 

£linkim Hutchinson. her strug::le for independence ; was elected to 

Arbuokle, Matthew, soldier, b, Qreen- her first Congress on his return in 1836, was 

brier Co., near the Warm Springs, Va, 1776 ; speakerof the house of rcpresentalivca, and sec, 

d. Fon Smith, Ark,, June II, 1891. He en- of war from 1339 to 1842, when. on account of 

Kreil the ariny an ensign. Mar. 3, 1799 ; was ill health, he retired to private life. He was a 

made rapt. June, 1806; mi^or 3d Inf Aug. ripe scholar and an cloqiie 
15, 1819; lieul..col. Mar. 9. 1814; col, 7ih Archsr, John, r*^ -' 

Inf Mar. 10, 1830 ; brev. brig.-gen. Mar. 16, b. Harford Co., Md. ii 



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AKC 83 AEI 

ton CoU. IT60. M.D. 1T6S. He receired from becKine odious to the colons. Recalleil to an 

the Philn. Med. Coll. the firgl mndic&l diplomii awer for hU miscoiictuct, tie was shiuliled Iit 

erer ianed in tho New World. At lbs com- his n-»ding partner, the Earl of Warwii'k. itt 

menctnient of the Bevol., he had command of a was a capt. in the cxped. ngainsi the Algerine* 

mililar; compan;; was ■ member of the State in 1S20; wu knighted by Jamoa I. in 1633; 

le)C'>l-; ind vrai U.C. from Md. from 1801 to and in I6S5 waa engaged in Cecil'* exp«<l. 

)eo7. SeTBTHl of big medical diacorsriei have againit the Spanish. An acconnt of his vo; 

been adopted br tho profesiion. age from Jamestown, 1E10, and hia letter re 

Archer. Coi. Sah'l B. ; d. Phila., Dee. specting: his Tovaga to Va. in 1618, are pre- 

11, \62b. He was npp. from Va., capt.Sd Art. eerved in ParcliaB. After the deaih of LanI 

March IS, IBIS; brer. m^. Ma; 37, 1813, Delaware, Argall took charge of hia estate; 

" For gallantr; ami good conduct itl cannonade and letters of the conntraa are in existence ae- 

and bombardmenl of Fort Qcorge, Maj 36 and casing him of the most Bagraot and barefaced 

I' 1813;" distiog. at Stonf Creek, June 6, peculation. 

1SI3; inip.-ceD., with rank of col., Not. 10, ArgeOSOn, d' (dir-zhaa'-aoo'), Pibksi 

isai. — GarSarr, DB VoiBB, ViicocST, gO». of Canada from 

Aroher, STRPHEiisaif, LI.D-, Jadn of Jan. ST, 1657, to 1661, b. 16S6; d. France, ab. 

the 31i. Conn •\t Appeals. Son of Dr. Jobn, 1T09. He waa of a noble family, and dijiinK 

b. Ilarfonl Co., Md. ; d- June 35, 1848. N. J. biouelf at the siege of Burileaux and at the 

Coll. ISOS. M.C. from Md., 1811-17; then app. battle of Sens. Subsequently Reeve of Ton- 

jndge of Mpi. Terr., and was agaiii to Congi^ raine. Some progress was made hv him in dia- 

in 1819-31. corei7, in the conntry bCTOnd Lake Superior, 

Aroher, Wh. S., stateaniao, b. Amelia and on Hudson's Bay;ciui his government 

Co., Va., SUr. S, 1789; d. there Mar. 38, 1865, leema to hare "oonsielodof little else than 

W. and M. CoU. IBM. Of Welsh descent. His barbaric inTaaions and civil and religious 

rndfather, Col. Wm., captured by Tarleton, quBrrels," — Morgan. 

if smalt-poK on board a prison-ship. Hia Arias, Don Fkahcisco Qabino, traveller, 

fdlher, Maj. John, ude lo Wayne at Stony b. Salto, Buenos Ayres ; d. ab. ISUS. He was 

Point, was brev. capt. for gallancij in that a col. in the army, and in 1774 undertook to 

affair. Wm. S. studied law; was a member penetrate the desert part of the continent, des- 

of the legist. 1812-19; M.C, 18W-35; U. S. ignaied by the name of ■• grand c/uko." At- 

senator, 1841-7, and chairman of the commit- tcr making an exploration of thia region with 

Ice on foreign relations. In Congress he look Mntorras, who d. ah. 1775, Arias, in 1780, 

an active part in all matters of national im- c< inlinned the labors of his former companion 

portancc. and whs a member of the commitlee (the paciticalton of the Indian inhabitants), in 

on the Miawnri Compromise. an exped. lasting from June 2, 1 780, to Jan. 31 , 

AroiueOtei (in-ac-ehev'-ake), Chbibto- 1781. The next year, he explored the course 

PitCk. gov..^n. of Brazil, b.ab. 1600; d. Lissn, of the Bermljo, rstablishing (he facta that the 

Poland, 1668. Lcaring Poland on account navigation of ihe river waa free, that craft of 

of nlii-ioa, he entered the Dnich militaty ser- a radium size could descend it, that the na- 

vice, and on the conquest of Brazil whs app. lions inhabiting iu borders wire pacific, and 

it* gov. Be fortified the principal cities, and also that it emptied not into the rarana, as 

was an excellent mathematician as well as a waa aupposed, but into the River PamgusT. 

skilful sulilier. A medal was struck by the The narrative of hi^ expedition, drawn iip by 

Dutch in coromemurntion of his services. himself, was )iab. by hia son Dr. Jos^ An- 

Arey. HAmBiEt Ellbk GRasNts, poet, b, tonio Arias, 1^ order of the government. — 

Cavendiih. Vt., Apr. 14, I8I9. John Grannia, A'ohf. Biog. Uaiv. 

her father, a member of the Canadian parlia- AxUl&ga (iUr^l-II-plI, Rbv. Basilio Mar- 

ment at the breaking-out of the rebellion of del, D.D., superior of Jesuits in Mexico, and 

I81T, afterward held offices of trust nnder the rector of the Coll, of St. Ildefonso ; d. Aug. 

f ..S. Gov. She waa a school-teacher in Cleve- 1867, in the prison of Si. L, though over 80 

land. O . a contributor to the Da'Jg Herald; years of aire. In 186}, he pub. 3 pamphlets in 

wiiin 184S m. to Oliver Arey: has since edited reply to the charge of the French Alili^ Tes- 

the Yanlht Catiel and the Home Monlhii/ in tory, that the Mexican ctercy were ignorant 

BnlTalo and N.Y.; and in 1855 pub. "House- and corrupt. He was one of the most cradite 

h'lld Songs and other Poems." — Poett and of Mexican scholars ; andhiarcply isamasier- 

P—tni of (Ac WeM. piece of learning, wit, and snrcaam. 

ArRaU,SAiicBL, dep.-goT. of Vb. inl6l7, AriBmeildi, Jl-ah Bautista, b Vene- 
h Brrsiol, ¥.ni-. 1573; d. 16-^9. In 1613. laelan gen., b in the laland ol Marsaritn. He 
hr f«rrifd off Pocahontai to Jameslown, the had attained the rank of capt. ; and. when t!ie 
iimr^iation 10 the perfidious chief in whose revol. broke out, took command of the i atriot 
rS.ir.'c she was l>cing a brass kettle. In 1613, forces, and, after a long struggle, dcCcare'l Ihe 
\v hTiike up the French settlement at Ml. De«- Spanish gen. MoHlIo, and drove him from Ihe 
rr-. on ihr coast of Me., causing a war be- island. In coniunclion with Bolivnr and I'ncz, 
la-Tn the French and English colonists. He he drove Morillo from New Gmnnila in 1813, 
•!•« dcitroved ihe French scillemenis of St. and from the greater part of Vi-tt'Zu-Aa, of 
Croix and I'ort Royal. After a visit of 3 years which he was made vicc-pres. In I'ai'^'s in- 
to F.nj;.. be remrried to Va. as dcpniy gov,; snrrection against Bolivar, in I8J6, hfeiiuiiise-' 
hi' r«"T»»e being to traffic in liolaiion' of the the cause of the latter in hU absence, ami re'i 
laws lie was lo admiaister. He enaeied levere dered great service to the nation. 
Mmifaur laws, and by his arbitniT condocl ArUta (trH'ii), M*)tiA-<(o, a Mcxirag 



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ten., b. San Lais Potosi, Mex., Jnl; 16, 1802; 
i1. Spain, Au^. 9, ISJ5. Hia rathor.n Spmiish 
otEciT, ears him n mlliur; education ; and h« 
wrved in Ihe Sp■ni^ill armj ^tl Jnne, 1S31 ; 
ifhen he joined the paliioli. In Apr. IS!9, he 
Vfl9 made a Uenl..col., and, havinc supported 
Busiamenie, vras miute a col., and brcv. brig.- 
gca. Upon the accession of Bania ADa, Apr. 
1, 1833, Arista woj made ^n. or brigade, nnil 
in June, 1833, was second in command of the 
army. Having joined Duran in his unsHcccfa- 
TdI revolt, fae trsa deprived of his rank, and 
ejcpelied from Mexico. After pasein); a rear 
and a half in tho U. S., he returned m June, 
IS35, WHS restored to his rank in (he armv, nnd 
was judee of the aapreme tribunal of wht, from 
Aut'. 1836, to Apr. 1837. Taken prisoner bj 
the French at Vera Cruz, Dec. 5, 1 833, he was 
S months after released on parole, lo 1839, 
with bul 400 men, he suppressed the revolt of 
Urrea al Tampico. App. commandant-gen. 
□r Tamnulipaa, at the elo^ of IB39 he became 

Sen.'inn^hief of the nonhem dirision. For 
eleating the insargcnls of the eHstem dept., 
he receired a special cross of honor. Made 
gen. of division in Sept. 1841, he caused Ihe 
government of Herrera, who succeeded Santk 
ABa in Dec. 1844, lo bo rwogniied ihrongh. 
out Ihe eastern depta. In tlw war with the 
U.S., ill 1B46-T, he i*om. nl ihe battles of 
P,.l<> Alto and Rcsaca de la Palmn. In June, 
1848, he WHS app. by Pros. Herrera minister 
of war, and displayed activity and judgment 
in the supprossiou of 17 revolts that ocenrred 
during 2 years. Ekeled pres. of the republic 
in the fall of 1850, hcresiE-nedihegovernmenl, 
Jan. 5, IR53. Baniahcd from tlie country by 
his enemies, he made a vovage lo Europe, 
visited Spain, and died while on his way to 
France, on the dav that Santa AiiH, who had 
usurped his seat, dcd from the city of Mexico. 
The govemmoDt of Alvarez in I8BT dvcri'cd 
him to have " merited well of hin country." 

Armand (iir-mOn'), Chables 'I i'nx, 
Mahqdis db la IluDARiE, a French soldier, 
b. Foug^res, 14 Apr. 1751 i d. Jan. .10, 1793. 
Entering iheiTOnfei dtt corpf, at I'l 



n for at 



n that ci 



' led t< 



I line 



consequenoB of which he left France. Vo'un- 
leerinit in the cause of Anii-rica., May 10, 1777, 
he received from Concress Ihe commission of 
col. He fought at Red Bank ; was with I^- 
fnyette in N.J. in the full of that rear; and 
in 1778 wa» actively engaged in WusicheBtof 
Co., N.Y., opposing the corps of Simcoe, Era- 
merick, nnd Baremore Ihe loyalist, whom he 
captured near Kingsbridge, Nov, 8, 1779. His 
corps was incorporated with that of Pulaski in 
Feb. 1780] and be was with Galea at thedctent 
of Camden, and strongly censured the conduct 
of that officer. In 1781, though dissatisfied 
with the promotions in ihe army, in which he 
saw no chance of advancement, he procured 

from hia own means clothing and 

menta in France, retnrninc in aeaso . , 
ticlpate in theviciorvat Yorktown. He — 
made a brig.-gen. ^^a^. 26, 1783. Returning 
home, he took part in the French Revolniion ; 
tvas f<ir a lime a prisoner in the Bnstile ; took 
an active part with the royalists of La Vendee, 
and was a leader of those of Brittany, Anjou, 






ASiht 



and Potion. The execution of Lonii SVt 
gnvo bis system such a shock, that he sunk 
under n nervous malady. Gen. Armand was 

urbane and polished in manner, an eloquent and 
persuasive speaker, and was greatly beloved hj 
nil friends. 

ArmistdBd) Gborqe, Iieut.-col. U.S.A., b, 
Newmarket, Va., Apr. 10, 1780; d. Baltimore, 
Apr. 25, 1818. The ancestor of this family 
came from Hesse D'Annstadt. S broa. en- 
gaged in the War of 18ia, — 3 in the regular 
army, and S in the militia. George was app. 
!d lient. Jan. 8, 1799; capt. Nor. 6, 1806; 
msj, 3il Alt, Mar, 3, 1813; was dialing, at 
the CHplnre of Fort George, U.C, May, 1813, 
and was brev. lient -col, lor the defence of Fori 
McHenry, Sept. 14. 1814, 

Armiatead,LEWiBAi>Di8oii,gen.C.SA., 
h. Newbem, N.C., 18 Feb. 1817; killed ai the 
battle of Gcttyabntg, July 3, 1863. West 
Point, 1836 Son of Gen. Walter K. Enter- 
ing the Bih Inf. in 1839, he won the brevcta 
of capt. and maj for gallantry at Contrerai, 
Churubuaco, and Molino del Key AtChapul- 
tepee, he waa one of the slorming-party, wna 
highly dieting., and wounded. Capt. Klar. S, 
I8SS. In 1899, he com. a detachment sent 
against the Indians from Fort Mohave, Cal., 
and defeated them. Heresignedin 1661 ; wot 
made col. 57th Va. Inf.ln Anr„ and in the same 
month a brig,-gen. in the Confederate Army; 
took part in the peninsular campaign, and was 
in Ixmgstreec'a corpa in Lee's invasion of Md,, 
and waa wounded at Antietam. 

Armistoad, Walter Kbiib, brev. brie.- 
pen.. bro. of George, b. Va. ah. 1785 ; d. Up- 
perville, Va,. Oct, 13, 184S. Entering the en- 
gineer corps from West Point, Mar. S, 1803. be 
was chief engineer of the army In Canada in 
1812, and engaged at Fori Niagara, 21 Nov., 
and engineer for the defence of Chcsapcnke 
Bay in 1813-18; col. and chief engineer, Nov, 
12, 1818; inspector Milit. Acad. .Nov. 1318 
lo June, 1821 ; col. 3d Art. 1 Jnne, 1831 ; 
hrev. hrig.-gen. Nov. 12, 1828. Ho com. in 
1840-41 against the Seminoles in Florida. 

ArmBtrong, Jakes, commodore U,8-N., 
b. Shelhrrillc^. , 1 7 Jan, 1 794 ; d. Charleslowu, 
Ma., 2T' Aug. 1868. His parents emlgmted 
from Va. Midshipm. U. S. N. IS Nov, 1809 ; 
licuL 27 Apr. 1816 ; com. 3 Mar, 1829 ; capl. 
8 Sept. 1841, andcommo. 16Jnlv, 1866. Cap- 
tnreii in " The Frolic " in 1 814, V. ""« British 
frigate " Orpheus," and kept a prisoner until 
Mar. ifli. Com. the E, L squad. In 1855-8, 
and in 1857 attacked and captured the Barrier 
forts in the Canton River. Compelled by a 
large rebel force to aurrender the Penearola 
navy-yard 12 Jan. 1861, — See A'olict of Capt. 
A.'t Sereiixt in lie N. E. IT. j- G. Reg., Julg, 
1871. 

ArmstrOQKi Jamei FbahCtb, 30 years 
pastor of the church at Trenton, N.J., b, W. 
Nottingham, Md., 3 Apr. 1750; d. Trenton. 
Jan. 19, 1816. N. J. Coll. 1773. He studied 
nndcr Rev, John Blair ; waa licensed to preach 
in 1777, and scrrcd as chaplain through the 
War of Inilepcndrnce. — S/irafiie, 

ArmBtrong, Jakes F,, cnpt, U, S, N., b. 
N.J., Nov. 20, IBI6, Midshipm. Mar. 7, 1832; 
lieul, Dec, B, 1812 ; com. Apr. 27, 1861 ; capt 



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1a\T IS, 1863. He com. luamer "Siimler." 
IMt ;aUainer "State ofOeorEia/'N.A. block. 
•qud.lBSS-t; bombardment and Barrelider of 
Fort Uacon, Apr. S9, I6G:i ; comg. sieamsloop 
"Sao JadDlo,'* E. Gnir block, aqond. 1864; 
CDm. F«D«acala nar j-jnrd, iBSi~6.~HaiBenly. 
AmutroiiSi Jokk, Gcd., b. Pa. ; d. Car- 
lUle, P*., Mot. 9, 1795, at an advanced aff>. 
In 1756, he headed an exped. u col. of ihe 

Erorincial fbreea of Fa. aftainil the Indians at 
iitlaiung, deitroyed the settlement, and took 
tbe itorc* tent bj the French for the use of 
their natire alliei. For this service, the cor- 
poration of Fbila. preKnted him with a rote 
of thank*, a medal, and a piece of plate. He 
enjojed in a high degree Iho confldcnce of the 
propn'eton of Fa., and was resorted to for 
•dnce in whatever related to Indian aflkin. 
Har. I, 1776, he was app. a bri);.-|>cn. in the 
ContJDental Anny, and did Rood service atthe 
defence of Fort Monltrie and at the bnlllea of 
Brandywine and Germantown, in irhich latter 
eogageineQla,becom. the militia of Fa., hav- 
ing left the armj, Apr. 4, 1777. on account of 
diraatiilactioa in regard lo rank. Re wai in 
Congmain 1778-80 and 1787-8, and austained 
man; other honornblc oflcet. 

Amutrong, John, soldier and irriler, b. 
CarUsle, Fa-iNo*. atl7S8; d. Red Hook, 
N.T., Apr. 1, 1843. He was the youneoal son 
of Gen. John Armstrong of Carlisle. la 1779, 
while a student at Frinceton, he Tolnntaered 
in Potter's Pa. regt. ; was soon made atde^e- 
camp to Gen. Hcreer, and held a similar post 
with Gates in the campaign againat Bargojne, 
and nntil the cloae of the war, having the rank 
of maj. He was the anthor of the celebrated 
" Newbnrgh Letters," selling forth the services 
aaddeeillntionof the loldien, and arging them 
W uketneMnreefbrtheirielief. These lelteia, 
power/all; and eloqntntljr written, were in- 
tended to arouse Congress and the States lo a 
■ense of jastice to the army then sbont to be 
disbanded, and, hnt for the pmdcnce of Wash- 
ington, might have produced serious resnlts. 
After llu war, he was sec. of Stale, and adj.- 
gen. of Fa., and in 17S4 condncied Ihe vigoi- 
ooiopentions against the settlers ai Wyoming. 
App, by Coognaa in 1787 one of the Judges Ibr 
the wciiern terriionr, be declined, and having 
in 1789, m. a siaier of Chancellor Livingsion, 
removed toN.T.,paR:haaeda farm, and devoted 
himielfto agriculture. U. 8. senatorin 1800- 
!,Bndle03-t: minister to Francein 1804-10; 
brig.-cen. July fl, 1813 ; sec. of war, 1813-14, 
andeSccted manjialutarychangesinihearmy ; 
but tbe lack of saccess iu the operations against 
Cannda, and ihe sack of Washington City, made 
him unpopular, and be reaigned. He pub. 
a briefbntBble" History of tbe War of 1812," 
" Mcraoiri of Gens, Montgomery and Wayne " 
(in Sparks's Amer. Biog.), valnable ireaiises 
on Bgricultore and gardening, and a " Review 
of (rtn. Wilkinson's Memoirs." He bad par- 
tially prepared a history of the Amer. Revol. 

jiliaetrontt, Richabd, lieal.-gen. in tbe 
Briibharmy ; dTab. 1823. Entered ihe Queen's 
Rangen as capt., betame a maj., and a most 
efficient partiian officeron the side of the crown 
darine the Revol. war. In 1733. he and Capt. 
Sa(.naen were depntvd lo write Col. Simcoe a 



parting address. I-le became col. Jan. 26, 
1797; maj.-gen. Sept. 35, 1803; lieat.-gen. 
Oct.35, 1809,— Sihne,- Philipan. 

ArmBtFODS, Riohabd, D.D,, missionary, 
b. Northumberland Co., Fa., 18'J5 ; d. Hono> 
lulu, Sept. £3, 1660, from ininriea by a fall 
fiom a horse. Dickinson Coll, 1637 ; Frince- 
ton Theol. Sem. He went lo the Satidwich 
Islands in 1832 ; was 8 months a missionarv at 
Nnkahivah, Marquesas Islands; preached 5 
yean at Wallaka, and then returned to Bonu- 
Inlu to take the station vacated by Mr, Bing- 
ham's return to the U. S. Dec, 6, 1S47, he 
was made minister of instruction, and soon 
after pres. of the board of education. His 
talents were rewarded by the king's appointing 
him to a seat in tbe house of nobles and lo a 
membership in the privy council- 
Armstrong, Gen. Robebt, b. E, Tenn., 
17»U; d, Washington, DC, Feb. 33, IBM, 
He settled in Nashville; com, a company uf 
Tenn, artillery under Jackson, in the Creek 
war of 1813-14, in which be was dialing., and 
dangerously wounded, Jan. 34, 1614, at Talla- 
dega ; dialing, in command of the artillery at 
tbe battle of New Orleans ; and was brig.-gen. 
com man ding Tenn, Honnted Vols, althe bailie 
of Waboo Swamp in the Florida war, 1836. 
Fostmssler of Nashville, 1633-45; U. 8. con- 
sul at Liverpool, Eng., 1645-53 ; and suhse- 
quently editor and proprietor of the Wathiaif- 
Ion Union newspaper, and confidential adviser 
of Pres. Polk, 

ArmStronR, William Jesbdp, D.D.. sec 
of the Amer. Board of Foreign Missions, b., 
Mendham, N.J.. Oct 29, 1796 ; d- Nov. 37, 1846, 
In the wreck of Ihe steamer " Atlantic-" A- M. 
ofN-J. Col]-I81S; D.D. 1840. Son of the Rev. 
Dr. A. Armstrong. After three years of theo- 
logical study, he was sent to Albemarle Co., 
T*-, as a mtssionnry ; was pastor of a church 
in Trenton. N.J„ three years, and in 1634-34 
was pastor of the First Fresh, Church in Rich- 
mond, Va. In 1334, be was app- sec. of the 
Presb. Board of Foreign Missions for Va. and 
N.C., iindat theiiame lime general agent of tbe 
Amer, Bonrd of MisBions for these Stales. In 
Sept. of Ihnt year, be was app. successor lo 
Rev. Dr. Wisner, sec. of tbe Amer. Board, In 
Apr. 1838, nfier a residence of two years and 
a half St Boston, he removed to N. Y. A 
memoir of his life, with a collection of his ser- 
mons, edited by Rev. HolMs Read, was pub. 
N.Y„ 1853, 

ArmBtrong, Wit4.iAM Morris, capt, 
D.S N., b. Ky., 1797; d. Norfolk, Va-, June 21, 
1B6I. Midshipman, Nov. 14,1814; lieut -Mar. 
3, 1821 ; commander, 8ept. 8, 1841 ; capt. Mny 
24, 1845. 

Arnold, Benedict, gen. Revol. army, in- 
bmous for attempting lo betrav his counirv, 
b. Nomicb, Ct., Jan. 3, 1741 ; 'i. Lend.. June 
14, 1601. In bis youth he was mischievous, 
bold, and turbulent. Apprenticed to nn 
apothecary, he rnn away, enlisted aa a soldivr, 
but soon deserted ; was a drugjpsl and biiuk- 
scller in New Haven in 1763-7 ; was afierwiirj 
master and supercargo of a veasel iradinj lo 
the W. Indies, and bivame a bankrupt with ihc 
repulntion of dishonesty. ImmcilLBtely afiei 
tbe battle of Lexington, he raised a voluniui-i 



i,v._iOOi^le 



AIOT a 

eompanj' with which he marched to Cambridge, 
liroposcd to ihe Mb. Committee or Safec; the 
capture of Ticonderogn, and, being commiB- 
eioned a col., joined Allen's part; in that 
affair in May, 1775. Sept. 16, wLihnb. 1,000 
men, he bcfcan the march through the wilder- 
nesa of Maine, hanai; the captnre of Qaebec 
ts its object, and displaying the qaalitiea of an 
able Gocamaader. Wounded in the leg in tbs 
asfiault Dec. 31, in which Montgomery waa 
killed, he Will jiromolediJun, 10,1776, to brig.- 
^en. Placed in command of a flotilla of small 
vessela on Lake Cbamplain. he. encountered a 
Btiperior force Oct. 11, 1776, and, though ha 
exhibited great skill andbraTcry, was defeated. 
"Congreaa, early in 1 777, deeply o&nded him by 
promoting 5 of his juniors lo the rank of mqj,- 
gvn. Though his appointmentto the same grade 
HSB afterward dated Teb. 17, 1777, the aflhint 
still rankled in his heart. He was inrolvcd in far 

3ucnt diffloultiea by bis violent temper, andbla 
inhonesty in pecuniary iraniactiotii. In Ang. 
1777, he relieved Fort Schuyler, then invested 
by Ihe British and Indians. At the battle of 
Bemla' lieights, Sept. 19, 1777, be com. the 
left wing, bnt resigned the poat aoon afterward 
in conseqoanco of a quarrel with Gen. Gates, 
who appears to have been jealous of him. He 
fought with desperate courain as a volunteer 
without command in the decisive battle at Still- 
water, Oct. 7 ; WHS in the thickest of the fi^ht, 
and, being the highest officer on the field, his 
orders were obeyed when practicable; ihongh 
all accounts stale that his conduct was rash in 
the extreme. Again severely wounded in the 
leg, he was dlanbled for several months, during 
whi> b Cnngresa accorded liim his full rank. In 
Juno, 1778. bewaa app, I he command of Phila. 
He lived here extravagantly, ran deeply in 
debt, and endeavored to sustain himxelf by 
acta of peculation and rapacity. In 1779, he 
m. Marcarci, dan. of kdward Sbippcn of 
Phila. Chains were preferred aueinsl him ; 
and Jan, 26, 1780, he was senlenced bya court- 
martini lo receive a reprimand Iruin the com- 
mander-in-chief. This, ihouuh mililly adminis- 
tered, wa* ill receivi'd, Arnold Iiavinu6 months 



erv, he sought and obtained [he command uf 
West Point, the " Gibral tar of Americii," which 
hi- proposed to betray into iha hands of Sir II. 
Clinton, who had employed MaJ. Andrfi in the 
iicgoiiation. The capture of Andni, Sept. 83, 
1780, Id to the uxpoaure and ilefirat of the 
plot: and Arnold narronly escaped {Sept. 95] 
111 the British aloop " Vulture." For hia deser- 
tion, he is siud to have received as indemnity 
.£6,^15, and the gra<le of brig.-gen. in the 
British service. App. to command an exped. 
aj:ainst Va. in Dec. 1780, be ascended the 
.lames River, and inflicted great injury by bnm- 
iiig and pillatw- In SepL 1 781 , he led another 
expcd., which took bort Griswold, Ct. by 
asduull, massacred tbe garrison after they had 
surrendered, and burned New London. In 
1782, ho ■■om. Ihe "American Leeion." He 
ifterwanl resided chiefly in Eng., where he was 
"thnnned and deapiseil by everybody excopt 
'^■^'■'-* and a few persons in authority," '- 

Id. in ITiUk-V hp ma Hi Rl .Inhn'a 



3 AUXT 

engaged in trade and navigation, bnt was ren 
nnpopniar, and was hung in effl^. Hia wil^ 
d. Lond., Aug. St. 1804, a. 43. Hia aon Jamea 
Bobernon became a gen. in the British anny. 
— Sie Sparta's Life of Arnold in Amtr, Biog. 

Arnold, Bekbdiot, b. Eng., Dec. SI, 
1615; d. Jane, 1678. He realded in Provi- 
dence aa early as 1636. In 16S7, he withCod- 
dington, pnrchaaed of Ihe Indians the laland of 

SQononoquat, afterward called Jameftown. 
'inthrop sp^ka of him at " a great friend of 
Massacbosetts, especially in n^otiatiofia with 
the Indians, he having a perfect knowledge <^ 
their language. In 1653, he removed to Nev- 
pon; vraa made assist, in 16S4; pre*, b; the 
Boya] Charter in 1663, and so eootiaiied ibr 8 

AxnolA, Gborob ("HcArone"), editor 
and poet, d. Strawberry Farms, NJ., Nov. 3, 
1S65. Widely known as the anthor of the 
" McArone Papers," some biographical works, 
and by contnbulioas to Yeottlg Fair, the 
Leader, and Other joamata. Some of faia 
poem* are of remarkable sweetneas, He served 
with honor in the Union arm^ daring the 



civil war, doing duty a long time 

the forta on Staten Island. Hia poetical pi 



of 



were collected and pnh. in 1S6' ; "Drift and 
other poems, edited by Wm. Winter, in 1868. 

Arnold, Isaac N., M. C.from IH. 1861-5; 
author of a" Lite of Abraham Lino^n," 1S66; 
b. Hardwicke. OBego Co., N.T., Nov. 1818; 
adm. to the bar in 1835, settled in 1806 in 
Chicago, where he waa prominent in politiCB, 
and waa in 1865-6, sixth auditor U. S. trees. 
— Lanman. 

Arnold, SiajAMEHRoBEBTtoii, aBritish 
gen., b. Phila., 1T80 ; d. Lond., Dec. 87, 1854. 
His father waa Benedict Arnold tbe traitor. 
Entering tba royal engineers in 1798, he at 
tained the rank of col. ; waa transferred from 
that arm in 1841, and became a lient.-gun. 
in 1851. He was commanding engineer at 
Nova Scotia and N. Brunswick in 1816-33; 
displayed great courage in tbe attack on Su- 
rinam, where ho waa dangeroualy wounded, and 
became aide-de-camp succesaively to William 
IV. and Victoria. In person and features, he 
bore a striking resemblance lo hia bther. 

Arnold, Dr. Johathar, atatesman, b. 
Providence, R.I.. Dec. 14, 1741 ; d. St. Johna- 
bury, Vt., Feb. 1, 1799. He waa a member of 
the A^isembly in 1 778, author of the act of 
Mar, 1776, repealing the laws providing for the 
oatfi of allegiance to the mother-country, 
member of the Old C!ongreas in 1782~4, eiid 
autgeon in the Revol. armv. After the war. 
moved lo St. Johnsbury, Vt., where he was 
judge of the Orange County Court from 178! 
till bis death. 

Arnold, Jo»iab Lthdoh, poet, b. Provi- 
dence. Apr. 32, 1768; d. St. Johnsbnn, Vt, 
June 7, 1796. Dartm. Coll. 1788. Son of 
Dr. Jonathan Arnold. Alter graduating, he 
taught school in Plainflcld, Cl., tben stndied 
law in Providence, and was adm. to prac- 



n lTTO-8, he w 



bury. His poems were collected after liii 

deaih in a small volume (pnb. 1797), with * 

St. John s, N.B., blugraphical preface signed James Burrell, jun 



lyV^ioo^^le 



JLRN ST Aicr 

[t oompriK* trunhiiooB and Jmitatioiu of Arpiii, Paul, joarnaliBt, b. France, >B1I , 

Horace, short dmeriptive piixci, & humoraiu d. N. Y. Ciij, IS liny, 18S5. Long i-diior uf 

•clogae, and s few longii. — Ougcttnck. the ^V. Orlrant Bee, later, of the Courier i/a 

£noH, Lakoei. Uabtimob, BUlesmBn, ^lau f/nii, und a contrib. to the "New Amer. 

■on of Ur. Jonathan, b. St- Jubmburj, Vt., Cyclopndla." 

Jan. 39, 1793; d. Kingston, R.I., Jane ST, Arrington, Alpbed W., lawyer, h. Ire- 

1663. Danm. Coll. 1811 He practised law dell cJTl'-C., Sept. ISIO; d. Chii-^ro, 111., 

in Frondence in 1814-21 ; Iben engaged in 31 Dec. 186T. Son of Archibald (M. C. 

iDnnnfactDiv*; was a qjomber of the council 1&41-S). In 1SS9-34, be was a Mutho<li>t 

(Inriog the Uurr Bebcllion in 1S43-3 ; gov. of preacbei in Ind. and Mo., diBplajing uren ul- 

R. I. 1831-3 ; U. C. 184&-T, and reprc«eal«il oqnence. Adm. to the Mo. bar, be iviuoved ab. 

Proridence in ihe Oeneral Auenbly in 1836 to Ark., attained distinction ; visa teni lu 

1036-31. tbe 1««isl.; was judgeorthe 12tb Diat. of Tex. 

Arnold, Lbwis G., brig.-gon. V. B. Vota, in lSSU-6; nettled in Chicago in 1857, and hail 

b. N.J.Det. 1815, WettPoint, 1837. Entering a high repulatian as a constJtational lawyer 

Itie Sd Art., be won two bniTets in Mexico A fine scholar and wriliv, he conlrili., unilei 

by his galhintry at Contreros and Cbarubnaco, the nan lU piumt of " Charles Snnunerileld," to 

whera he coin, hii cumpaiiT, and at Chapul- the DtmocratieBai. aad Sovtiera Lileran/ iUt- 

lepec He was afierward tusttng. io Flonda, teiger. 

coBmaodinit a deuchmenc-in a conflict with Arthur, Sir Gboiob, ban., a Briiisb 

a large farce of Seminoles at Big Cypreu, staleamm, b. Jane 31, 1784 id. Sept. 19, I8M. 

Apr. 7, 1856. May IS, 1861, made mnj. 1st He early Bncered the annj, in which be aiiained 

ArL, and Jan. 34, 1863, brig..gtn. vols., serr- high rank, and, aftar being saceesiivaly mv. of 

ing with tbe forces at N. Orleani. Lieut.<ol. Honduras and Van Dieman's Land. Mar. 33, 

Sd Art. Ang. 1, 1863. Retired Feb. S, 1864. ieSB,watapp. lieal.-gor.of UpperCanada. His 

He serred at Fort Pickens in I86I-3, was in measures to suppress tbe rebeilioo of 1837-8 

the repulse of the rebels on Santa Rosa Island, were pmdent, Tigoroas, and succasshl, and, 

Fla., Oct. 9, isai, and com. tbe Dep't of Fhu with ibe aid of Sir John Colbome, peace and 

F«b.-Oct. 1 8G3 id. South Boston Sep. 2S, 1871. harmunj were complelulj restored. In 1839, 

Arnold, I'bleo, man? years cbiefjoitice on the union of the province*, and the app. of 

of the Snpreme Court of R. I.; d. Smilhfield, C. Panlett Thompson as first gaT..gBD. of Cao- 

R.L, Feb. 13, 1830, a. e8. He was a member ada. Sir George letumed home, and was imme- 

of the Assembly, and a deleuvte to CoDgress dialcly app. ^r. of Bomliuf , — Morgim. 

in 1786-8, when he was app. judge. Arthur, Tiuothy Suii, autJior, b. near 

Amolid,RlCUaKi>,brav. mnj,-gea.,b.Pn>T- New burg, Orange, Co., N.Y., IBU9. He had 

ideocfl, B.I., IS Apr. 1838. West Point, 1850, little education ; was apprenticed to a trader in 

Son of QoT. L. H. Arnold. Entering the ai^ Baltimore; wasforseTi^ years a clerk, and, in 

tiUerr, be serred in Florida; was aide to Oeo. 1833, visited the West as at,-enl of a baukiut; 

Wool in Cal. ; cunt. Atb Art. Jtne, 1861 ; serred company. On bis leturn lo Baltimore, where 

at Boll Bon, and throngh the peninsular cam- he pub. a newspaper called the AiheiioMia, l\i 

paiga; app. chiefof an-LoQen. Banks's exped. began a serieitof short novels, chieSv of adu- 

in Not. 1BS3; brig..gen. vols. 19 Nov. 1863 ; nestic character, which have been widely cir- 

rendered important service at tbo siege of Port cnlalcd in newspapers and in cheap ediLioos, 

Hudson, and in tbe Bed River campaign; was and wcrcqnile popular. For several yean, Mr. 

afierward also chief of cavalry dept. of tbe Arthur has been en^nagcd in joumatism. and 

Gulf; oontrib. greatly to tbe reduction of Ft. hnsresidedin Fhila.b>nce 1841. In connectiun 

Morgan in Mobile Bay. in Aug. 1364 ; was with W. H, Carpenter, be prepared a scries of 

brer. maj.-gcD. tola. 23 Aug. 186S ; and Aug. school bistorieaofscveraloflheSlates. Among 

1666, brcT. maj.-gen. U. S. A.^BartUa'i his hiler novels are, "Out In Ihe World,'' 

R. I. Officm. "Nothing but Money," and " Our Neighbor:-." 

Arnold, SaiiuEL Obibns, hiatorian and Axtigas (HMee'.giLt), Josfc, a Montevideaii 

mliiician, b. Providence, R.I., 13 Apr. \»H. gen., b, ab. 1760 ; d. Nov, 1835. During iliu 

B.U. 1S4I. Camb, Law School. 1845, and adm. msurrection of the Spanish colonies, tht fale of 

lolbe R. L bar. After travelling extensively in the new republic of La Plata was for soma time 

Europe, in the East, and in S. Amer., be be- in his hands. In 181 1, while acapt. in the royal 

came, in 1853, lieut.^i. of B. I., being the army, he entered ihcserviceof Buenos Ayre^ In 

only man elected on the Whig ticket. Was in eonseqncnceof a quarrel with (he gov. ol'^antu 

1861 a del^ale to the peace convention ; waa Sacramenio, and, gaining a victory over iliu 

anin lieut-gov. of the State ; took the field in rayatists at Las Piedras, the junta of Buenos 

1661 in command of a batteir of artillery, and Ayres speedily invested him with the command 

at aide-d»camp to Out. SpragiM ; was again oran army with which besoon brought the Bra- 

tieuu-gov. in 1863, and U. S. senator in IB61, siliaii Government to terms. Having withdrawn 

tot the pnexpirnd tennof J, F. Simmons, serv- his troops from tbe siege of Montevideo, ihe 

ing oo the commilleQ on naval affairs. Author jealousy and suspicion of Posadas, the director 

of a valuable " History of B. L," 7 vols., of the junta, were aroused ; and ArtigaH was 

1859-60; tbe article on "Trisiam Bori,-e»" in outlawed. Placing himself at the beadof the na- 

"Applnon ■ Cyclop. ; " " Spirit of H, 1. Hisio- tive cattle-drivera of La Plata, called Gaachos, 

X," a discourse before the R. I. Hist Soc, 17 he made himself master of Santa FiJand Mon- 

D. 1853 ; an address before the Amer. Insti. levideo in 1815, and compelled the junta to 

Mte, N. Y., Oct 1850; addresses, articles in recosnixehim as IndepeiidciitchiEfof the Ziuiidii 

ibe iVorlA Aaterkaa and ChriaioH Raitw), &c. OriaOai, In 1816, the Portuguese again en- 



i,v-_iooi^le 



dwTored to extend thcdr lerriiorr lo the La tion, retettiedbr aciof Congrcsa. Heaftorwm 

I'lata. but, after KTcral engagemettta, were serred during the Iriiih relKllian, and allaioed 

forced to leave Artigaa in poasesaioa of the the grade of gen. June 4, 1814. 

cOQDtrj. In 1830, Jutigoi became master of J^hburton, Alsxandss Babikq, lord, 

Ibe capital, ia conaequeact of the government many j'eara the head of the great mrrcaniile 

haTJnii lent itself to a plot for the earabliahment houae " Baring Brolhera &, Co.," b. 1774 ; d. 

of an hereditorj goTemmenc, but was defeated Maj 13, 1S4S. Son of Sir Pmncia Baring, 

in a decisive battle ia Oct. 1820, and was, an- After a basineis-edncation in Lund., came lo 

til Ilia death, a captive in tbe hanila of Francio, the D. S. to co-operate in the buslneis of his 

dicwturufParaguu;. He was BctiTB and bravo, Brm. From IB13, until he was raiaei! lo tbe 

and podKUed an indomitable will. peerage in 1B35, be was a member of parlia- 

Aeboth, Ai^iANUKB Sandob, bng..gen. meat. Commencingpoliticajlifeasa Whiii, he 
U.S. Vols., b,Ke^zEhuly,Co.□fZaln, Uungar}!, became, on the formation of the Poel ministry 
Dl-c. 18, lail; d. Buenoa A,vns, Jan, 21, ISflS. in ISM, pres. of tbe Board of Trade, la 
He studied at UeJenbura, served in the Ana- ISIS, he was app. by Peel a apectal commis- 
ii'ian BTinf , and afterwardu devoted himself lo aioner to settle tbe Uaine boundary dispote, 
engineering, AttacbiDgbimselftotheLiberats which then threatened to inrolre us in a wai 
□n theoutbteokof tbewarof l8tS-9,heetitered with Eng. In comunction with Daniel Web- 
ilic Hungarian ormj, look part in several bat- atcr, on the part of tbe D. S., an amicable sei- 
ilea, anil at the close of the mruggle was adj.- ilemetit was el&cted. known as the Aslibnrlon 
gen, of 4he army. Accompanying Kossuth to Treaty. Iti 1T98, Lord Ashbarton m. thedau. 
Turkey, be shared hia coDbnemenc at Kaiaiah, of Wm. Binffbam of Phila. 
and on their release, in tbe antumn of 1851, ABhb;,TDBHBB,brig,.gea,C.S.A., b. Bom 
came in the frigate " Uississippi " to the U. 8., Hill, Fanquier To,, Va,, 1824; killed near Har- 
of which he became a citizen. He was aucces- risonbur);, Va., June 6. 1862, in a ibirmish pre- 
gively a tarmer, engineer, and manufacturer, ceding the buttle of Cross Keys. Ilia grand- 
until, ia tbe spring of 1861, be o&ered bit set- hither, Jack Asbby, waa a capt. in Marshall's 
vices lo goverameal, and in July went as chief 3d Va. re(;t. in the Revol, war. He engaged in 
of Fremont's itoff to Mixaonri. Sept. 2B, he the graiu-baBiness at Markham, Vo,, and waa 
waa made brig.-geu,,aQd in Fremont » western afterward a fiurmcr anil politician. When the 
cHmpnign com. tbe 4th diiiBlon. Hia diviaioa civil war broke out, he raised arcgt. of Cavalry, 
formed the rearguard on the relreut to Itolla. and, being an accomplished horstiman, soon b«- 
Ue took an active part in Gen. Cunis's winter came celebrated. Uewnawtdi Gen. T. J. Jack- 
campaign in Ark., and was prominent in the 3- son, covering the retreat of his army before the 
day>' baltteof Pea Ridge, where he was severely advance of Qen. Banks, and subsequently of 
wuunded. In Feb. 1863, he com. at Columbus, Qen. Fiemotit up the Shenandoah, atid daily 
Ky..and in Aug. wui assigned To the command skirmishing with the Union vanguard. In May, 
ol' W. Florida. In the fight at Mariana, Fla., 1863, be was app. a brig.-gtn. Confcd provig- 
Sept. s;, 1 864, bis luft cheek bone was broken, ional armv. ■ 

ind his left arm fractured in two places. Brev. Ashe,' Johk, gen., b. Kng., 1721 ; d. Du- 

mnj.-grti.fur his>erviceainFla.,iUar.l3,ia6fi,' plin Co., N.C., Ucl. 24, ITBI. He came to 

rvsigned Aug. 1865. The wound in his face fi- Amer. with bid father, wbo settled on Cape 

nally caused his death. App. minister to tbe Fear River, N.C., in 1727. He was some 

Argentine Republic April i, IS67. years in the Colonial legisl., and was speaker 

Asbury, Fbancis, bishop of the M. E. m 1763-S ; warmly opposed tbe Stamp Act, 

Churcb, b. Haadsworth, Stanbrdshire, Fag., and. at the head of an armed force, com- 

Aug. 20, 1745 ; d. Spottsylvanla, Va., Mar. pelled the stamp-master to resigti. Aa a col. 

31, 1816. He became an itinerant under Wes- of militia, he aided Tryon against the Reg- 

k-y ia hia 23d year; came lo the U, S. in 1771 ; ulalorii in 1771, but aoon became a zealous 

in 177^ was app, by Wesley general aupt. in republican, A member of tbe letrisl., of the 

Aravr., and held the office throughout the Rer- committee of eorrespondenee and of safety, he 

ulution. At the peace, tbe Methodists in this was exceedingly active and vi^tant ; was one 

country organized as a body separate from tlie of the first projectors of a Provincial Congress ; 

Church of Eng. ; and Aisbary was consecrated with SUO men, destroyed Fort Johnson, in 

bishop by Ur. Coke in 1784. For 32 years, 1775, and was denounced as a rebel. Member 

Bishop Asbury travelled yearly Ihroiigh the of the lint Provincial Congress, he raised and 

V- S.. ordnining not leaa than 3.000 pteacbera, eqnijqied a regt. at his own expense ; was 

HUil ]>reiiching about 17,000 aermonn. app., Apr, 23, 1776, brig, of Wilmington dia- 

AagiU, SlB CBABLKS,bart,a British gen., trict, and, at the close of 1778, joined Lincoln 

l>. 176r;d.jDlrS3, 1823. Son of Sir Charlea, in S. C. After his surprise and defeat by 

alderman of Ijondon. Entering the 1m fool Gen. Prevost, at Brier Creek, Mar. 4, 1779 

guards in Feb. 1778, be became a ciipl. Feb. 3, be returned home. Wilmington became a 

1781, and, joininft the army under Comwallis British poat in 17S1 ; aod Col. Ashe and his 

in America, was included in the surrender at family suffered mncb at their hands. Made a 

Yorklown. By order of WnBhington,ihecap- priMjiier, he contracted the amallpoi during 

tured otncers of hU rank drew lots, ibat one bis confinement, of which disease be died. 

niiglit suffix in retaliation for ilie execution AHhe, John Baftistb, soldier and states- 

oftbeAmer.eapl. Buddy. Tbe tut lell upon man, b. N. C, 1748; d. Nov. 27, 1802. Son 

Aijiili; but by the intervention of the Kreneh of Gov. Samuel Aabe. In 1776, hewasacapl. 

Siieen, to whom bis mother bad made most pa- in the Cunlinental service, and closed bis mili- 

K'tic appeals, he was, after S months' deieu- tary career at Eulaw, a lieul.-col. He wa* ■ 



t.Google 



amnberof tlw Stale legl*!-, ilelegate to the 
old CongTHi in 1767-8, M. C., 1790-3. 
Elected gov. of N. C., bat died b^re liii in- 



"'S^%°S 



HUiL, ton of the preced' 
ir FayclteTille, S.C.. Mot. 



J, Samobl, juriat and «tate«m>n, bro. 

of Gen. John, h. N.C., I7S5; d. Rocky Point, 
N.C.. Ft*. 3, 1813. He wM a Itwjrr, md 
exhibitrd hia patfiotisni and talenis in the 
coancil of sajely. In the Congreu of N. C, of 
vbich he was a leading member in 1774-4, 
and also ui a loldierin someof theemcr)(encies 
ot the limea. Cblef>ttice of N. C. in 1T7T- 
96, BndKOT. ofN. C. in 1795-8. 

Ashe, Col. S*iiui 
ID^, b. 1763; d. neart . 
10, 1834. lie was a Rcirol. taldier ; 
priAiner at the cnptnre of Charlmon in 1 780, 
aiul, after hia pxchanj^, served 10 the end of the 
war; first tmijer Lafajelte, and finally under 
G«ii. Greene. He ■iibaeqaeoilj represented in 
the Stale Assembly the eonnty of Kew Hnno- 
OTCT for mnny yean, tie was a man of great 
kindnesi and beiierolenoe. 

Ashe, TnoHis, clerk, on board his Majes- 
it's ship, " The Richmond," sent oat in 1680; 
pnb., on hisretnm in 1683, " Carolina; or, ■ 
De^ription of the PrewnC Stale of that 
Country, and the Natural Eieellencet tbereoF," 
tv. It forms ZB 8vo pages in the retirint In 
Carroll's HisL Coll. ofS. C. — ft..ycii.ct. 

Ashe, Thob., called Capl. A^anEngli-h 
trareller, author of " Travel* in America in 
1S06 ; " d. IB35. 



John, one of the selUcn, in 1733, of Hoas- 
satonnnc, afterward ShclBeld, who d. there 
Sept. 1, 18oa, a. 91. Gea A. com. the militia 
which dispersed the insurrectionary force of 
Shay's at Sheffield, Feb. 36, 1787. He was a 



and sobaequenlly of Decrfleld, Mb., b. 1713; 
d. there Juno, 1787. Y. C. 1730. Ord. 1738. 
He was a man of stron); mind ; was an earnest 
and pnngent preadicr, and a warm loyalist, 
in conseqaence of which, and of the impradent 
boldoesB with which ha expressed his senti- 
ments, diScnllie* occurred between him nnd 
bis people. He pnb. a sermon on " Chnrch- 
membenhip ; " at the ordination of John Nur- 
lou, Deerficld, 1741 ; "The Great Duly of 
Charity,' 1743; "A Letter to W. Cooper," 
I74S. 

Ashley, Geh. Wiluui H., b. Powhatan 
Co.. Va. ah. 1778; d. near Boonevilte, Mo., 
Mar. S6, 1338. He emiKrated to Missouri, 
then Upper L«. ; in 1808 settled near 
ibe leau-minea, and became brig.^^a. of 
militia. In 1833, he pnijecied the " MonnCaia 
Expedition," uniting the Indian trade in 
the Rocky Mountaina with hunting and 
trapping; enlisted at. 300 hardy men in the 
butmeo, from which they realized handsome 
bnunes. Ho was the first Iient.-cuT. of Mo., 
and M. C. from 1831 lo 1837. — Zanman. 

Ashmead, Isaac, printer, inventor of 
compoaiiiou priniing-rollerv. d. Pbila., Mar. 1, 
1870, 0.80. He waiafoander of the Amer. S. 
S. Uiiioo, and aided in ealablishing the AmeT, 
Frabj^ian and the Pntli. Quarttrls lUeiea. 



AflhfflOD, Eli Poiifeb, lawver, b. Bland 
ford, Ms., June 34, 1770; d. Nonhampton, 
Haj 10, 1819. Middlehury Coll. 1807. He 
practised law in hia native town DDlil IBOT ; 
was several yean in the honae and senate of 
Mi^ ; and was D. S. aenniorfrora 1816 until bit 
resignation in Uay, 1818. He received an 
honorary degi«e from H. U. i» 1809. 

Aflbmtm, Gkosoe, Inwver and poliiician, 
b. Biandl'unI, Ms., Dec 35, IB04 ; d. Sprinc- 
field. July 17, 1870. Y. C. 1833. He settled 



Sprin^eld osa lawyer in I. 
vean in the legisl,, and was aneali 
H. C. 184^-91 ; and pros. o( the Chicago NaL 



neaker in 1841. 



Bcpob. Convention in 1860. He w 

dcbarcr and a slerlin); patriot. 

Ashmaili Jehdd], ngent of the Amer. 
Coloniiation 3oc., b. Cbamplain. N. T., Apr. 
1794; d. Aoii. 35, 1838. Burl. Coll. 1816. 
After preparing for the ministry, he was for a 
short time pnf. in the Bangor TheoL Sem. 
Removing to the Diat. of Columbia, he edited 
the neolaiieat Utpotitoiy. A pp. to take 
charge of a re-enforcement tn ihe eoloay at 
Liberia, he arrived at Cape Montserado, Aog. 
8. 1833. He was le^slslor, soldier, and en^- 
neer, laying oat fbrtifiealions, and auperm. 
lending their construction, thoiii;h Buliering 
gnal affliction from Ibo losa of bis wife, and 
laboring uoder an attack of fever. Ab. three 
months after his arrival, his (br«e of 35 men 
and boys was attacked by 800 armed ssvages, 
whom he repuleed. and ■ aecond time defeated 
(hem afew days later. Compelled by ill health 
to take a voyafn to Amer., he d. a formif^t after 
hia arrival at New Haven. He pnb. " Memoirs 
*" " '" " ' Intba 



ABhlDlui, JOBit HooKEB, legal scholar, 
b. Blandford, Ms., Jnly 3, 1800; d. Cam- 
bridge, Ms., Apr. 1, 1833. Son of Eli P. U 
C. 1818. He became a-ssociated with Judgt 
Howe and Elijah H.Mills In condactinf' a law 
achoo] at Northampton ; and, when the law- 
school at Cambridge was organiicd in 1839, 
he was app. prof there. Though he d. young 
he hod acquired a hi^h reputation. Judge 
Story, in hia fiincrel discourse, said, " Th( 
honors of the university were never more wor- 
thily bestowed," and " he gathered aiiout him 
all the honors which are usually the harvest of 
the ripest life." 

AspiawaU, Cou Thohas, b. Broohline, 
May 33, I7S6. 11. U. 1804. Son. of Dr. 
Wm. He studied law with Wm. Sullivan, 
and, at the commencement of the War of 1813, 
was a practitioner ot the bar- App. maj. 9th 
U. S- Inf, which he aided in raising. Mar. 
13, 1813, he received the breva. of lieoi.-col, 
fiir gallantry at Sackelt'a Harbor, May 39. 
1BI3, and of ro). for Brown'd sonie from 
Fort Erie, in which he lost an arm, Sept. 17, 
1814 ; and was also dialing, in Gaines's victory 
at Fort Erie. U. S. consul at London from 
1816 to 1854. Since a resident of Boston. 

AsplnVBll, William, MD., physician, 
b. Brooklinc. Mi.. May 33, 1743; d. Apr. 16. 
1833. H. U. 1764. He stadled at Phila., and 
lOPt his diploma there ab. 1768. He prac- 
tised In Brooklioe notil the Uevol. war. Ht 



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Ajarr 40 j^TK 

Mned u • rol. at Lexington, (hen m > M. C. 1637-43; U. 5. ■enitor IB43--9, and 

Rur^ran. and aricrward as deputy director of again in I65S, and chairman of the finance 

a miliiarj hoapital at Jamaica Plain. He comiDiitee. 11 Dec 1838, he introduced re- 

aftenrard engaged in inocnlation for nun]]- solves declaring that"Congn*a has no juris- 

poz, and erected hoapitali in Brookline Tot diction over the insiitntion of slavon in the 

that purpose, and adopted TBccine inocutation leveral St«Ios of the confederocj, and that all 

as soon as it was iutrodnced into the U. 8. petitions rolBtiug to slsTer;, or to iu abolition, 

Manj years s member of Iho house and seasic be laid on the table without dabate." These 

or Ma., and of the e^fecutive council, also a rotes were in force until 1S45. 

justice ol the peace, and was in politics a AthertOU, Chables HttHramET, lawjer, 

decided Republican. He was blind for scTeral b. Amherst, N.H., Aur. 14, 1773 ; d. tbere 

Timrs before his death. William, his eldest Jan. 8, 1S33. H. U. 1794. Son of Hon. Jueh- 



H physician of Brookline, d. 1818. na. He descended from James, one of the 

iUIor, JoBlt Jacob, a wealth; merchant, founders of Lancaster, Ms. ; began to prsi 
founder of the Astor Lita^rj of N. T., b. law in Amheni in 1T9T; soon estabUsbi 



WHldorf, Germany, July 17, 1763 ; d, N. Y. reputation for solid al 
City, March 39, 1S46. At ibe age of 16, he its of investigation ; and was n^ster of pro- 
joined his elder bro„ a dealer in musical in. bate fh>m 1798 to 1S37. M. C, ISta-IT, and 
sirumcnts, in London, and at 10, with a small an ardent member of the Federal party, Mcm- 
■lock of furs, began bnslness in N. Y. He her of the Siate legisl. in 18£3 aod 1B33-9. 
carried on a fur-trade with the Indians, and, He made vtilnfible contribntioas lo the coUec- 
extending his business lo the Columbia Rirer, (ions of the N. H. Uisi. Soc. 
loundcd (here, in ISll, Asioiia. He was long Atheiton, Hdmphbbt, maj.-gen., a dis- 
engaged in the Canion trade; and, by judicious tiuguished Ma. soldier; d. Boston, Sept. 17, 
purchases of real estate in N.Y., accnmulated 1S61, by a fall from his horse. He came from 
an immense fortune, the bulk of which he left Eng. ab. 163S, at which time he signed the 
to his son, Wm. B. Astor. Besides givinf; covenant of the charch at Dorchester. Adm. 
S400,000 fbr the library, he made many liberal a freeman in 1638; dep. to the General Court 
donations during his life-time. His will con- from Dorchester for that year, and in 1639, 41, 
tained, among other charitable proTisions, one and !>3, from Springfield, when he was chosen 
of S50,000 for Ibe benefit of toe poor of his speaker. CapL of the Art. Co. 1650, In 
native village. The ineidentd of the establish- 1654, and from 1664 to his d. he was assist., 
mcnt of Aslorinare narrated by Irving in his andin 1656,maj.-gen. He was much employed 
'- Astoria" and in his " Life of Capi. Bonne- in negoliaiions with the Indiana. The manner 
vilie." of his death is commenled on by Hubbard as 

Atahualpa (ii-ti-bw&l'.p(), or Atxbxu- one of the judgments of God, 

p\, last inca of Pern, strangled by order of Atbeiton, JoflaciA. lawyer and loyalist, 

Fisarro, Ang. 39, IS33. Made king of Quito b. Harvard, Ma., June 20, 1737 ; d. Amherst, 

on his father's death io 15S9, he aoon aFter de- N.H., Apr. 3, 1809. H. U. 1763. Son of 

posed his eldest brother Huescar, and songht CoL Peter of Lancaster. He studied law, be- 

iu secure his seat by the murder of his children, gan practice at Pcleisham, removed to Lilch- 

Tlie civil war which ensued enabled Fizarro to field, and in 1773, with the app. of register uf 

obtain a fboihold in Pern. Obtaining posses- probateofHilisborough Co.,io Amherst, where 

sion of the inca's person by treachery, he waa oe acquired properly, and reputation in his pro- 

for some time kept in respectful cuslody to fession. Though an open and firm loyalist, 

issue such oirlers as Ibe conquerors dictated ; and subjected to all the insults and indiL'niiies 

butac length, to prevent contention ab. the di- bestowed on sucb, ho retuaed to fly. Having 

vision of his ransom between his captors and taken the oath of allegiance lo the U, S,, he 

tbe newlr-arrived troops of Almagro, he was, was in 1779 admitted to practise in the Supe- 

after a mock trial, strangled at the stake. rior Court. Gradoally recovering his lost 

Atchiaon, David R.. U. S. senator fhim popularity, he became a member ot the Con- 
Mo., 1S41-.53, b. Froglown, Fatetla Co., Ky., venlion to adopt tbe Federal Constitution, and 
Aug. 11, 19(17. He settled in Liberty Co.. Mo., led the opposition. Uu objected to the provis- 
in April. I830;prartisedlawi wasamemberof ions concerning slaves and slavery. Subsv- 
the Mo. legisl. in 1834 and 1838; and, in Feb. quenily he was elected lo the house and senate 
1S4I. was app. judge of the Platte Co. Circuit of N. H , and in 1793 was made atlomet-gen. 
Court ; pres. pro iim. U. S. senate, 1846-9 and of the State. His last office was that ol com- 
1859-4. Prominent in the legisl. npon tbe or- missioner for U. S. direct tax. Ho was re- 
panizstion of tbe Territories ofKaososand No- markablo for courtesy, urbanity, and other 
brasko. and claims lo have originated the clause social iiasliriea. — Solum. 
in the bill repealing the Missouri Compromise. Atkinson, HsNmT.gen. ; d. June 14, 1842. 
He was a proslavery leader in the Kansas at Je^rson Barracks, &^ , a. 60. He was app. 
irunUes in 1856-7. Resides in Clinioo Co., from N. C. capt. 3d Juf. Jnly 1. 1808; intpec- 
Mo, tor-gen. Apr. 25, 1813; col. 45ih Inf. Apr. 15, 

Atberton, Chari,es Gordoh, senator, 1814; brig.-gen. May 13,1820; adjutant-gen. 

ioii of Charles H., b. Amherst. N,H., 4 July, June 1, 18S1, and com. the Weaiem army at 

IS04;d.Munct ester, N.H., 15 Nov. 1853. H. the defeat of the Sac Indians under Black 

U. 18;JS. Adtn. to the bar in 1825. he opened an Hawk, near Bad Axe River, Aug. 9, 1833. Hia 

nttiee in Nushun. niiil afterward in Dunsinble ; bro. Gen. Richard served in S.C Irtrisl-; was 

wK-i msny ye-irs a tlemoc memlier of the N. H. col. of n N.C. rest, in the Creek war (1813-14); 

le;,'isl., aud t ireu years speaker of the House, d. Person Co., M.C., Dec 3, 1831. 



t.Google 



D. ITIS. Soo of Col. Theodore. Sec of tha tweeo the people ■nd the aoldieir, who were 

Colony in IT41, chief-jiutlce to 1TS4, and mnmallf exuperated. Ijeeding his party to 

■■■■j--stn. of militU in I7A9. The Reval. de- King Street Eo utack themain guard, Almclu 

prired him of all iheie offlcea. A del^ate to •eiaol the baronet of a aoldier, knocked bim 

the Congieti at Albany in ITiM, he was one ilown, and, in the bcal discharge which fol- 

01 the committee which drew up the plan of lowed, wai the first to hll. The funcra] of 

vnloQ for the defence of the Colonies. Many the rictims was attended with great pomp and 

yean in the leKiil. and conndl ; be aUo held solemnity. The ibops were all closed, and all 

the uScei of uerk of the C. C. P., col, of the belli of (be town wer' WIed, as were ihuse 

militia, and in actiTC terrice during Che of the neighboring towns. The Massacre, as 

French and Indian wBis ; collector of Porta- it was called, was commBmoraied yearly by an 

luoalh, and sheriff. At bis dcalh, he left £S00 oration in Boston, and was effectiTolj Dsed to 

(a the Epis, Chnrcb of Portamonch, the inter- •limDlsce the Revol, sentimenu of the people. 

eat la be (peat In bread for the poor. AtTSter, Caleb, anthor, b. N. Adams, 

AtkisBon, THiai>OHE, Jnn., his sod, b. Ha., Dec. as, 1TT8 ; d. CircIeTille, O., Mar, 13, 

PumiDOQih, Apr. S9, 1T37 ; d, Oct, SB, 1769. 1867, Williams Coll, IS04. He practised law ; 

H. V. 17J7. Was a member of the eooiiei], remored to O. in ISll ; was some years 

and sec. of the Coloay, 1760-9. member of the legisl., and poscaaster of Cir- 

AtkiDflon. WiLLiiM Kino, lawyer, b. clerille; and was an Indian oommiasioaer an- 

Portsmouth. H,H., Jan. 6, 1764; d. Sept. M, der Jackson. Anthor of a "Tour lo Prairie 

IBaO, H. C. 1783. He changed his name, dn Chien in 1819," ISmo, Columhos, 1831; 

wbieii was King, from respect to his relatiTe, " Western Antiquities," 1833 ; " Writings of 

Jni^ A. ComnHncing tha practice of law Caleb Acwaler," 8to, 183S; "History of 

at Doier, N,H,, he acquired high ivpnte, was Ohio," Bto, 1838; and " Bsssy on Education," 

many years register of probate, was attorney- 1841, 

gen., and afterwanl a instice of the Supreme Atvater, Jbsekiib, D.D. (Dick. Coll. 

Coort. 1810), fimt pres. of MiddlebDry Coll., Vl, 

AJQeOi SalfUlt. JoBN, col, Rerol. army, tB0O~9 ; pret. of Dick. Coll. Pa., 1809-15 ; b. 

b. ITSSid. Rlilft., Not. SS, ITSS. He com. a S. Harcn, Ct„ 1774; d. there 19 Jnly, I8S8. 

Peansylrania company In the Preocb war, Yale Coll. 179.^. Tnior there, 1790-9. 

Ang. 37, 1776, he com. an adTancod battalion Aubert Dubayet (o-bair du-b&r-yt), 

on Long Inland, and wan made prisoner, re- Jbas Bapt. AMMtBALB, a fVonch soldier, b. 

mainint'sometimoin the hands of the British, La., Ai^. 19, 1737 ; d, Constantinople, Dee, 

He was aflcrward 8 commissioner to treat with 17, 1797. In 1T80, be was a Meat, in the r^t. 

ihelndions. Member of the Continenul Con- Boariomaii ia the army of Rocb am bean, serr- 

l^reas in 1778-83, and one of the committee on ing in America; and at the outset of the 

the mutiny of Pa. troops In 1T81. French Revol. was a eapt. of caiulry in gar- 

Atlee, WABHiNoron L., M,D., lecturer rison at Hetz, A deputy in the legialaiiTe 

and medical writer, b. Lnncoslcr, Pa., Feb. 33, assembly in 1791, he was in 1793 its pres.. and 

" " ' " a defancfer of Lafayette, Brig. -gen. in 1793, be 
'——'•" - ce, and on its surrender led the 



author of 13 pamphlets, lecture*, and addresses garrison against the Vendcans, who defeated 

on medicine, chemisirr, botany. &c. — Altibone. him at Clisson. In 1 795, he com. ihe amy of 

Atondoy AntUloll, Ibidobo, a Spanish the coast of Cherbourg, but was called lo the 



admiral coDcemed in tbe colonization of Lower ministrj of war by tbe Directory, and 3 months 

California; d. in tbe latter part of the 17th later was aont ambassador to Constantinople, 

oentarr. He sailed from Chacala, May 18, where be died. 

1683, with two vessels equipped M his own Aaberteull, Hit.i.ABD &', see Hilliard 

coat. Landing Oct, 6 in a gnat bay litnoced d'A, 

in latitude 16° 30', which he called bt. Bmno, Aabry, capt., Knight of Bt. Louis ; d. 

he bult a cborch, and took jMsscasion of the Feb, 34, 1770. Hade prisoner by Sir Wm. 

territory of Lower Califiimia for the crown Johnson at Niagara, in 1759, and was in com. 

ofSpain. Aftera rear'sexploration of the in- of 4 companies at N. Orleans, where be suc- 

terior, during which 400 Indians were hnptiied, ceeded to the goTemment of I^.. Fe;b.4, 1765. 

diiconragcd by the sterility of the soil, Aton- In Har. 1766, he surrendeicd the colony to 

do qnined tbe bay, retnmea to Cinaloa, where Got. Olloa, npon whose expulsion in 176B, he 

be bad rormerly reTictualled his shipi, and on- continued to administer the goTemtnent until 

gsged in pearl-flshing. Ordered bock to St reliered by Gen. O'Reilly, In July, 1769. He 

Bruno, he decllDed to lemain ihei«, and, alter then sailed for Bordeenx, and was wrccked in 

spending three years, returned. Aiondo was Ihe Qarrone, neariy all on board perishing. — 

charged with a new expedition in 1686 ; but (/CaSaghaa. 

mne took place antil S years after, when Aabrey, CoL. Tbomab, a British offlcei- ; 

FnnciBco de Hamarra undertook it, and the d. Jan. 15, 1814. Son of ^r Thomas. En 

CDlonifAtion was afterward completed by ibe sign 9Ib Foot, Oct. SS, 17S1 ; capt. 47th, I7TI, 

bthers Kino and Salva Tierrs, who accompa- and engaimit at Bunker Hill, 177S; maj. 1783. 

Died Atondo, — .Vo«r. fli«;. Goi. He sened through the Amer. war, particular- 

Attncks, CsiaPDS. a luuiniio, or holf-tn- ly disiinguishing himself in command of the 

dian, a resident of Framingham, Ms. Killed troops itpo i Diamond Island, where ha acquit- 

Mar. 5, 1 770, in the afh^y known a* the Bo*- ted tiimjeU so as to receiTe the thank* of tbe 

ciizodty Google 



Axra 4 

tomiaander in ebief. H. P. for WallingloTd, 

1734-90. 

AucblQllty, BoBEKT, an eminent lavTOr, 
d- Boaton, Apr. 17S0. His father, the deacend- 

■ntof on ancient Scotch baronial IsHiilj.Mltled 
in Eng. ; bat Bobert, after receiviog hia edacA- 
tion in Dublin, and studying lav at the Temple, 
came to this country ab. tbe commencement of 
the IBib century, and established himself at 
Boston, where he was in practica ab. the Tear 
1713. In Sept. 1733, he was made judfte of the 
Court of Admiralty; and in 1740 was one of the 
directors of the Land Bank. In 1741, be was 
■em to Enr, ai agent fur the Colim? in the 
boundary dispute with K. I. While then, be 
advocated the exped. to Cape Breton in a pam- 
phlet, entitled "TheliDporlanceof Cape Breton 
lu the Briiish Nation, and a Plan lor taking the 
Place." His talents were extraordinary ; and 
be was famoui for hii wit and ahrenrdneaa. To 
him. it is said, the profession in Ms. ia indebted 
tor (he high character it bas since maintained. 
He was a resident of Boxbnry from 1733 till 
his death. lie leA two sons, Samuel and Rob- 
en; a dan., who became the wite of Chief-Joa- 
ticc Benjamin Pratt of N.T. ; and also a third 
son James, a talented lawyer, and a judge in 
Nora Scotis. 
Auobmutjr, Robbbi, lawyer, son of tbe 

E receding, b. ^ston ; d. Marylebone, Eng., 
•ec, 1788. Hia tfreat nainral talents and in- 
dustry enaMed him to dispense wilhacoll^^le 
education. He was an eloquent and successfol 
advocate, and. with Adams and Quincj, de- 
fended Copt. Presian and the Bri^h soldien 
engaged in the Boston Massacre. He wm 



!oEng. 
a, by Franklin, ii 






perse 



h those of Got. Hut 



IT'3, and created icrem 
Auohmuty, Sauuul, D.U., bro. of the 

S receding, an Epiwoual clergyman, b. Boston, 
an. 16, l'2>l; d. N.Y., Uar. 6, 1777. H. U. 
1743. HesiudiedinEng.; wasord..and^p.an 
assist, minister of Trinity Church, N.Y., and in 
1764, upon the death uf the rector, was assigned 
tbe charge of all the churches in that city. Op- 
posed, like most of his Episcopal brethren, to 
the ReruL, he continued to read prayers in 
his cbarch lor the kinz, until Lord Stirling, 
vhile in command in N. Y„ compelled him to 
close bis chunth. When the BntUh obtained 
possession uf (he city, heresolTSd to return, but, 
not being allowed to pass the Amer. lines, ro- 
tinned on foot bj a circuitous route, after on- 
dei'going great hardships. His church and 

Esrsonaiju had been burnt to the ground, and 
is papers and the church-records all deatmyed. 
Tbe Sunday following, he preached in St. 
Paul's (or the lost lime; an illness, brought 
on by his exjioaure and hardships, terminating 
his iile in u tew days. Ue received his degree 
of D.D. from Oxford, and firam Kings Coll. 
in 1767. Trumbull calls him a " hi^h-chun:h 
clerirymnn." and makes Mm the subject of re- 
mark in " McFingal." 

Auchmuty, Sis S.imubi., a British gen., 
eon of Itcv. Sumnet, b. N.Y., June S3, 1758 ; 
d. Dublin, Aug. II, 1822. Kings Coll. 1775. 
He Totun leered in the 45th Foot in Aug. 1776; 



was in the baltlas of Brooklyn and Wntta 
Plains ; and, alter serving in three campaigns 
■gainst his connlrrmen, procured a captaincy 
in the 75th, with which he served in India from 
1783 to 1796, end was at the first si^e of Be- 
ringapalam. He was adj.-gen. to Abercrom- 
by's exped. to Egypt in 1800 ; was employed 
as a brig.-gen. in South America in 1S06; and, 
in Feb. 1807, took bj assault, after a moat de- 
termined resistance, the fbrt and city of Monte- 
video, for which be was thanked by parliament 
In 1810, be com. the forces in the Carnatic; In 
1811, reduced tbe valuable setllementKofJava 
and Balaria, was again thanked by parlia- 
ment, and, relnming to Eng. in 1813, was 
made a lieni.-gea., and in 182S commander in 
chief in Inland. 

Aodaboa, Joan JiMEB, ornithologist, h. 
S. Orleans, Uay 4, 1780 ; d. Minniesland, near 
N. Y., Jan. 37, ISSl. His father had been an 
admiral in the French navy. From his earli- 
est years, his parents trained his mind to the 
study of Nalnre. He was educated at Paris, 
where ho attained considerable skill aa a painter, 
under tbe tuition of the celebrated Darid. At 
17, he relumed home, and began a collection of 
drawings of the " Birds of America." His fa- 
ther gsTB him a farm in Pa., and he married. 
" For a period of nearly 20 years," he says in 
tbe preface to bis great work, " my life was a 
series of vicissitudes, I tried various branches 
of commerce; bat they all proved unprofitable." 
Aiearlyasieio.besuleddown the Ohio wlib 
bis wife and child in an open boat, in search of 
a congenial spot for his forest home. Devoting 
all bis energies to his bvorite pursuit, liardlj a 
region in the 0. S. was left unvisited. Wilson 
the ornithologist was his companion in some 
of bis We.<tem excursions. In 1811, Audubon 
visited Florida, gathering by his rifle and pen- 
cil the subjects of his great work. With a view 
to its pablicaiion, he went to Phils, and N.V. 
in 1B24, and in 18S6 to Europe, to oliiain sub- 
scribers. From Herschel, Cuvier, and Hum- 
boldt, wbom he had known in Amer., he had 
a warm reception. "The Birds of America" 
ppeared in numbers, beginning in 1835, and 
' — -' ■- 4 vols., Juno aO. 1838, ex- 
its afl expectation. In ie!9, 
) U.S.; and, renewing his 
explorations, (bund materials for a new work, 
called " Omithologicsl Biographies." He vit- 
itadBng. in 1834,and,retumini; in 1839, estab- 
lished bimself on the banks of the Hudson. 
Thwe, with the aid of Dr. Bachmsn, he pre- 
pared "The Quadrupeds of America," pub. in 



was completed ii 
eeeding by its mt 
he returned Ic 



1850, Hew 



mple , 






sons, the younger of whom, John W., d. Feb. 
31, 1863, while preparing a new edition of the 
" Birds of America," afterward completed and 
pub, by his widow in 1869. 

Augur, CnBierOFHEB Colon, brig -gen. 
U.S.A., b. N, Y, ab, 1831, West Point, 1843. 
App. from Mich., he entered the 3d Inf. ; waj 
aide-de-camp during the Mexican war to Brig.- 
Gen. Hopping, and, after his death, to Ocn. Ca- 
leb Cusbing; cspt. Aug. I, 1852; and was 
in 1855-6 disting. in several condicu wiih tbe 
Indians of Oregon. M^. 13th Inf. May 14, 



i,v-_ioo'^le 



JLXT& 48 A.T78 

IS6I, he wu « ihort dme com. or ndeu M Democ or Bapobtlean dde uf tM rioltnt po- 

W«it Foim. and Not. 19 becuM brig.-Mii. of Utieal cODtroreny, wbich teraiiiut«d in iba 

roll. He wu flrstuaigned acomnuHfinUo- triamph of Jeffenon, and wu spp. bj him 

Dowdl'i corp« ; Id JdI;, I86S, took ■ diritbn eomnuMkiner of Iobds for Hi. He wu a 

io tlie M-n; corp* of Oon. Banki, and wai memberof lhflboiueaiidwnataafMa.,aQdwM 

woaod«d BUbebaKleof Cedar HouDtaiii,ADg. long knoira u a writer in the IndeptnJeiit 

9, 1863. In Oct, b6 waa a member of tti« court CbwnW«, noder the lignatnrei of ZZbnurus nod 

of itMoir; lo invwtigate theEDncnderof Har- OidSoutA. Hi» enajs ander the latter title 

Mr'fFerTT, and in Nor. wae ordered IO report to were pab. in Sio, In ISOS. His ion CB*BLRa 

Gen. Bankj for eerrico In bU Soolhem exped. attempted, in 1806, lo chastise Thoa. O 

He ivai made maj,-gen,V Ang. 1863; coL 13tb Selfridge for abase of bi* bther, and was 

Inf. Mar. 19, 1866; Mar.4, I86S, bng..gen. U. kilted by htm in Sute Street, Bonon. Selfriilga 

S. A. He won the brereti of brij^.^gen. U. 8. was tried and acqailted. 
A. at Ibe nptnre of Port Hadion, and mq.- Aostm, J^KBS Tbbootbio, LL.D., taw 

Sn.fbrterriceiiDthefielddnrinfttheUebellion. f er and aathor, b. Boelon, Jan. 7, 1784; d. 

• eom. the depL of Waabington from Oct. there May 8, 1870. H. U. 1603. Son of 

1863 u> Aug. 1866. Aadgned to the dept. of Jonathan L. Aiulia. He wai town advocate 

itw Platte in IB6T. in 1809, member of the State legist., county 

Atunir, HazBKiAs, icalptor, b. Feb. SI, stMnneyforSofiblk, 1619-83, andaltorney.Ken. 

179} 1u l}>ii«i ft • A th-vd T*M 1A lAKB nAXfa In 1040—14 TMm A^ll^a^/^ ^^ ^..a*:...- 

Not 



ii> an, and in 1897 ehiieUed a Waehinglon and M, a liiemry periodical ; waa a contributor 

aSanpho. Ha produced aerera] worka, the beat lo the Chn'itian Examiner and to Tariong poltt- 

of which is his "Jephthah and his Daughter," icai joamal*; pab, HTeral orations and other 

' the Tmmball Gallery of Tale Coll. Pos- similar prod actions, and in 1838 a "Life of 

uinKalso muchmechaDicalgenins.hisinTen- Elbridge Oerry," whoae dan. he m. In IS06. 

in of the carving machine is now in general He was an anti-Federal let, and a decided op- 



A. H. of Y. C, 1833. ponent of the antislaTery moTement. 

AOguBfUB, iiuBH, a philanthropic shoe- Austin, Jorathih LoBina, a mi 
mnkerof Buston;d. thei«JiiDe3l,189!(, a, 74. b. Boelon, Jan. 3, 1748; d. there May 10, 



'e than 30 yeatrs he attended thecrimi- 1836. H.U. 1766. SonofHon. Benj. Austin. 

nil courts for the purpoee of cndwToring to re- He became a merchant in Fortsmonth, N.H. ; 

claim the poor and untbrtanale, to whom lii* was maj, in I^ngdon's r^t, ; became aide^le- 

pom and hii hoose were alwers open. camp to Gen. Sullivan, and was sec. of the 

Anlick, JoBK H,,commo.'lT.8.N.,b. Va. board of war in Ha. nniil Oct. 1777. De- 
Midshipman, Nov. IS, 1809; masler'l male in (patched to France wlthtbenewaofBoniOTne'B 
ibe action between "The Enterpriae" and surrender, and to obtain suppliea of clotbinz, 
"Boxer," Sept. 4, 1813; lieut. Dec 9, 1814; *c., for the army,lbegoodDr. ChanncyprayM, 
com. Jfar.9,lB31;eapt.6ept.8, 1841 ; commo. that, "wbateTermightbeblltbe young maii, the 
retimdlist,Jnly 16, ISBI. Hecom. B. I.aqnad. packet might be preeerved." Arriving in Nov., 
16S9-3; d. Washington, D.C., April 17, 1879. Dr. Franklin transferred to the messenger of 

Aury', IiDls db, waa from New Grenada; such glorious tidinn the eBhclion of a fulher ; 

became alient. in tfaenavy, 9 Jnne, 1813; and constitnted him addlttonsl private sec., and 

com. the naval forces of New Qrenada at the sent him ai an agent to London. Charged 

liege of Carthagena, Sept. I, 1816, he ac- with the deapaiehea of the commlasioners to 

eompaaied Herrera to Texas as commo. of the Congresi, he arrived in Phila., Haj-. 1779. 

nniied eeeti of the Bepablica of Mexico, Vene- Sent to Europe by the State of Ms., in Jan. 

aaela, La Plata, and New Grenada ; was app. 1780, to nt^tiate a loan, he was captured on 

gov. of Tex«s and Galveston Island, and held Ibe passage ; was liberated in Eng. by means 

the office nntil 1B17. In July, 1817, he aided of hie old friends, but did not succeed in bi) 

5ir Gregor McGregor in the exped, againil mission, and relumed in the Ml of 1781. 

Florida 1 and aftannrdi assisted the patriota He aerred man; years in the Bute eeuaie; 

of the South Amer. repnblics. He m. a huly repreaenied Cambridge In the l^sl., and wna 

of y. Orleans, reaided there some lime, aod succesaiTcly elected sec and ireas. of the 

waiin l84Sat Havana. Ya^nm't 7Wi. State. He delivered the oration, July 4, 1786, 

AlUtill, Datid, b. N. Haven. 17M. Tale in Boaton. —Lorin^i BoH. Oratart. 
Coil. 1779. Minister of Eliiabelhtown, SJ., AaBtlll.Coi. Jonathaii Williams, son 

from 1788 to 1T9T, when dismiised for his of Benj., a Revol. patriot, b- Boston, Apr. IS, 

wcond^dveai opinions, and ot Booab, Ct., I7S1 ; d. in a Sontbem State in the summer 

rn>miei&tohiadeath, Norwich, Feb. 9, 1831. of 1778. H.U. 1769. He read law with John 

He pub. the " American Freneher," by variooi Adam* ; waa adm. to the Su9blk bar. July 37, 

miuUien, 4 voli., " The DownlkU of Babylon," 1773; was a member of tbe Middlesex con- 

■nd lome sermoni, and edited a commentaiy vention in 1774, and chairman of the com- 

ua tbe Bible. mitlee that prepared resolutions adopted by 

AlUtia, BuiJAMiif, political writer, b. the convention. Maj. in the army of the 
Bcsion, IT5S; d. there Mar 4, 1830. Son of Revol., and in 1776 com. at Castle William, 
BcDjimin, who d. Boaton, Har. 14, 1806, a 89. He wrote poetical and political essaja, and de- 
Hit mother was a Waldo. He was a merchant livered the oration on the Boston Massacre, 
•nd a politieal writer befoto the Revol. In Mairh 5, 1 778. — Loriag't Baton Oratort. 
17B4, he engaged in buiineea with his bro, J. Aastin, Rev, Johk Mather, b, N.T., 
L Austin. He engaged lealonily on the 180S. Antnorof" Voice to Touth,"" Voice M 



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jLua 44 •A.v-jBi 

the Married," " Sundaj-Scbool Expontion," Cfairiataini, lb., Mar. 9, 1TT8; d. then 

"Life of John QaiDCf Adami," ^.—AUi- Jons 97, IStl. H.D. 1T9S. In 1801, b« de- 

tant, livsred an oralion at Charlenown ud the 

Aiutin, MoBBS, Texan pioneer, b Dor- battle of Bnnkei'a Hill. HIi "Lettera from 

ham, Cc. ; d. LooiiUno, Jane 10, 1S9I. Emi- LoodoD," writtea in 1803 and IB03, were 

grating West with bie famil? in 1T9B, he printed in Boston, Bto, 1804. Ab. 1805, be 

engagM in lead-mining from 1800 to 1830, wai wounded in a dnel irith Jamea H, Elliott, 

whenhe was at Bexar, Tex. He applied to tbe growing on i of a political newspaper alter- 

Mexican commandant at Monlerej for permia- cation. In tSOT, be pob. a vol. of tlnitarian 

aioQ to colonize 300 familiei in Tex. ; and the Tiewa, entitled " An Eoaj on the Human 

encerprise waa ancceaifnllj prosecated bj his Character of Jesns Chriit." UecDDlrib. tothe 

son Stephen F. On his retara to the Sabine Nav^England Galaxy a remarkable legendary 

in Jan. I8!1. he waa robbed, and canght a . tale, entitled " Peter Ragg, the Missing 

•evere cold, which caneed his death. Man." aod to the Ntw-Englmd Magaime the 

AUBtill, Saxcel, D.D. (Williami Coll. paper " The Lata Joeeph Nattentrone." He 
1807), pre*, of the U. of Vt {I8IS-SI ), b. New waa eminent at the bar of BifkXk and Middle- 
Haven, Ct., Oct. 7, I7E0; d. Olatienbnrjt, Cc, aex. — ZWii'iiat. 

Dec. 4, 1S30. Y.C. I7B3. He spent two AuticEamp d' {do-te^bOn'), Autoinb 

years in teaching, and in the atady of divinity ; laaxea EdlaiiIz db Bbavmoit, Cohtb, s 

was ord. at Fairhaien, ITov. E>, I7SS, bnt was French gen., b. 1744 ; d. I8SS. Be served in 

dijmisMd Jan, 19, 1790 ; and was man; yoars Conica, where he waa womtded at the aSkirof 

pastor of the Fint Cong. Chnrch at Worcester. Foategolo. Returning to France, be became 

Here be became celebrated for his eloqnence col. of the inf. regt. of Agenoit, and led it in 

and learning, and aeonired great popnlarity. America under Rocbambean, diaiingnishing 

In isai, to took charge of a small and bimaelf at Yorktown and at the taking of St. 

peconiarily-embarraased congiegatjon at New- Chrisiopher'a, where be had the tnisfortane to 

port, R.I., once nnderthaeareof the celebrated lose his eldeat son. Daring the Rctol., he 

Dr. Hopkins. Increasing age and inftrmitiea emigrated, aerved in all the eampsigna oF the 

occasioned hia return to Worocaler in 1825. anny of Cond£, and retnmed lo Fnncednring 

For the last three years of his life, he was the consnlate. 

partial If deranged. He pob. "A View of Che AtbIos y Fignera (&-rt'-loa ete-g&'-ra), 

Charcb," 1607; "Lettera on Baptism," 180S; dox Biboo db, anibor of " Miscellanea Auk- 

" Reply to Merill's Letters," IB06 ; " Disserta- tral," lima, 1S08 ; win of a noble family of 

tions on Several Fundamental AiUclei of Ecija, and left Spain on account of a hopelei^s 

Christian Theology," ISOfi; a number of passion. The fast IS chapter! of his book, 

sermons, oraCioQi, and addressee, also nomer- which ia in prose and vene, tre*tof tbebislory 

OQS concribncioaa to the periodicals of bia time, and anciqnitiea of Peru. 

— Spraipu. AVBU^Ur (diii'vu-gooi'), Fibbre ■>[[ 

Austill, Stbpbbh F., founder of the Brat Bois, Babon d', gov. of Canada, 16SI-3; 

Amer. coLln Tex., aonof Hoses; d. Dec. £7, killedin 1664, whiledefendingthe fort of Serin 

1836. Leaving Natchitochea, July 5, 18S1, to in Croatia against the Turks. He hiid gained 

proseeuia the grani for the formation of a distinciion in the wars of Hangary, and, being 

colony previoniuy iasned to hia fother, he of resolute and unbending character, whs, 

went to (he dty of Mexico, where it was con- while gov, of New Franco, conatanllv en^g>-d 

firmed Feb, 18,1823. By it he was invested in disputes witJi the clergy, espcciallywithBish- 

with almost absolute power over the colonista op Laval, who cauaed hrs recall In 1662, he 

of Austin, tben the capital of Tex., Che site made a treaty with the Onondaga, Cavuga.aiid 

of which he selected. A convention met Mar. Seneca nations. — Morgan. 

1, IS33, without the coiKurrence of the Mex- Averell, Gbh. Wk.Woodi, b. Camrmn, 

ican pDpuiaiiDn, to form a State constitution ; Stenben Ca.,N.¥.,Nov, 6, issa. W.PL1SS5. 

and Austin was one of the delegates to Che Entering thsmonniadriSes,hedtating.himaelf 

central government at Mexico, to obtain its in N, Mexico by the sorprise and capture of a 

ratiticiiiion. In consequence of the delays he partyof Kiowa8TnDec.1857,and wasseverely 

met with, he recommended a union of all the woanded in a nlght4ttack by the Navsjoes in 

municipalities, and the orsaniialion of a Slate tbeautQmaof 1SS8. IM lient. 14 Hay, 1861 ; 

nnder the Ada Coiatitutiva of May 7, 1BS4. col. 3d Pa. Cav. ; capl. ad O.S. Cav. 1 7 July, 

Arrested, and taken back to Mexico, he was 1862; brig.-gen. vols. 116 Sept. ISfia. Hclook 



detained until SepL 1835. Finding the part in the baKkB^f Williamsburg, Malvern 
country in a stale of confuBion and insecnritv Hill,Bndof Pope'scampa' ' ' 
upon his return, he look part with Iha revol. re-enforced Pt^sonlon i 



parly ; was pnt in command of a small fbrce, army after Antietam ; waa brer. maj. for Ed- 

andunderlooklodrivetheMexicanaoutof Tex. ley's Ford, Va., where he com. 17 Mar. 16SS ; 

Oen. Houston was elected to the command of com. the 3d div. of Slonemao's caval. corps 

the armj in Nov. 1S35; and Auitio was made of Hooker's army; won adedsive victory over 

commissioner to the U,8, He returned to a force of 4,000 rebels at Droop Mouoinia, 6 

Tex, in July, 183S, and, at the time of his Nov, 1863, for which he was brev. lienc-col.; 

death, was engaged in negotiations to obtain and Ihot, col, 15 Doc 1863, forservices in the 

the olBcial recognition of Texan independence. Salem axpod. in Va. He served in Wesi Va. 

A biography of him by M. B. Lamar was said nnder SJegel. Hunter, and Sheridan In 1864, 

Id have been prepared. and waa in Che actions of Winchester, Moor- 

Auatin, WlLXlAJf, lawyer aitd antb(»', b. fleld.Opequan, and Fisher's Uill, and was bre* 



_iuot^le 



A.VK 4a A.YZ. 

B^j.-gen fbr UoorfleU, la Mar. IB6t. U.S. ATeS8ana(i-Tit-ii'^ft).J(iMPH,BiiIiatuii 

eonial-KBD, in CaiMdaiinca 1866. p«iriot,and laerchnut inN.Y.('ilv. b.at rbiuri, 

Areryi SniK^iif K., Metb. dontfiDMi, Pi^lmont, Fob. 19, 1T97. He 'foaKht iindcr 

bLC(.ab. 1709; d. PitUflsld.O., Oct. IB, 1869. Nm|ioleun in 18ia ani] U; Krred in the Sar- 

He wai DOLod for etoqaenee and abilitj', and dinian annr nniil Mar. 1B9I ; next wrred aa 

vai itationeil at Fall Bivar in IB3S-3, when eapt. of inr in the Idbeml cause in Spnln, but 

the murder and Hdoction of Sarah Maria ma taken priuDer, and came to Amtrica, ar- 

Comoll, a uamlier or hii church with whom rirInK at N. Urieani at the clove of 1BS3. In 

ha hiul been intinuite, lad to the saipicion [hat 1623, he *uiiled Mexico, obtained a ^nnl of 

he was iha nordercr. He was triud and ac- tand on the aite of the present cil; of Tani|iico, 

quitted bj an eocleaiaitical court ; and a civil and in a short time gained a competence. In 

niurt faikd to mitke a case against him : bnt IS32, he espoused uie cause of Santa AS*; 

ibe comisunitr beliered bini guilty ; and he was intrtsted with the defence of the city ; 

iTitbdren from the ministrr, and remoTed to e><>)<^ a complete rictory over Oen. Mora ai 

>}.. wher* he wa« an induatriona and blgbljT' Ciudad Victoria, and on the trinmph of the 

rcsiiected farmeT. Liberal*, rengned bia comroaiid, having been 

Avery, Waithtill, Berol. patriot, h. preTioosl; named gen. of Tamaaiipai, Coha- 

Groion. Ci.. Haj a, )74S ; d. Buiiie Co., N.C., huila, Texas, and Hnevo Leon. In 1634, be 

Mar. 19, 1631. N.J. CotL 1766. Ho studied ntablishad hhnselfia business in N.T., where 

Inw in Hd., and, in Jan. 1769, settled in pnctica he married an Irish btdj ; bnt, on the rcrol. 

ill Mecklenburg, K.C. He was prominent outbreak of 1848, returned to Italy , and was 

■noag the peiitioBers and remotistranu of that app. commanding gen. of the National Guard* 

day Bgaintt the opprsssiTB acts of the goTtm- or Qenoa. AFler an unsncoeHful struggle, he 

meat, and also in the Tamous Meeklenbarg resigned, and withdrew on board the U.S. 

Ueclaralion of Independence. In 177S,bewa* steamer" Princeton." Landing at Ci<rltaVec- 

a delegate to the Coagjrese at HiUibui^vgh ohia. be hastened to Rome, then under ■ re- 

which orgaaiied the military Ibiee of the State, publican go'emment, and wasapp. minisierof 

In Ibe summer of 1778, he joined the armj of war and com.-in-chief of the army. For two 

Geo. Rutherford in the Cherokee nation, and months, this small force kepi at bay 4 armies', 

wa.< n commissioner at the treaty of Holston, amounting to 100,000 men ; but on the night 

which gave peace to the western frontier. In the of July S, be fled in disguise, and at the close 

bll oTlTTG, bewaaagainaiiiemberorihaSlate of Aog. reached N.Y., where hobos since 

CoQgnw. In IT7I1, M vm col. of the coMttty resided. — Aml^on't Nem Amer. Cifdop. 

niUtia in ectire •errioe during the British in- Axtell, Col. William, loyaliiit, I), on the 

la 1761, he mored lo Burke Co., Island of Jamaica, I7ao ; d. Sept. 3, I7S5, at 



which ho repieaeaied many years in the Stale Chertsey, Bng. He resided many yc 

" ■■■ °"- Stateationjey'jten.of N.V., where hem. Margaret, dan. of AI 

otne year* before his Da Paystcr, a 

death, the patriarch of the N.C. bar. oonncil. May 



Ic^UI. He was the first Stateatioruey'^en. of N.V., where hem. Margaret, dan. of Ahraham 
" " ' 1777, and, for some yw before his Da Paystcr, and waa app. a member of the 



AveuOi AcooiTB d', lawyer, tLofFranch which he loat a liirge estate, he waa ool. of • 

paients in the Isle of St. Uomiago. 1777 ; d. provincial corps, became entitled to half-pay, 

Feb. 19, 1361. He was educated at a military and received ntim parliament a considerable 

aoad. in France, while his (amity was obliged sumof moneyn a loyalist. HewMdescended 

by the insnTTeetion of the Uack* to take refuge fh>mtheGelebratedCol. Daniel Astell, who wm 

in the U.S. Studying medieine in K.C, he executed by Charle* O. for the pan he look 

pnctfaed in Aceomac Co., Va. ; hut, after the in the great rebellion. Be went to Eng. in 

annexation of L«,, by adriee of bia relative, 1783. 

Eilward Livin^ton, be atndied law,and became AyCF, Pxth, one of iba fbunden of the 

distiDg., especially in criminal caaea. In the sociely of Shakers at Canterbnry, N.H., b. 

War of IBIS, be served as judge-advocate, and 1760; d. there Sept. 14, 1837. He waa a 

■id* to Jackrcn at the battle of New Urlesns. powerful and athletle man, and a aoldier of 

In IB29, Pres. Jackson app.. him sec. of l^aiion the Rerol. before becoming a member of the 

to the Netherlands, chanft d'affaina in 1831 ; sect with which he wu connected 70 years. 
and in I8tl and 1S43, he was a representative Ayeta (i-vl'-ti) Fbahoisco db, a Fran- 

in the N.Y. legisl.; cAonrf (f<ii7ai*ru to Holland, Macau friar, author of "A/ioio<iia del Oidtn de 

tS4S-9. He prepared " Itenuniscences of Ed- S. Frandteo tn la Amrriea," 1890, also "Ver- 

ward Liviiignoo," a portion of which was pub. Jad I'indieatii," or "La Vtrdad Dt/aiMtit; " 

io tbe OeiKHTatk IltBioB in 1640. the three titles, perhaps, of the lamo work. 

Avesao, Piebba Valintix DoMiitiQtni He was custodian of the ptovlnce of Sniiie 

Jt'UAH d', a Ficnob scholar, b. St. Domingo, Gvangelio, and praeurador-gen. of the Indies 

Jun. 17, 1769; d. U.S., Feb. 1. 1831. Bdu- —Owiondi. 

eaced is France, at the outbreak of the French A^on (di-U-yon), LucAa Vasquki ds, a 
Revol.. ho retnttMd lo his native island, vainly Spanish adrenlorer, who in 1503 ^aa council- 
hoping to save some of his praperly there. He lor of the superior tribunal of St. Domingo, and 
caina to N, Orleans, and occupied himself in wuHnfterwara employed by Cortes on a mission 
I'lerarv pureuils. Avesac was pres. o( the first lo Vclaaquei, who was arming against him ; d. 
eallege eelablisbed at N. Orleans. He is the 1526. In IS20, he midean expcd. lo Florida, 
author of the Fivaeh official translation of the landed near the month of the Concbahee River, 
penal code of La. Hia niece, the young widow S C, trCMcberuni>ly mode capUve a large num- 
de Uuay, m. Edward Uvingatan, author of ber of (he oaiires, who nearly all fished, 
thai code and named the eountr; " Chieora." Ho after 



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A.TL. 46 BAB 

wnrd retamed, wishing to Ibnnd ■ colony, aod tmnomi'co mbre o cammerdo de Portm/al t mM 

obiaiuHl provieions or the gov. of Chiconi, mfennu." In 1794, he wu made biahop of 

but was ruineii bj the expense. He l( tielieved Pemftmlinco. He pab- in London, 1798 a 

to have peritbed in a second exped. to Florida. pRmphlet against tbe abortion of the sliire- 

Aylmer (ill'-mer) MATraaw Whit~ trade b/ Great Britain. Shortly before his 

WOSTH, filth lord, a British gen., b. 1775 ; d. death, ne waa chosen to tlio Cortea as a icpre- 

Iiond., Feb. 33, 18S0. He succeeded u> the Mntative of Rio de Janeiro. Chosen bishop 

peerage on the death of hit father Uenrv, Oct. of Elvai, bu declined, and was app. inquisitor^ 

S3, 1785, entered theannf aaensign 49th Foot nn. Author of a memoir on the conqneal of 

In 17B7, aerved at the si^e of Copenhajcen, in Rio de Janeiro br Dugnai Tronia in 1711. 

Portugal in 1809, in thepeninsalarcampaigni, Azevedo 7 2uaiga(l-tha-vrJo e thoun- 

and became a lall gen. May 27, 1895. He ;ee'-^) Gaspakd db, Cooni of Moncere;, a 

was gov-.gen. of Canada from 1830 to Sept. Spaniard, who in lEOa succeeded Luis de V& 

1B33, and was held in high estimation by Ibe lasco as vicero; of Feru and Mexico ; d. Mar 

Canndinns. — Morgan. 16, IflOG, He equipped a fleet to search fur 

Ayolas, db or D'ATOt.AB Jdaw, a Span- the great southern continent, which, under Ihv 

ish adventarar who sailed with Pedro de Men- command of Pedro Fernandez de Quirrc, div 

doza in 1S34, on a voyage of conquest and corered several islands ab. lat. 2B° S. 

discovery to the La Plata. Mendoia, having Babbitt, Isaac, inventor of the " Babbitt 

been disabled bvdiseasein IS36,gavethecom- Metal" nsed in all railroad-car axle-boxes, 

mand to Ajola's, who ascended me Paraguaj b. Tannton, Ms., !B Jal;, 1799; d. McLean 

toAsoncion, where he defeated the natives, and Asylum, Somerrille, Ms., 26 May, 18G2. He 

remained six manibs. Leaving a garrison learned the trade of a gotdsmitb, and ab. 1831 

there, he ascended the river about 80 Teagnea, made at Tsunion the first britannia-ware man- 

and then marehed westward with 200 Span- uAwtared in ibis country. Removing to Bos- 

iards. He never returned. An Indian ro. ion in IS34, he was employed in Alger's 

ported that Ayotas and his men were decoded foundry, and ab. 1839 invented the anti-friction 

Into a morass, and killed by the Payngoa. metal which bears his name. He recrived in 

AyrflS. RoMBTH B., brer, maj.-gen, U. 1B41 a gold medal from the Ms. Char. Mech. 
S.A., b. N.T. West Point, 1B47. He served Asso., and from Congreas 830,000, for this 
in the 3d Arc in the Hexican war, 1847-8; valuable inventJon, for which he took out pat- 
becamecapL 6th Art. May 14, I8G1; brig..««n. ents in Eng. in 1844, and in Rnssia in I84T. 
vols. Nov. 39, 1863; was engaged at Bull He was for many years engaeed in the manu- 
Rnn ; chief of Art. of Gen. W. F. Smith's fhctura of tliis metal, and subsequently carried 
div. Oct. IBGl to Nov. 1863, and of the 6th on the manufacture of soap. He became de- 
Corps from Nov. 1863 to Apr. 1863; was in ranged a few years before his death. 
the peninsular campaign; was engaii^ at Baboook, Mu. Elihha, pub. the Anier- 
Sontn MoantoiQ, Antietam, and Fredericks- icon Mercury 37 years ; d. Hartford, Ct., Feb. 
burg; cum. a brigade in eih Corps at Chan- 1831, a, 68.' 

cellorsvillo ; com. div., and b'rev. maj, for Gel- B&boook, Col. Hkhbt, b. R.I., 17.16 ; d. 

tysburg, July 3, 1863; served through the 1800. Y. C.I7G3. Son of Chief-Justice Bab- 

Kiehmond campaign of 1864-9, earning brers, cock of R. L ; hro. of Rev. Luke (b, 1738 ; d. 

of lieut.-col. for battle of Wilderness, Mav 9, 18 Feb. 1777. Y. C. 1765). At 18, he was a 

1864 : eol, Aug. 18, 1864, for battle on Wei- capt. ; at 19, he was in the force under Col. 

don Railroad; brig.-gen. and maj.-gen. Mar. Williams, which was defeated at Lake George; 

13, 1865, fbr battle of Fiira Forks, and for gol- maj. in 1756, lieut.-col. in 1757, and col. in 

lantand meritorious services during the Rebel- 17S8, of a R,I. regL, with which he took part 

lion; Ueul.-c«t. 38lb Inf. July 28, 1866.— in the attack on llconderoga, and was wound- 

CV/um. ed in the knee. He was auerwards ai its cnp- 

Asara (d9-lth.&'ift) Fblix de, Spanish tare by Amherst. M. and settled at Stonint- 

natnralitt, b. May IS, 1746; d. Aragon, 1811. ton, Cft. Made, in Feb. 1776, com. of the 

Us was educated in part at the military acad. forces at Newport, but was removed in May 

at Barcelona; was wounded in the exped. on account of insanity. 

Wttinst Algiers in 1775 ; became a lieut.-col. BabOOOk, RuruB, D.D., clergymen nnd 

of cnp:ineer9, and was app. a commissioner to author, b. N. Colebrook, Ct., Sept. IB, 1793. 

determine the boundaries of the Spanish and B.U, 1631 . He was 3 yoais tutor in Col. Coll., 

furtugueao icrriloriBs in S. Amer. Reaching D.C. ; was ord. pastor of the Baptral Church 

his destination in I7BI, he devoted much time Poughkeepeie, 1823; became pastor 1st Baptist 

to conslruclinc correct maps of the country. Church, Salem, 1896 ; was pres. of Walerville 

and in prepanni; his "Natural History of the Coll., Me., in 1833-6; and for 3^ years was 

Quadrupeds of Pumguay," pub. soon after his pastor of the Spruce-st. Church, Phila.; he then 

recall in 1801. This work was pub. in French relumed to his former charge in Ponghkeepsie, 

ny -Morenii St. Mery, in 2 vols. 8vo. While in and is now settled in Paierson, N.J. He was 

Paris in 1603, he made the acquaiounceof M. twice secof the Amer. and Foreign Bible Sod- 

Walkenaer, who pub. Azara s travels In 8. ely, and has been sec. of the S.S. Union and 

Amcr. from 1781 lo ISOl, with notes by the the Pa. Colonization Society. He founded and 

celebrnteil Cuvier, 4 vols, 8vo, 1809. for 5 years edited the Bofiiit Memmial; pub. 

AzQVedo Coutiubo (irza-vi'.do ko.ten'- " Claims uf Education Societies," 1829; ''Rc- 

Jo). Jos^ JoAguiH DA I'tJMlA, a Poriuguefe view of Beckwilh's Dissuasive from Contro. 

ishop II nd author, b. Brazil, Sept. 8, 1742; d. versy on Baptism," 1839; "Making Lighl of 

Sipt. 13, 1821. Ho p-jb. '.n 1793 " Eatait Christ," 1830; "Memoirs" of Fuller, 1 *3n 



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IMAC Bukns; " Hiiioiy of WatcrifillB Coll.," pros, of the Ueaf and Unnib Asylnn. CoTpora- 

1836; '■ Tales of Trolh for iheYouDK." 1837; lion. As joint anOior, with Dr. Wood, of the 

" FermnnI HtvollcctioDU ot Ret. John U. "U.S. Dispcnitaiory," from 1833 (o 1864, he 

Peck, D. I).," 1S5S; and "The BmiKnnt'i ia probably beat known to the medical world. 

Mother," 18a9; d. Salem, Hus. Uaj 4, 187S. He also rendered niach serrice ID medical lilcr- 

Bacbe (bsich), Alkxandib Dallas, LL. alare by hia conlribations to the " U, S. Pbar. 



D., A.A.S., phvaicist, b. Phi la,, July 19, 1806; macopieia" npon the Ma leria Medici. Author 
d. Newpu^^ K.L, Feb. 17, 1867. West Point, of "A System of L'hemistiT," 8»o. 1S19; "In- 
ISiS. He was a great-grandson of Dr. Frank- trod iKtory Lectures on Cbemi 



. ind hii mothur was lbs dan. of A. J. Dal- Editor, with Dr. Hare, of " Ure's Dictionarj 

las. He wai a licat of cnjjineem nntil his re«- of Cheraistry," 8to, 1821 ; "Culbush's Pyro- 

i^malion in 1839, encaged in eoDstmcling Fon techny," 8r<i, 182Ii; "Dr. Bare's Chemical 

Adams and other works at theentnnraofllar- Compendium," 1836; "Tamer's ChsOiistrT," 

nftan~eit Bay. From 1827-3S, he waa prof, and one of the edilon of the A'orlA Jmrr. ,IM. 

if cbciB. and oaL pbiloa. in the n. of Pa.and and tiurg. JaarnaJ, 1833-32. Cnntrib, to a 

then look charge of the organiiatlon of Girard large number of medical and scienLiHe jonr- 

CoU., spending some time in 18.36 inspecting nala. (See Mtminr iu/ Gto. B. Wood, Phitn., 

the great schools of Europe, publishing, npon 1865.) RicbabD (1794-1836) capt. of Ord- 

his retorn, a valuable report on the subject, nance, U. 3. A., anthor of " Notes on Colom. 

In 1839, be resigned bis conneclioo with thia bia," 1823-3, Pbilo., 8tq, 1837, was a brother. 
roll., and became in 1811 principal of the Baobe, Gbokob MiFruH, hvcli-ographtr, 

Pbila. High School. In 1813, he was app. so- b. Phila. ab. IBIO; d. Sept. 8, 1846. G^ea^ 

perinlendent of the U. S- coast-anrTey. Its grandson of Franklin, bro. of A. D. Baehe. 

valuable contribnttons to geodetic and physical Eatcrinf the nary Jan. I, 1835, he became a 

•deoce are Iband in the annual npons of the lieut. Mar. 3, 1835, and ab. 1S3S waa placed 

•orrey, and in the proceedings of the Asso. for upon the cossl-sarrey. He was engaged npon 

the AdTancemenl oF Science. He was one of thesnrrey of the Oulf Stream, and perished in 

ibc fbondeti of the Amer. Asso. for the Pro- the hurricane of Sept. 8, 1S46. 
Diction of Science, look a prominent part in Baobs, Habtmait, brcT.brig.-gen. U.S. A., 

fonnding the Amer. Acad, of Science, was made b. Pa. ab. 1797. West Point, 1S18. Bro. of 

prei. of the Amer. Philos. Society in 18&S, and Franklin Bache. Entering the U. 8. lopof;. 

was an actire and efflcienl member of the U.S. engineers, he became brer.-m^. Jul; 31. ISSS : 

Sanitary Commission thronghont the war. The maj. Jnty T, 1S38 ; lieol.-col. Aug. 6, 1861 ; col. 

dearee of LL.D, was conftirred on him by the MBr.3,1663; brev. hrlg.-jjen. Mar. 13, 1865; 

U. of N.Y. in 1B36, bv the U. of Fa. in 1837, retired Mar. 7. 1S67 ; d. Phila. Uct. B, 1B73. 
ind by U.U. 18SI. Be waa made a r^ent of Baolie, RtciiABD, D. 8. posiinaster^n. 

tbe Smithwnian Inslitntion in Anz. 1846. In (Not. I776-1782|, b. Settle, Yorkshire, Ene., 

l8S3,beediledBrewst«r'«"OptiGa,'^withnotes. Sept. 13, 1737; A. Settle, Berks Co., Pa.,Jn1y 

Be pnb. " ObserrallDni " at the Obserratory 39, 1811. He came while young to Amer., 

of Giiard Coll. 1840-S, 3 Tola. Sro; " Report became a merchant, and, at the Manning of 

of Experiments to narigatc the Chesap. and tbe Rerol., waschainnanof Iherepublican sac. 

Del. Canal by Steam," Bro, Fhila., 1834, and of Phila, In 1767, he m. Sarah, only dan. of 



BlMThfli Beimamis FmAVELiB, jonmallsi, pres, of the N, Y, Chamber of Commerce ii 

son of Uichard, b. Fhila.. Aog. 13, 1769; d. ' *' " "'- " "■ "'- ■" " * 

there Sepu 10. 1798. He accompanied his 

grandfather. Dr. Franklin, to Paris, was edu- especmi notice, 

caled in France and Genera, and gained a Baohe. Hss. Sarar, only dan. of Dr. 

knowlolgeof^nting in thecelebraied publish- Franklin, b. Phila., Sept. II, 1744 ; d. Oct. 5, 

iag-bonse of Didot. Returning in 1785, be IS08. In 1767, she ro. Richard Bache, and 

imdied fi>r a time in the Coll. of Phita., and in deserves spedal tnention for her patriotic $cr- 

Oel. 1790 began to pnbllsh the GeiKral Adver- vices during the Revol. war. In tbe severe 

riii-r. aAcrwards called the Aurora, the ablest winter of 1780, many of the snUliers Mere 

■nd most iuHnential, AS well as the most vio- barefoot and only half clad. The Inli'i 

lent. O]ipo-ilion journal durinif the adminislra- nndenook to supply them with clothing, au'i 

-ioiii ol' Washington and Adams. made the garments with their own hands. In 

Boohei Fbaskum, M.D., an eminent phy- this noble charity, Mrs, Bache was one of thu 

sician, Ereat-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, most neitloua. On other occasions, her active 

wn of B. F. Bache, b. Phila., Oct 25. L793; benevolence was called into esercise. She 

d. there Mar. 19, 1864. U. of Pa. 1810; M.D. performed hospital duties, dressing the wonnds 

IS14. fie was an assist, surgeon in the army of the soldiers, and administering to them 

in IBIS, and surgeon in 1814-16, when he re- medicines and cordiala to mitigate ibdr tnlter- 

signed, and began prarlice in Phila. Physicinn ings, 

lo the Walnui-at Prison, 1834-36; pruf. of Baobi (UUkee'), Pibtro, Ph. D. of the 

cbtniBiry to iIm Franklin Institute, 1826-32 ; U. of Pudua, teacher of Italian and Spanish in 

physician to the Eaitem Penitentiary, 16^9-39; H.U. |1826-t6], b. Sicily, 1787 :d. Boston, Aug, 

prof, of chemistry in the Phila. Coll, of Fhar- 23,1853. He was bred to the law. Implifat.d 

^KT,I83I-4I ; andfrom 1841 lobiidcnihheld in Murnl'i attempt to asce id the throne of 

the '<ane obair in thg Jeff. Med. Coll.; pres. Naples in 1819, he waa banished, and resided 



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BAjO 48 BAJJ 

in Eng. until 18SS, »htiQ became to the U.S. conducted aarlioaloraomecelebritf. In 1798, 

Hb was well Yer»ed in ioriiprudence, and wm he preHched the nnnuiil election aermon before 

a ikilful teacher, bat became intem^rate in [be Ct. leKisi. A vol. of hii •ermone, with a 

bis habiu, was deprlred of his post in H.U., aketch of h» life, has been pnb. — Spragiu. 

and d. loon BfUr. Author of an "Italian Bookua, Cbarleb, D.D. (Williami Coll. 

Qrammnr," 18S9. 1801), Eheoloj;iiin, uncle of Axel, b. Norwicb, 

BaObiQan(bak'-niaQ),JoKi(,DD,LL.D., Cl., Nov. 9, 1719; d. Somen, Cc, Dec SO, 

b.Dutches>Co.,N.T„Feb,4,17»0id.Cbsrlei- 1803. T. C. 1769. Puior of tbe Cone, 

ton, Feb. 39, 1874. Pmiot of tbe Ocrman La- Chareh at Somei* IVom Aug 10, 1774, nnul 

theran Church in Charleaioa, 8.C,, since 18IS. bi> death. He was a ferreni and elooaenl 

He aMJBted Andubon in bia great work on preacher, and a aDcceuful teacher of theolog*. 

orailliolog;, and waa the principal anthor of Bealdn sermons, he pnb. a vol. on Regener- 

the work on the qaadrupedi of N. A., illostrat- ation. " Five DiKonraes on ihe Tmth of ths 

ed by Aadnbon and nis ions. Author of Bible," 1797, and an hiitorical dlaconrae npon 

"Notice of the Types of Mankind, by MoK the town of Sotnere, ISOl. — Sptwue. 

and Gliddon," 18M; "Examination of Prof. BsokUB, Elbotds. lieat.-«ol., mortatlj 

Agasaii' Sketch of the Natural Provincea of the wounded in de&noe of Sackett** Harbor, Hay 

Animal World," &c., IBBS; " Characieristice 8S, and d. Jnne 7, 1813. App. m^. light 

of Genera and Species as applicable to the dragoons, Oct. 7, I80S; lieat.-col. ^b. 1&. 

1>octrine of tbe Unity of the Human Race," 1809. His son Elbctub, col. U.S.A., b. N.T.. 

18M; "Catalogne of PbenoRamo-w Plants 1804, West Point, 1824. AidetoOeo. Bradv, 

■nd Ferns growii^ in the Vicinity of Charles- I8S8-37 ; cape, Oct. 17, 1837 ; hrev. maj. 

Ion, S.C, ; " " Two Letters on Hybridity," Sept. S3, 1846, " for eallant and meritorious 

8vo, \6W; "Viviparous Quadrupeds of K, A.," conduct at Monterey] m^. 3d Inf. June 10, 

and a ivork in defence of Martin Lather, 1853. 1850; lieut.«ol, Jan, l9,1859;coI, 6ih Inf. 

In the Jferf. J(>ur.ofS.C.,heha**blydiacussed Feb. 30, 1862j d. Detitdt, June 7,1863. He 

the bearings ofacienceopon theology, saw service in the Seminole War, 1838-40, and 

Book, Sib Gboboi, F.R.8., an arctic ex- in the Navajoe exped. 1BS8. 

plorer, b. Stockport, Eng,, Nov. 6, 1798. En- BaokuS, Fkaitsun Thoi,, a dialing. la«- 

lering the royal nary in 1808, he accompanied veruf Cleveland, U. ; d, there May 14, 1870; b. 

Capt. David Bncban on an exped. to Spits- Lee, Ms., Mav 6, 1813. T.C. 1836, He went 

beiigen in 1817 ; and in 1819 went with Sir lo Cleveland in 1836 ; was adm. to the bar in 

John Franklin on his overland exped, from 1839; pros, atty, for Cuyahoga Co., 1841; 

the wealern shore of tiudaon Bay to the member of the house of rep. 1846, of the 

northern coast, near the Coppemiiiie River. Stnio aenate in 1848, and of^ the peace con- 

The exped. returned to Tork Factory in 1833. vcution of 1861. — A, T. Goodman. 

In 1821, he waa madelieat. In 1835, be Joined BaokUB, Isaac, Bapt.mintster and anthnr, 

Franklin'a second exped. In the endeavor, in b. Norwich, Ct., 1724 ; d, Nov. 20, 1806. He 

eonjuiKlion with Beechey and Parry, lo dis- began to prearh in 1746; was ord. a Con- 

coTer from opposite quarten the norlh-wesl grqtatinnalist, at Middleborough, MB.,Apr. 13, 

passage, Lieut, Back penetrated aa fltr as 1748; flniI,b«»niingaBaptiat,formed acharch 

lat. "0" 34' N. ; long. 148° ST W., and on there in 1 756. He was an advocftle of religious 

Iberetum of the exped, was left in charge fteedom, and in 1774 wasiheagent to Congress 

of (he remaining offlcert and men at Furt of the Wart«n Asiociatioa to advocate equality 

Franklin, with all the noret, jonmals of tbe of privileges to all denominations. He vin- 

voyage. Ac, ; retarolns to Eng. in 1827. bav- dlcaied his course in this affair in an article in 

ing in 1835 been maoe cotnmander. In 1833, the Botion Chronidf, Dec, 2, I77S, and araued 

he look charge of tbe party sent in search of againstanarticlein theBillofRigbtsoftheStale 

Sir John Ross, who had left Eng. in 1829, of constitution then under discnesion In Ihe ebn- 

which voyage he pub. an Interesting history, veniion. He was thedelegateof MIddleborough 

Receiving nevrs of Rosa's safety, he returned to the eonvenlion which adopted the Federal 

home in IS3S ; obtained post rank, and in Constilulion, which he supported In a speech. 

June. 1836, started on his last voyage (See The Baptist denomination is greatly indebted 

Narrative qfan Eiptd. in H. M. ihiji" JVrrar," io him (or its prosperity. He pnb. a " History 

unrftilahn wilha Vimi to Gtcgraphtctd Disraxn/ of the Baptists," 3 vols., 1777 and 1784 and 

vn the Arctic Shva in 1836-7.") He received a 1796 ; also an abridgment brought down to 

gold mednl from the Qeog. Society in 1837, 1804, and a History of Middloborongb in Ihe 

wns knighf;d in 1839, and subsequently held 3d voL Ms. Hist. Colls. — See Lift tad Timii 

a Uicrotivo treasury appointment. — Jfen a/' (As of, ty AlfoJi HoBty, D.D., 1859, 

Th»t. Bacon, David Fsahoih, U,D., anthor. 

Backus, AZBL, D. D. (N, J. Coll. 1810), and physician of the Colonization Soc. at Libe- 

clergvmau and educator, b. Norwich, Ct., Oct. ria, 1836-11, b. Prospect, Ct,, 80 Nov. 1813; 

18, r76S ; d. Dec. 28, 1816. Tale Coll. 1787. d, N.Y. City, 23 Jan, 1866, T. C. 1831 ; 

Nephewof Re*. Charles Backus, After lejiv. Mrd. Coll, iS36, He engaged in politics in 

ing college, he laugbt school at Wethersfleld, N.Y, City, and frequenilv conuib. to the 

Ct , with his claasmnte, John H. Lolhrop, periodicals of the dny ; aaihor of " Lives of 

Licensed to preach in 1789; minister at Beta- the Apos'les," 1835; " Wanderings on the 

lehem, Ct., and snoxssor of Dr. Bellamy from Seas and Shores of Afrii-a," 1843. 

1791 to 1812; and pres. of Ham. Coll., N Y., BacOD, Keexigi.. LL.D., son of Rev. 

from its establishment in Sept. leis, till his John, h. Boston. M*,, September I, 1776 ; d. 

death. While at Bethlehem, be instiimed and Utica, N.Y, < At. 18.1870. 7.0. 1794. llewa* 



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sj^c 49 

m member of the State legial. in 1S05-6 ; chief end ha) contrib, : 

justice or Commna Fleu, 1B13; Ist camp- Neie-Bnglimder, ■ 

Croller U.S. treaaarj, 1S13-1S; and M.C. AmoDchis pub. are " Select rracticalWriiingt 

1807-13. RemoT«d to Utic&, V.Y. ; delegate of Ricbanl Baxter," 8 vol. 8to, Sd eJ., 1835 ; 

lo lh« Siata Comt. Coni. of ISS). He pub. " Mannal for Vouna Cbarch-Mumben," ISmo, 

" Recolleciioni of 50 Tears (inc«"a lecture, 1833; " SIhtotj Di«;uaa«i," 8»o, K.T., 1816; 

1843. " Thirteen Discourses on the aooth Anniwr- 

Baoon, Hbit>t, auihor, and Unirersalist sarr of the Fini Church in New llavcn," 1839, 

minister, b. Boaioa, IS June, 1813; d. Phila., " Hist. Disc, at the Old South Mectiiii;-liouii;, 

19 Mar. 18S6. Urd. over Ed Church, Camh., Worcester, £2 Sept. 1863." 

Ms., Dec. 1834, remainio); 3 veara ; ^rward BooOtl, Nathakiei^ an early patriot of 

SDCoenirely wtlled at HaTcfhilt, Morblehod, Va., b. Buttulk, Eag. ab. 1630; d. in Jiin. tU7T. 

ProTi.- " ■ ■ . ™ . - . ^. . . F 

He&ti. , . , _ _ . . 

Repotilory, Boston. Auihor of " ChrJBlian lfl47. He was educated at the Iddh of Cuurt, 

Comliirter," " Sacred Flora," " Memoir of Lond., settled in Qloucester Co., Vs., owned a 

tin. Jerauld," and orer 50 tracts and sennons. large estate at thshead of James River, became 

" Tbe Paalor"! Bequest," Klections from his in 1673 a member of Ihc cooncil, and ai'qiiireil 

•ermons by Mra. B. A. Bacon, vas pub. great poputarii;. An lodinn war huvinj; 

Boston, 1857. ipning up, Gov. Berkeley built a few froniitr 

Bacoilt Henbt, flgure-painter, b. Win- foria ; but the people, desirous of more nctire 

chaster, Ms,, ISM. He studied ivith W. A. and enerEeiic measures, chose Bacon a.i their 

Gar of Bo^iIon ; went lo Paris in 1BS4, where leader. Tbe gov. refused to commission liim ; 

he has since resided ; studied at the Beaux Arli, hnt he defeat^ the Indians, and 29 May, 1 676, 

and afterwards at Eooueu under E. Frere. He was proclaimed a rebeL Tried and acquitted, 

has a happy taleut in telling a story b; a he received the gov.'a pardon, June 9; was 

picture. restored to the council, and was promised a 

BaooD, JoBL Smitb, D.D. (Wash. ColL gen .'a commission for tbe Indi;Ln war. Ber- 

1B45), Bapt. minister and educator, b. Cayuga kelej refased to keep hia promise ; and Bncoii, 

Co,, N.Y., 1301 ; d. Rii;broond, Va., Nov. 9, at the head of 900 men, exroried hie si(;naiure. 

1869. Ham. Coll. 1836; Newton Theol. Inal. Ue then turned his attention lo thewar, whicb 

1 831. Before graduating, he was a teacher in he vigorously prosecuted. Again proclaimMl 

Amelia Co., Ta.; waa afterward a classical a rebel, he issued a declaration against theeov., 

tMcber ai Princeton, N.J. ; pree. of George- whom be drove from Wtlliamiburg, and wliom 

town Coll.. Ky., 1831^; paslor of the Baptist he was about loattackatAccomac, when death 

Church at Lvnu, 1B33-4; prof. Ham. Inst., ended his career. At the time of hia death, he 

K.T., 1S34-7 ; was some time an aeeni for -' ■'•- '■ — '" ''■- ' 

Indian missions ; prea. of Col. Coll., D.C. 

1S43-54 ; iben taught in femaie seminarica ; Carulhers of Va. — Stt Faree't _ , . 

was two yenn at the head of an institution at Spark$'t Amer. Biog. iii.. New Series. 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. ; and in 1859-67 was a Bacon, Samubl. Froi.-EpiB, clergyman, b. 

teacher at Warrcutoti, Va. fie was finallr a Stnrbridge, Ms., 21 July, 1781 ; d. Kent, Cape 

travelling agent in tbe Sooth for tbe Bible Sbilling, AfHca, 3 May, 1830. U, U. 1808. 

Society. He aiudicd law ; edited the ITDreestor jEgh, 

BaoOIli JoHn, clergyman and polilician, afterward the fliKe, at Lancaster, Pa. ; in 1812, 

b. Canterbury, Ct., 1737 ; d, Stockbridge, Ua., was an officer of O.S. marines ; suhseqoenlly 

Oct. !9, ISSO. N.J. CoU, 1769. Ue studied practised law in Pa., and then took orders in 

theology; preached in Somerset Co., Md., in the Prot.-Epis. Chnrcb, App. U.S. agent to 

176S ; and Sept 25, 17T1, was settled over tbe eetabliih a colony in Africa, no reached Sierrs 

Old South Church, Boston. Owing lo diSfe^ Leone, 9 Mar. ISSO, and d.abortly after, — Sat 

■men of opinion with hia church, be was dis- Life, bt/ J. AAtaim. 

missed Feb. B, I7T5, and removed lo Stock- Bacon.THOiiUiFrat.-Epis.clcrgyiDaaand 

bridge, wherH he was a iDagittrate, a repreaenta- author, b. Frederickton. Md. ; d. May 34, 1768. 

tivc, associate and presiding jodge of the Com- He compiled a complete system of the revenue 

mon Pleas, a member and pres. of the State of Ireland, 1737, also a complete body of the 

senate (I603-4),Bnd M, C. lSOl-3, He pub. a laws of Hd., folio, 1765. 

sermon after bia iustallation, 1772; an answer Bocon, Willian TaoMPSOti, poet and 

to Hnniingion on a case of discipline, 1781 ; a clergyman, b, Woodbury, Ct., Aug. 24, 1814. 

speech on the court* of the U.!<., 1803; " Con- Y. C, 1S37. After two yeara paased at the 

jecinres on tbe Prophecies," 1805. Epia. Acad, at Cheshire, he, at the age of 17, 

BaoODf Lbuhird, D.D., Cong, clergyman established himself in business at New Haven, 

and author, b. Detroit, Mich., Feb. 19, 1802. He delivered (he valedictorv poem at Yale ; 

T. Q. 1820; And. Theol. Sem. 1824. David, itndied at the N, Haven Divinity School, and 

hia htber, woa a missionary to the Indians, and from 1843 lo 1845 vaipastor of the Cong. 

[he Brat settler of Tollmadge, O. In Mar. Church at Trumbull, Ct. He became sub- 

1S35, be was installed pasior over tbe Centre Bei]uenily one of Ibe editor* of tbe Nete-Eng- 

Church, New Haven, Ct. A diatlng. cham- lander, was also Ibr a few years editor anf 

pioo of N. E. Congregationaliam, and a cloae proprietor of tbe N. Haven Jbnrna/ anif Coufirr, 

adherent (o the traditions- and practicea of ainee which be baa been engaged in minislerial 

the Puritan fathers. He ha* written a labonin Kent and in Derby, Ct. In 1837, Mr 

namber of occasional addrasse* and sermons, Bacon pub. a vol. of poems, which in 1840 



,,Google 



paused to a third edition. In IB4B, « new 

Bodean, Adih, hrer. brig.-gen. U.S.A., 
b. N.Y. Capt. and aide-de.canip n. 8. Vols , 
Apr.lSSa; OD staff of Gen. Sherman ; KTere- 
tv woanded at Port Hadson ; joined Gen. 
6rant, Jan. ISM, as military sec. and lieut.- 
eol., and was made brcT. brig.-ccTi. U.S.A., 
Tiir Faiibfal and merit, lerrices in ute war. Col. 
■nd aide-de-rsmp to tbe gen. o( Ihe armj, Mar. 
IS6S 10 Mav laed, when relired. Sfc. of le- 
gation to top court at London. Aiiihor of 
" Hisioiy of Gen. U. 8. Grant," 2 toIb., 8to. 
1868. 

Badger, GeobobEdmcnd.LL. T>. (Y.C. 

1819), sUteiroaQ and jurist; b. Ncwbem, 
N.C., Apr. 13, 1795; d. Ealei(;li, N.C., Msj 
11,1866. T.C.1813. Hepractised iBWinRa- 
leigli, where he soon dieting, himself bj soliiii- 
t; and strength in his prot'esiion. He became 
a member of the legist, in 1816; was judge of 
the Supreme Coart in IS20-5 ; sec. of the na- 
ly in 1841 , but resigned on I'res. Trier's Teto- 
ing the bill to r»«harter the U. 8. Bank ; and 
U. S. senator from 1M6 to 1854. Nominated 
to the sapreme bench in 1851, hat not ron- 
Armed by the senate. In Ihe State convention 
of Mhj, 1861, he spoke ablj in defence of (he 
Union. He wag an excetfenl lawyer, and » 
Tigoron? epenkor, abounding in wit and hnmor. 
BEldgsr, GxH. JoBKFH, b, Uaverblll. Ms., 
Jan. 11, 1732; d. Apr. 4, 1803. Pri^T to bis 
TBEUoval to Gilmanton in 1763, he held Tori- 
oascivit and military offices in HaTerbill, and 
became col. in 1771. During the Revol., he 
was an active and efficient officer, a member of 
the Provincial Congress, was masier-raBBter of 
troops raised in h<E section of the State, and 
was employed in famishing sappliee lor the 
lurmy. He was app. briiif.iten. 1T80, was 
jndge of probate 1784 to 1797, member of the 
conv, wbtcn adopted the Consti<Dtion,^nd uf 

inch (oi 
1 Gilmi 



Xewhnry, Ms., in 1635, Uis early edncalton 
was slight; and, at the ^e of 18, he entered 
the Revol. army, in which, with the exccfv 
tion of a few weeks, he remained nnlil the 
end of 1778. >S00, which he had saved in 
Continental bills, were then so reduced in 
value aa hardly to purchase him cloUi for an 
ordinary coal. Notwithstanding bis destitu- 
tion, he resolved to obtain an education, and 
earned money (o pay his coll. hills by teaching 
school. He studied for the ministry, was pas- 
tor at Blandford, Ms., 34 Oct. 1787-24 Oct. 
1800, Bad was then sent by Ibe missionary 
aociety to Che nnsetlled pans of 0. Here for 
80 years his labors were only exceeded by his 
hanlshipa. During (he War of 1813, Mr. 
Badger was app. by Gen. Harriton brig, chap- 
lain. His familiarity with the country enabled 
him to net the part of a temporal as well as 
spiritual gaiilc, and, at the close of the war, he 
resamed lii a missionary functions. His poverty 
was at limeg extreme ; and in 1836 he became 



the bar of Broome Co., N.T., in 
iei£ ; jndge^dvocaie of (he 37th brig. N T. 
Militia, 1819-^7; M. C. 1835-7; examiner 
in chanoerv, and commiuioner U. 8. loana, 
1810-.1; U,' S. dist.-ntly. for N. T. 1846-9. 

Badger, Stepben, miniaier to the Natick 
Indiana from Mar. 37, 1753, nnKI dism. July, 
1799 ; d Aug. 38, IS03 ; b. Charlestown, Ma., 
Apr, 12, 1726. H. C 1747. He was em- 
ployed hy lim commiSBionere for propagating 
tbe k-o-ipt'l in N, E. He pub. a letter concern- 
ing the Indians, in the Ms. Hist. Coll., dal^ 
17^7, and two discourses on drunkenness, in 
1774, afterward reprinted. 

Badger, Wiluam, gov, of N. H., 1834-6, 
b. Gilmanton, N.H., Jan. 13, 1779; d. Sept 21, 
IB53, His yciiith was employed in business 
pnr-uits. Ho was lurcossively io the lejiisl. 
(1810-12) and senate (1814-16) of his native 
State; Prea. of the senate in 1816; an n-^o. 
justice of the C. C. F. 1816-31, hi^h sher- 
iffofStaftbrdCo. lB22-^3. — Hist. Gilmanlim. 

Badlam, Simra^s, gen., Revol. officer, b- 
Mil(on,Ms^ar.l7,1749; d. Dorchester, H«., 
An;.'. 34, IBI5. I.eft an orphan at an eul; 
age, his education was limited. Joining ttte 
army ill 1775, he was made a lienl. of artillery, 
soon lipcnme a eapt., and was ordered to N. V ,, 
where he made the acquaintance of Alex. Ham- 
illOQ, who frequently conanlted him on tactics. 
He bad also ilio esteem of Washington, whose 
disciple in politics he continued to his death. 
Made a mni,, he was ordered to command ihe 
artillery of tbe dqit. of Canada. Reluming 
thence to Crown Point, ho took possession of 
Mt. Independence on the memorable July 4, 
1776 ; from which circumsiaoce it was named 
by Maj. Badlam. He did good service in the 
action at Fort Stanwix, nnder Willet, in Aug. 
1777. In 1779, he was made brig.-gen. of mi- 
litia. — Set Codnxm't Fun. Sarmon : Panoplirl 
xi. 573. 

Baena (bt-ft'-nl) AtiroHio Ladibladb 
MoNTEiRO, Ponugaese historian and geog- 
rapher in the military service of Braxil; d. 
ab. 1891. Anthorof a " ChorographicEEsay 
on Ibe Province of Fara," 1839, and of otber 
Taluable works. 

Baes, Bobnivbu'Tusa, pres. of Hayd, a 
mulatto, b. Azna, Hayti, 1830, His nther 
was active in the insurrection of 1808. The 
son became influential by his wealth and tal- 
ents, and, having cooperated niih Santana 



pres. At ibe next election, Santana wat 
chosen; and from being ftienda they became 
bitter enemies, Oct, 6, 1856, Baez again be- 
came pres., but surrendered the government to 
Santana, Jane II, 189B, and left the coun- 
try. Returning in 1865, he was a third time 
elected pres., hot in Mar. 1866 was again ex- 
pelled by Gon. Cabral. Lata in 1867, he in- 
aneuratcd a new revol,, and has since been in 
power in the eastern part of the island ; the 
sale of which he endeavored to effect to the 
U. S. in 1871. 



,v Google 



Bafflllt WiLLtiv, an Bngliih arciie ex- Washington the Naiionat Era, nn antialaTerir 

plMcr, b. 15M; d. 16!a. On returning from paper. In 1848, ■ mobfor threedaja besieged 

tut flm Weat Greenland rojage in 1613, he hit office. Atldreseing the multitude in a 

wrote aa aceoaDt or tt, giviog fbr the first speech remarkable Tor it« coolness and its in- 

dme a metbod Ibr dstenmainK the longitnclo dependent spirit, the tnob, ihat bed proposed 

at K« bT an obserradon of the celeslial to tar and teadier him, was disanacd bj his 

bodies. He also pub. an account of a second eloquence. " Uncle Tom's Cabin " vas ori- 

Toyage to Qreenland In 1615, and of a vojrage ginally pub. In the Era. 

to Spitibergen in IflU, containing important Baile?, Jacob, soldier, b. Hewbnrj, Hs., 

iojbmalioi]. In 1618, he wns mate or amer- Juty 2, 1728; d. Newbnr;, Vt., Mar. 1, ia]&. 

chant-Tesnl in the Aniblan Sea. In 1616, he Settled in Hampsioad, 1745 ; was a capt. in 

com. a Teasel in which he li said to have French war, 1756, and escaped lirom the mns- 

— " '-• '— -"i, and ii snppoaed sacra at Fort Wm. Heorj in Aug. 1757 ; col. 

ts of the vast inlet at the taking of Ticonderoga and Cronn Point 

of the Mft since known by his name. He was in 1759. In 1764, chartered a township in Vi., 

killed at the siege of Ormui in the Persian to which he removed ; anp. brlg.-gen. of mili- 

Golf, while attempting, in cot^nnction with a tia by the Stale of N.Y., and commis.-sen. 

Fersiao force, to expel the Portnguem fHtm Northern depi. dnring the Hevol., in which 

that island. he perrormed valuable service with parse, pen, 

Bag'^, Akthob p., gor. of Ala.. 1837- and sword. — Coffin. 

41, b. Va., 1794; d. Mobile, Ala., 21 Sept. Baileyt Jacob, Pr.-Ep. clergjman and 

IB58. liberally educated, he willed in Ala., loyalist, b. Rowley, Ms., 16 Apr. 1731 ; d. 

taking *t once a high position aa a criminal Annapolis, N.S,, 36 July, 1808. H. U. 1TS5. 

lawyer; was a member of the i^sl. in 1820- Ord. in Eng., he officiated many years at 

S, and speaker of the bonsej n. S. senator in Pownalboro, now Wiscasset, Me. ; andin 1779, 

1843^4, and minister to Rnuia in 1848-9. during the Rerol. war, went to Annapolis, 

Babeeqaently a commissioner to codify the where he was rector of St. Luke'i. Uis eldest 

laws of the State. son Percy, a capt. in the British army, was 

BMOt, SiK CaABi.EB, a British ptalesman, killed at the battle of Chippewa, July 5, 1814. 

b. BlithOeld, 8taffi>rd Co., Eng., S3 Sept. — See kit Journal, aUk Memoir Im Rre. W. S. 

1781 ; d. Kingston, Canada, May 18, 1849. tSarlkt. 

Second MO of William Lord Bagot. Madenn- BoQeT, Jacob Whitiuh, nataralisl. b. 

der-aec for foreign affairs in 1807; seal in 1 614 Ware, M>., Apr. 29, 1811 ; d. West Point, 

on a snecial miaaioD to Paris; fmm 161S to Feb. 26, !eS7. Bemoring to Providence, R.I. 

i.-plenipo. to the U. S. ; snccessirely in early life, he receiTed a common school 

lor to St. Patcraborg, the Hague, and education. Grad. West Point, July, 1832, 

special tmbossador to Vienna in 1834. From and was app. Ilent. of art. In 1S39, he was 

10 Jan. 1B4S, to his death, goT.-geu, of Brit. app. assist, sod afterwards prof, of chemistry. 

North Amer., which ho goremea with wis- botany, and mineralogy, at w. Point. His wife 

dom and prndence. and dau. perished when the steamer " Hcnrr 

Baile^, Ebevezkr, edacalor, and author Clay" look Are on the Hudson in 1852*; 

of a treatise onalgebra; d. 1S3B. T. C. ISI7. ana his ezeniona and exposnte on thai oc- 

Ue pnb. also a "Iteriew of the Bfavor's Be- casion caused his death. Inrentor of "Bai- 

port upon the High School for Girls, 1828. — ley's Indicator," and of many improvement* 

Slack of hii Life and Educ. Labort, 8to, in the microscope. His investigations with 
this instrument, illustrating botany and zool- 



t Slack of hii 
61, Hartford. 



. 1. Jane S, 1899, on board steamer tiou of about 4,500 specimens of l. , 
"Arago," while on bis wav lo £ug. Remov- be bequeathed to the Boston Soc. of Nat. 
'ms( to Phila. at the age or 9, he studied med- Hieloty. He was pres. of the Amer. 
icine ; receiring his d«;Tee in 1828. Sailed to Asso. fbr the Advancement of Science 
China as physician of a ship, and began his in 1857. His puU papers, more than 50 in 
cateer as an editor on the Mrthodid Pmetlaat number, are found in Siltiman't Jomval of 
in Bait. In 1831, he removed to Cincinnati, Science, Tniruact!on$ af Ikt Jao. of GuJ- 
and was pbysfrian to the cholera hospital dnr- ogiiti and NataralitU, The Sait/aonian Con- 
ing the pestilence. The expulsion of some trPiulioni lo Kivyaledgt, and in the various 
students fhim Lane Sem. on acconnt of their Stale geolagicat surveys. — Jmmiai of Alicru- 
antislaveij sentimeiits flisi prompted bis icmic Seltnce. 

hostility to slavery. In 183G, with J. G. Btr- Bailey, Coi.. Joan, Bevol. officer, b. 

oey, he conducted the first antislavery news- Hanover, Ms., Oct. 30, 1730; d. there Oci. 

paper in the West, the Cincinnati PhSantiiro- 27, 1810, At the ontset of the war, he wns 

put Their printing-offlce was twice attacked lienL^vil. of the Plrmonth regt., with which 

by a mob, the press thrown into the Ohio he marched to Cambridge, in May, 1T7S; suc- 

Birer, and the books and papers burned. In ceeded Col. John Thomas in Its commnnd, 

183*, Dr. Bailey became sole editor of (he and throughout the warwas coL of the 2d Mi 

Piilanilmpiil, i)ie organ of the Liberty partj, regt. of the Continental line. He was con- 

aod was a principal leader in the presidential spicuous in the campaign against Bni^joyne, 

caavass In 1840. In 1841, his press was de- and had the reputation of a brave and fdiih- 

ttroyed by a mob, which was dispersed by the ful officer. Late in life ho was an intikeeper 

■iiiury. Jan. 1, 1S4T, be began to edit at in Hanorer. 



,,Google 



BAI 

Baitoy, Joseph, bri^.-gen. of U.S. Toll. ; 
mardemfby bn»hwbacker» near Nevada, Mo., 
Mar. 21, ie6T. Gen. Bailey acbiercd a high 
repuMtton in the Red liirer exped. in Maj, 
1864, bj ■ alciirul and original feal of engi- 
ncering.hjr which he brought the iron-clad gnn- 
boala of the Mpi. aqnadron safely over ihe 
(langerona falls and rapids of the Red Biver 
ahore Alexandria. He joined the arm; ia 
Wisconsin, wbcm he had prcTioaalj been a 
lamberman, and was acling chicrenjpneer of 
the I9[h Artny Corps, with rank of licuL-col,, 
u'lieu the retreating Union forces found that 
the water of the Red Rirer had tiilten so much, 
that Admiral I'ortcr'e sijaadron could not pas* 
the rapidi. In this penious cmergcocy. Col. 
Bailey propoaed to construct dams irbich 
should raise (ha water snBtcientJy lo pemiit 
the gnnboati to descend safely. The most 
skilful engineers in the army suid the propo- 
sition wna absurd; bnt in II days the fleet 
vere safely over the falls. For this brilliant 
schieTemeuE, he was made brig.-gen., and re- 
ceived the (banks of Congress. Be settled 
after the war in Newton Co., Mo., of 
which he was chosen sheriff. He became for- 
midable to bashwbaekers, but after arresting 
two of them, brothers, named Pixley, was 
shot liy them. 

Bailey, JosEPn Boot etblt, R. C. bishop 
of XewarV since 1853, b. N.T., IBU ; sindied 
for ibePr.-Ep. Chnrch, embraced Calholicism, 
1842; studied at 8t. Sulpice, Parii; wai ord. 
priest, and returned to Ihe U. S. in 1S44, 

Baileyt R'AB, Cong, minister, b. Brook- 
field, Ms., II Mar. 1770; il. Hardwick, Vt., 
IT Aug. 1B5I. Dartm. Coll. 1793. He stud- 
ied theol. under Dr. Emmons ; was minister 
of Newcastle, Me., T Uct. 179T-1SS4 ; subee- 

SuentlT of Greensboron^b, Vt., and Tbomlon, 
ML, end in 1833 settled on a farm al Hard- 
wick. Member Ms. letcisl. in 1819-EO; pres. 
of the Me. Missionary Soc. 

Bailey, Rcrpos Wm., D.D. (Hamp. Sid. 
Coll. 1859), clergyman and author, b. North 
Varmoulh, Me., Apr. 13, 1793; d. HuntsFille, 
Tex., Apr. 35, 1863. U. C. 1813. Ho lauj^ht 
in acad. at Salisbury and at Blue Hill, Me. ; 
was tutor at D. C. 1817-18; pastor of the 
Cong. ch. at Norwich, Vt., Nov. 29, 1819, to 
Not. 13, 1839; at Pitlsficld, Apr. U. 1824, to 
Sept. 37, 1 837; taught schnol in S. C.,in Fay- 
ettcvillc, N.C., and in Staunton, Va. ; went to 
Texas in 1854; prof of languages at Austin 
Cull .lluntsrille.S years, and its ptL-s. from Dec. 
16, 18SS, to hii death, lie pub. " The Issue," 
a vol. on slavery, 1837; "The Family Preach- 
er," 1 8.18 ; a primary grammar, and a " Man- 
ual of Gramtnar; " "The Mother's Request;" 
and "The Beginnings ofEvil."—^(umni'D.C. 

Bailey, Theooohus, h. Duchess Co.,N. 
Y., 1752; d. N. Y. Citv, Sept. 6, 1828. M. C. 
Irom N. Y., 1793-7 and 1799-1803; U.S. sen- 
ator 1303-4 ; postmaster N. Y. City, 1804-28. 

BaUey, Tbkodorlo, rear-odm. U. S. N., 
b. N. Y., 1803. Son of Judge Wra. Bailey 
of I'latlsburg. Midshipman, Jan. I, 1818; 
lieut. Mar. 3, 1837 ; commander, Mar. 6, 1B49 ; 
cnpt. Dec. 15, 1855; commo. July 16, 1862; 
rcar-adm. retired list, Jul; 25. 1866. He com, 
the stureabip " Lexington " during (he Mcxi- 



can war, and manifested enurprbe and gal 
lantry in numerous ex peds. against the cnemv. 
Com. ftigaie " Colorado," West Gulf bloct. 
squad. 1861-2 ; second in command and offi- 
cially commended by Adm. Farrognt for cap- 
ture of N. Orleans, where he led the attack and 
passage of the forta; com, the Eastern Gulf 
block, squad. 1862, and was energetic and sue- 
cMsfhl in breaking up blockade-ntnaiag oa the 
Florida coast. Com. Portsnionth navy-yard, 
1865-7. Said to havo taken over ISO blockade- 
runnen; d. Washington, DC, Feb. 10, 1877. 

Baillargeon, C. F., B. C. Bishop of Que- 
bec; d.Oct. 14, 1370, a. 73. App. administra- 
tor of that diocese in 1655. 

Bailly. Joseph A., sculptor, b. Paris, 1825 ; 
came (oPhila., 1850. Among his works are 
" Adam and Eve." " Eve antf her Two Chil- 
dren," and the monnment of Washington, 
5 laced (1869) in front of the Stale House, 
'bila. 

Boily, JoRH, clergyman, b. near Black- 
burn, Lancashire, Engy 24 Feb., 1644;d. Bos- 
ton, Dee. 12, 1697. He began hi« ministry in 
Cheater, Eng., in 1665, bnt was imprisoned 
for nonconformity, and preached to crowds 
through the bars of Lancashire jail. He 
preached 14 yean in Umerick, and subse- 
quently again in Eng., bnt wu driven by 
pcnecution to Amer., and landed in Boston in 
I6S4. Ord. minister of Watcnown, Oct. 6, 
I6SG, he became assist, minister of the First 
Church, Boston, July 17, 1693. He pnb. 
~~ address to the people of Limerick. Ilia 

eral-sermon was '■-' '— " "' 

._.r. — Sprwut ; JN 
Bioqmithia E^vajigeticc- 

Bainbridge, Hehbt, lieut.-col. n. s. A., 
b. N.Y., 1803; d. at sea near Galveston, Tex., 
May 31, 1657. West Point, 1831. Capt. 19 
June, 1836; brev. maj. Sept. 33, 1846, "for 

Sllani and meritorious conduct at Monterey, 
eaico," where he was wounded, Sept. 21 ; 
maj. 7th Inf. 16 Feb. 1847 ; brev. lieul.-cot. 30 
Aug. 1847, "for gallant and meritorious eon- 
duct in haldea of Contrerassnd Churubusco; " 
military and civil gov. of Jalapa, Mux., June, 
1848; engaged in hostilities with the Seminole* 
in 1849-51 iIieQt.-cot. Istlnf.ll June, 1851.— 

Baiobridge, Wiluam, commo. IT.S.N., 
b. Princeton, N J., May 7, 1 774 ; d. Phila., July 
28, 1833. Sun of Dr. Absalom B. He went 
to sea a[ 16, and at 19 com. a ship. App. Aog, 
3, 1798, to com. (he U. S. schooner "Retalia- 
tion," he was captured by the French while 
cruising near Ouadalonpe, and, after 3 months' 
coufinemeni, reached home in Feb. 1799. Mas- 
ter com. Uar. 29, 1799; capt. M» 39, 1800. 
In 1799, he cruiaed again in the W. Indies in 
the brig "Norfolk," 18 gnas. In 1800, be 
sailed to Algiers in com. of the fMgale "George 
Washington," and was compelled by the dey 
to convev his ambassadors, with presents, to 
ConsiaDtinoplo. On bis return to Algiers, lie 
was instrnmomal in saving the French residents 
there, — the de; having declared war with 
France, tb us preventing their imprisonment 
and slavery. For this act he received the thonki 
of Bonaparte, then lirsl consul, and the ap- 
proval of his own government. While com- 



t.Google 



BAJ 63 BAJB. 

nuuuUiiR th« Mgate "Philwle]|Ai>," engaged Baird, Robebt, D,D., Biitbur ttid rtft^j- 
in dw blockade of Tripoli, Oci. ai, I8D3, iha man, b. of Scotch parenta, Farrlie Co., Fil, 
no upoD lODW rocks, and wBi, with her ore*r, Oct. 6, IT9B;il. Yonkcrs, N.Y., Uar. IS, 
aplored. Relea««i] after 13 monlhi' conSne- 1863. JelT. Call. 1S18; U.D. 1843. Ho Uui-hl 
UMDC, Cspt. Bunbridge was BcquUred of M school a year at BeilefoDle i aludled 3 years at 
blame hr ■ eourtof inquiry held at big own re- Frincelon Ibeol. Sem.. !□ whicb he waa una 
ODeat. Sept. 15, 1812, he took commandof the yearaCator; had charge of a mid. at Prince- 
frigate " Cunatilntioa." CmlBinB near the ton Iroia 1823 to ISiT ; was agentof the N.J. 
coaatof Bmll, Dec. a9,he felt inwith theBrit- Missionary Society ia 18S8; of the Amer. 
tih frigate "Java," Capt. Lambert, wfaich,la an Sunday School Union in 1829, and in 5 ymtt 
■ctioa of an hour and bi miauius, was so in- increased its revenue from SS.OOO to *38,0OO. 
■Died, that, after her capture, she wai blown From 1835 to 1843, he wai most of the lime 
>p. Both eoianianders were wonnded, Lambert in Europe, striving to ruvire the Proleslanl 
mortally. Be treated his prisoners with great faith in the south, and to promote the cause 
kindness ; was eaibasiastically received upon of tecnperance in the north, camiug the title 
hh retimi, and was awarded a gold medal by of " The International Preacher, »o wide- 
Congress. After the pence of 1815, he superin- spread had been bis tabots. On the rurmatiun 
tended the building of "The Independence," of the Foreign Evangelical Society in 1849. hu 
74, in which he aailed for Algiers, but was fore- became its agent and corresp. sec. On his tnst 
•tailed by a treaty of peace. He was afterward visit to Europe in 18S3, he ably vindicated the 
one of the r "'- --' — -*-- .■ -i- .._.._ _._.__. i__ i..p.._. 



9 of the Union against secession before 
ry-jard at Cbarleslewn. His last cmise was London audiences. He pub, " Beligion in 
" The Columbus," 80, is the Medilerranean, America," 1842; "Visit to Northeni Europe;" 



^> 



inlSaO-SI. (SftLi/e.bv That. Uarri; M.D., " Memoir of Anna J. Linnard," 183S ; " .. .. 

i. Phila., aro,lS37.) His bro. JoaiPH, capt. and Prospects of Religion in America." 1842; 

8. navy, d. Nor IB, 1824. A liaut. at the " Vieworthe Valley of the Mississippi." 183!; 

"""■ ■" "Transplanted Flowers," 1899; "Memoir 

.r Rer. Joseph Sanford," 1S36 ; " Protes- 

actions of Preble's sqoadron in that harbor, tantism in Italy," 1S45 ; " Impressions and 

Jply-Sepi. 1804. Experiences of the W. Indies and N. America 

Baiae, A. C, lawyer and anthor, b. Ra- in 1849," l2ino. Phila. ; " The Christian Ket- 

leigh, N.C., ai 8epL1810;d. Clifton, Nevada, rospecl and Register," 1851 ; " History of the 

91 Dee. 1863. About 1849, he settled in Stock- Albigenses, Waldeiisca, and Vaadois,'' " His- 

loD, Cal , as a lawyer, and was greatly esteemed tory of the Temperance Societies of the U.S," 

fbrschclarship and integrity. Authorof'Di- FBris,l83ti; " Union of Church and Sute in 

Tine Faith and Natural Reason," 1861 ; and at N. .England," Paris, 1837. Editor of the 

the time of his death had nearly completed a CliriMlian Union, monthly, 1847-8, andcorresp. 

vol. on "Relations of Human Liberty to Nat- of many leading foreign and Amer. jounial*. 

oral. Moral, and Divine Law." His son. Rev. Chnrlas, iiad charge of a Frot- 

B&ird, Abulom, brer, nug.-gen. U. S. A., cstant chapel at Rome ; and anuthci son, 

b. Waihingion, Pa., Aug- 30, 1824. Wash- Henry M., is disting. for proSciency in Greek 

jnglon Coll. 1841 ; West Point, 1849. Ha literature, and pub. a memoir of his father, 

•ludied law before entering the military acad. I86S, 

Ent. the 9d Art; served in Fla. in 1850-3; Baird,SFB)icBRFcLi.BBToii,LL.D.,aaiD< 
and between 1853 and 1859 was auist. instruct- ralist, b. Reading, Pa., IS23 Prof. nat. sciences, 
or, and assist, prof, of mat hematics at West Dick. Coll. 1846; assist, sec. Smiths'n. Inst. 
Point. Id Mar, 1861, be was ordered to Wash- The editor and translator of "Tbelconographic 
JBgioD to com. Magmder's battery, and II Encyclup.," 4 vols. Svo, N.T., 18SI. Author 
May, became assist, adj. -gen. .rank of capt. Ho of papen on loology, and of reports on natu- 
waschiefofstafftoGen.Tyler at the battle of ral history colls., made bj Capt Stansbury, 
Bull Run; IS Nov. 1861, assist. insp.-geu, rank Capt. Marcy, Lien t. Gillisa, the U.S.and Mex- 
of maj. ; and in Mar. ISSS, chief of stalT, and ii-an Boundary Survey, and the Pacific R. U. 
insp.-gen. to the 4 th anny corps, Gen. Keves; Survey; also, with J. Caarin, "The Birds of 
and waaat the siege of lorktown and the bat< North America," S vols. 4to, 1860; " Mam- 
lle of Williamsburg. Apr. S8, 1863, hrig.-gen, mais of North America," 4to, 1861. He has 
of vols., and placed in com. of a brigade under mode valuable contributiDns' to the publications 
Geti. Blorgan, at Cumberland Font, Ky. In of the Jour, of Sciences, Phila., the Smith- 
April, 1863, he com. a div. under Gen. Gran- ' 



ser, when attacked by Van Uont at Franklin, Baker. Dakigu licut-coL U.S.A.; 
Tenu., and alio at Chickamanga, for which he Detroit, Mich,, 10 Oct. 1836. App. f^~~~ ' 
was brev. lleu(.-col. SO Sept. 1863. Brer. col. Enaigu 16th Inf., 8 Jan. 1799; adj. i 



r Chattanooga; brev. brig.-gen, assist, military agent at Detroit; capt. Mar. 

13 Uar. 1863, for the capture of Atlanta; and 1812; assist, dcp. quartermaster, Apr. 1812; 

brev. maj, .gen. vols. 1 Sept. 1864, for services brev. maj. Aug. 9, 1812, for disting. service 

in the Atlanta campaign, particularly tor the in battle of Brawustowo, Magaago, where he 

battles of Reoacca and Joui-sboroDgh, and op's was wounded; aide-dc^^amp to tien. Lewis, 

against Savannah. He com.a div. of ihe 14th June, 1813; maj. 45 Inf. Apr. 15, 1814; 

corps, in Sherman's " march to the sea," at itie diatiiig. in aSair at Lyon's Creek, under Geo. 

bMTic of Bentonville, N.C. 30 Mar. 1869, and Bissell; maj 7lh Inf. 1 June, 1819 ; lieut.-col. 

surrender of Jobnaion's armv. 36 Apr. 1865. — 6ihlDr. May 1, 1839; com.hi^reft in battle 

Odium. of theBadAxe. — Gonbsr. 



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Baiter, Damibl, D.D. {Laf. Coll. lSt9), ing much ol the secret hUCorj of tbe war, and 

pm. of Aiuiin Coll., Texas, Fretb. clergv- cbatgiag PrcBident Johnaon with beiog prirj 

man ; d. 18S7. N. J. Coll. 1815. Haa puD. to the pardon -brokorage basioest. 

" AfToctianate AddreM to tSoiben," and lo Baker, Uh¥OI< Cuuiues, D.D.. Bigbop 

"Falhcra," " Plain and Scripiural View of M. E, Church, b. Marlon', N. H., ISIS 
Baptiim," IBmo, " B«TiTal S«riiioni," 19iiio, Licenied ISS9. Copmc. bishop in Maj, I85S. 
J Beriea. ' He iras lUtioDed in N.H., and was prof, in 
Bf^ier, David Jbwett, politician, b. E. the Meth. Bibl. Inat. in 184I-&S. Author <^ 
Baddam Ci., Sept. 7, 1799; d, Alton, 111., " DiicipUne of the ULE. Church," ISmo;" Last 
Aug. 6, 1869. Uam. Coll. 1816. He went Witneas." D. Concord, N.H., Dec. SO, IBTI. 
wiiRhispareDtatoUntario Co.,N.T., iaISOO, Baker, Capt. Bbnkhbeb, aoldier and 
worked on a farin, aludiwl law, and was ad- pioneer of Vt., b. Woodbury, Ct. ah. 1740; 
milted to the twr in ISIS ; settling in Kaakas- killed by Indiana, near lile Aux iVuiz, in Aug. 
kia. 111. fie had a larue practice, and waa 1779, A soldier in the Frrach war in 1767-9, 
probata judgeof Randolph Co.; U.S. aenatcr and in the bloody battle at TicoiidcrOR* ; 
1S3D-1, carrying through Coufp^ss the im- seitledai Arlington, on Ibe "N.H. Grants, '' io 
portan I measure of selling the public lands to 1764, and, in (he ilmgglea of iLa seitlen 
actual scttleiB in qaauiitiea of 40 acres; U.S. ogsinst the claiina of N.I., waa an active and 
at'orae; for 111. iu 1833-41. He oppoaed tbe ^cienl second ip Ethan Alien. On one occa- 
iiiiroduction of slavery into Dl. in 1823. with sion, he waa captured and cruelly mnjmed, 
tuchcnergy,thathisopponentsiriedlokillbim. bDtwu rescued the same day. lie wna oat- 
Baker, Edwabd DicKiNBOM, soldier and lawed bv the gov. of N.T., and a price >et 
scaator, b, Lond,, Feb, S4, 1811 ; killed in the opon his bead. Ms; 10, 1779, with Col. 
battle of Ball's Bluff, Uct. SI, ISSl. His Warner, be participated it) tbe capture of 
Inmily catne to the U.S. ab. IS19, and aettled Crown Point. He irai on • Moatiog esped. 
in Phila., but in 1835 removed to III. The when killed. 

«on Dtudicd law, waa admitted to practise Balb(»,MiauBL CAVSLLO.a Spaniahmii- 

in Creene Co., 111. ; removed toSpriai^eld ; in aionary who visited S. America ab. 1566, and 

IE37 was chusea Co the Icgial.; was Stale sen- collected tnateriala for a history of Peru, which 

alor from 1810 (O 1844, and then M.C. until was pub. in Paris, 1840. 

ibe breaking-out of tbe Mexican war, when Balboa, Vasco Nusez db. a Spanish dis- 

he resigned, and became col. of Illinois covererandeonc|uerorin America,b.Aeiesdelos 

Vola. Heahared in the siege of Vent Cnu, Cnballcroa, UTS; d. CasliUa de Oro in 1917. 

com. with great Bollantry a brigade at Ccrro In ISOI, he went to the WeaC Indies, in the ex- 

Gurdo and all ibe aubacquent conSicta, and ped. of Boalidaa. He ia said to have been the 

after the war removed to Galena, aud aided in flrat European who ascertained Cuba to be an 

tbe Domlnaiion of Oen. Tajlur to the prosi- bland. Erom Qiapeniola, he sailed in IBIO to 

dency. In 184S-9, he was a^in in Congre», tbe Hifer Uarien, and estebliehed a colony on 

but, becoming connected with the Panama the Isthmus of Panama, where he built Santa 

KailroaJ Co., declined a re-election, settled in Maria de la Aniigua,tha lirsi town on ihecon- 

ihe successful practice of law in Cal. in 1892, tinent of South America. In Sept. 1513, Bal- 

and connected hiiDielf with the Republican baaselonton nnexued. across tbe i9thmns,and 

pany. When Senator Broderic was killed in a discovarvd the Pacific Ocean, Sept. 39. Kueel- 

duel in 1899, he delivered a funeral-oration ing.he thanked God for thi9greatdiscovcry,or 

over the body of his friend in tbe public aquare which be took posBeaaiou in the uante of the 

of San Francisco, and sooti after removed to sovereigns of Castile. Katnming, he sent lo 

Orecon, where in 1S60, by a coalition between Spain an account of his discoveriea. His mer- 

tbe Kepublicaaa and Douglas Dcraocraia in the its, however, ircre nen^lecled, Gnciso, a rival, 

k-t;isl,, be waa elected to the U. S. senate. On having troducoil him lo the Spanish Govt.; and 

tbe breakiog-ont of the civil war in 1861, he redrariaH paviln waa sent ont with a fleet and 

raised the "California" tegt. in N.Y. and troops as gov. of Dariea, Balboa was after- 

Pliila,, and, declining to be app. a gen., went wards made lieui.-gov. with independent an- 

iiiio the held at iu head. At Bull's Bluff, be thority. But, diipntea arising between bim and 

com. a bri^de, and fell in advance of tbe line Davila, the latter acca«ed himof disloyalty, and 

while serving a piece of artillery. a design to revolt ; on which charge he was 

Baker, UihbtFblt, author and inventor, tried and convicted; and in spiteof liie encrea- 

b. Sulvm, Ms., Nov. 7, 1797 ; d. Portamoutb, lies of the judgoa tbemselvee. and of the whole 

O., Feb. SO, 1857. H.n. 1819. He became a colony, he was beheaded, leaving (he character 

merchant and trader. In 1846, he paCenlcd of an active and enterpriaine adventurer, infe- 

the welt-knovrn "Improvement in Steam- rior lo none of the Suanish leaders in America 

Boiler Furnaces." Ab. 1S48, he went lo Cin- in courage or abiliiies, and whose object wa* 

cinnati, became cleik in a hank, and in 1853 fame, and not the arcumulation of wealth. In 

and 1854, pub. in Iwo parts a work on" Banks bii ioiarcoursc with the Indians, be displayed 

and Biinkiug in the U.S.," and contrib. Ire- great hnmanily and prudence, 

qucnti; lo the Danktrt' iiagax'uie. The name Balbuena de (da-LaUbwa'-ni), Bl[R!<AB- 

of Baker, bis siepfalbcr, was added to his ori- no, a r>]iauish poet, and bishop of Porto Rico, 

ginal name. in the W. Indies, from 1620 to his dealt), IG27, 

Baker, Lafaiettb C. brcv, brig.-gcn. b. Val de Fcnoa, 19C8. Author of " Tbe Age 

vols., and rhief of the detective service during of Gold." a pastoral romance; "El Bernardo," 

ihccivil war, b.Siaflbrd, N.Y., 1824; d. Phila., an epic poem, and some lyrica.— S« Tidaar't 

July 3, 1868. tn 1867, he pab. a work detail- Hit. 6>in. Lit. 



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BAZi 55 BAX. 

Btlourrefli Ai.ixiin>mK Linimit, Earl oonTention which rramed the Federal Coniti 

«f, aBriiiihgea., b. 1792; d. London, !7 Mar. tntioa tn 1787, under which he was M. C. 

ISIS. Eldeit w>D of lb« Sih Rarl BalcuiM, 17B»-99,aDd A U. 8. Bcnator from 1799 titJ hii 

whoin in 1TG7 be »tii9c«edcd in ihe fomilj hon- death. Dnriag ilw SS vean of hie legislative 

on. He became an enaign in the 53d Foot, career, he was nerer absent an hour, nniil the 

obtaiaedBniajorala,Dee. 9,1775, andaerveds week preceding hii deatb. la the Georgia 

fean in N. Anerica nnder Carlelon and Bur- legisl. he originaicd the plan of (he Stale Uni- 

KojDe. He waa preaenl at the actioni ofTroia Teraltj, drew up the charter bj wbicb it wb* 

BififeiHiJaDel, 177S; com. tbe light infantrj endoned with 40,000 acres of land, and, witb 

if the army at Tioonderoga and Hubbardton, the aid of Got. John Milledge, carried it 

July 7,1777; aJMatFneman'eFarin, Sept. 19, ihrongb Baccessfaltj. Itwaa located at Ath- 

on the heigbts of Saratoga, with the com. of eni, and he vas eeveral yean its prei. He 

the adTaneed corpa of tbe army. Brig.-Gea. wai the bro.-in-lairof Joel Barlow; was a tnaa 

Frwer being killed in the action, Oct. 7, Oct. B of great talents, ardent patriotism, snd exien- 

Bslcarrei was app. lienr-col. S4th Foot, and aire bensrolence. Having nerer been ma^iied, 

wiu tDcluded in (be eonrention of Saratoga, he was enabled by economy to assist many 

At the baltla of Uabbardtoa, where he was yonng men in obuiniHg »n education ; and, on 

wounded, 13 bailii pasaed thmii};h hiiclothei. the death of hie iiitber in 1787, protected and 

Mode maj.-gen. 1T93, and in 1791 sent [ocom. educiited S orphan-children, bia half bros. and 

Ihefoivea in Jamaica, where he wai also pieced sialcn, among them Judge Henry Baldwin. 

at the bead oftheciTiluduiniBtratioDas lieut.- Baldwin, Abhdei., Pr.-Ep. clergyman, 

KOr., bat toon af^ returned to Kng. Lieut.- b. Litchfield, Ct,, Mar. 7, 1757 ; d. Rochester, 

gen. lT9S:icen. 1803. At the timeof hiideaih, N.Y., Feb.8, 1S46. Y. C. 1776. Heacrredasa 

be wai one of tbe ropresentsliTe peers for Scot- qnartermistcr in the Kevot. war, and was ord. 

land, hut look no actiuB part in polities. by Bishop Seabnry in 178S, — the first EpJt. 

Baloh, GEOU3BB.,capt. U.S.N.. b. Tenn., onlinalioo in this country. Minister of Strat- 
I)ec 30, 1831. Midshipman, Dec. 30, 1S37; ford, 1792-1834. He waa a delegate to tbe 
lieut. Aug. IS, 1850; com. July 16,1863; capt. Ocneral Convention, sec. of the Diocesan Con- 
July K, 1866. ActivEly engaged in the war Tcntion for many yean, and see. of tbe General 
with Mexico lixMn first attack on Alvarado, Convention sever^ times. After leaving Slrat- 
NoT. I. I84fi, to surrender of Vera Crui, Mar. ford, ho ofBcialed at Wallingford, Meriden, 
IS47. While on the sloop "Flymoatb," in North Haven, and Oxford, uniil la.'IS, when be 
com. of the advance post at Shanghai, China, became disabled by aga. Ue had preached 
be was wDonded in the hip in a fij-ht between about 10,000 times, baptized 3,010, tnarried 600 
the rebels and imperialists. Com. steamer couplea,andassisl^ attheburialof abontS.OOO 
" PocahoataB," S. A. squadron ; engo^ rebel individnals, — Blaie. 

battery at Slono, S.C., and on tbe Black River Baldwin, Cbabc^ss H., Capt. V. S. N., b, 
■n Ang. 1863; oom. steamer "Fawnee," at- N. Y. City, Apr. 34, 1823. Midshipm. Apr. 34, 
tacked by 2 tcIkI baltetios, who at the same 1839; lieut. Not. 1953; resigned, and re-en- 
time attacked Gen. Terry's Ibnees, and were re- tered navy in 1861 ; com. Nov. 18, ie!63 ; capt. 
poised July 16, 1863; engae>ed and captured > 1869. Served in frigate "Congiesa" in Mexi- 
rebel guns m the Eeowab River, Dec 29, 1 B63 ; can war ; com. steamer " Clifton " at tbe cap- 
in the oparalions of Dahlgren and Foster in tore of New Orleaas, and at the Gnt attack on 
S(onoBi^er,6.C.,Jaly,)864;andFcb.9, 1S6S, Vicksburg, 1362. — /Jnimn-.'/j. 
with tbe "Sonoma" and "Daffodil," engaged Baldwin, El inn Wkittlbsbt, Pres. Wa- 
3 rebel hattaries on Togoda Creek, North Edis- bash Coll., Ind., 1835-40. b. Durham, N. 7. ,39 
CO S.C., drivuK Ihe enomy from bis works. — Dec. 1789 ; d. Crawford ville, Ind.. 15 Oct. 1840. 
Haaunit. Y. C. 1813 ; And. Sem. 1817. S.T.D. Bloom. 

BalOD, WitLiiM, minister of the Second Coll. 1S39. Minister 7th Presb. Ch., N. T. 

Choreh, Bradford, b. Beverly, Ms., Oct. 8, 1 701 ; 017, 1820-35. — See iUmoir, by E. F. Balfidd, 

d. Bradford, Jan. 13, 1793. II. U. 1724. Ord. NY. 1843. 

J Jin, 1727. lnl744.hepnb.apamphletupon Baldwin, Hbubt, LL.D. ( 1830), jntisl 

a ditpnte between himself and a few disaatia- and aiatesman, bro. of Abraham, b. N. Haven, 

fied memben of his chureh; and in 1746, he Ct.. Jan. 14, 1780; d. Phila., 31 Apr. 1844. 

wrote an able reply lo Messrs. WiggleswDrth Y. 0. 1797. He became eminent at the bar, 

and Chipmaa, who hail attacked him for props- seuled at Pittsburg, Pa., was M. C. (Vom Pa. in 

gating Anaiuian tenets. Besides the above- lSI7-33,and in 1830 was mode a jusliceof the 

named, be pub. " A Discourse upon Self-right- U. S. Supreme Court. Auihor of " A General 

eonsuess." 1743, and " Election Sermon," View of tbe Origin and Nature of the Consli- 

1749. —Eliat. todon and Govt, of the U. S.," Phila., IS37. 

Batdwin, Ab w apa", suteeman, b. Gail- Baldwin. Herrt P., gov. of Michigan, 

Ibttl, Ct., No« SS, 1794 ; d. Washington, D.C., 1869-71, b. Coventry, R.L, 22 Feb. 1814. He 

Mar.4,1807. T. C. 1773. Beine a good elas- engaged in mercantile business in hia youth, 

sical and nrnthematical scholar,he was tutor Bmignied to Detroit in 1838, became prcs.Sco- 

thei« 9 years, and from IT77, till the close of ond Nat. Bank, and was two yean a State 

the war, was a chaplain in ^e army. Remov- sennior. 

ing to Savannah at the rcqueat of Gen, Greene, B&ldwill, Jbdctthih, col. of engiaeers in 

«ar]y in 1784 he abandoned the clerical pro- the Revol. army, b. Wobum, Ms., Jan. 13. 

fession lor that of the law, was a member of 1732; d. Brookfield, Ma, June II, 1788. He 

the legisl. in 1784, a delegate to Congress in com, a company in the exped. against Crown 

17U-4, an active and disiiag. mcmb^ of the I'oint, Sept. 19 to Nov. 27, 1799. He >ras ac- 



t.Google 



tiTS lu planning iha voika aroand Boaton 
daring iu inrtninientj wu made msisi. eo- 
cincer, rank of cnpt., at Cambridf^ Mar, IB, 
1776, and ordered to N.Y. ; plawid on the 
continontal establuhmeat, n'lib rank and pay 
of lient.-col., Apr. 86, 1776, and ordered to 
Canada, ScpL 3, 1T76; made engineer, wiih 
rank of col., and served at Ticonderogs. Ho 
was at West Point niib hii r^t. of artificeri 
In Oct. 1T80, and reaiened Apr. 36, 1783. He 
iTiu ■ prominent member of the Ms. ProTincinl 
rons.-re9s, 1774-5, nnd a friend of lilerawre. 
il) k-ft a bcqaeal of £100 Co Leiceater Acad. 

BoIdVUl, John Dsiriioit, author, editor, 
tnJ M.C. (IS63-9), b. N. Slonington, Ct., 
it Sept. 1810. A. H. of Y. C. 1B39. He 
kiiidied law and theologj ; connected himself 
Hiih the preia, first in Hartlbrd, next in Boston, 
and afterward became proprietor of the Wor- 
n-ifT Sp^. Deleg. to the Cbicaffo Conv. of 
1S60. Anihorof " Raymond HiU and other 
Poem^," 1847, and "Prehistoric Nations." 

Baldwin, Josbph 0.,JDdg« Snp. Ct of 
Cnl. 1857-63, chieT-jnstice, 1863 ; d. San Fran- 
ci^o,30Sept. 1864. Authorof'Flash Times 
of Alabama and Missiaaippi," Bto, ISSS, and 
" Parly Leaders," 8to, 18SS. Hia SOD Alex. 
W., U.S. dial, jndge for Herada, was killed at 
Alameda, CaJ., by a raUrottdacddeot^ IS Nov. 
1869, a. 34. 

Baldwin, Col. Loimfi, engineer, b. 
Wobtim, Ms., Jan. £1, 1749; d. there OcL SO, 
1807. A di^sccndanc ofDeacon Henry, oneof 
ihu first settlers of Wobnm. Having a good 
fommon school education, he devoted his lei- 
sure to the sMidr of mathematics ; attended the 
lectures of Pro'f. Winthrop at Harvard Coll. 
with Bonj. Thompson, afterward Conol Ram- 
ford, and became a practical sarvcvor and en- 
lhni>cr. A leading and active Whig of the 
liuval.. he was a memt»er of the cotinty con- 
vention in Middlesex, held in Aug. 1774; en- 
tered the army as a major; was chosen lient.- 
col. of Gcrrish'a rcgt. Jane 16, 1775; was col. 
of Che S6lh regt. in Nov. 1775 ; served at Lex- 
ington, at New York, and in the aorpriae of 
the Hessians at Trenton, but left the army 
early in 17T7, in poor health. Sheriff of Mid- 
dlesex Co. 1780 to 1794. Member of Ms. 
IcgisI, I77B-9 and in 1800. A principal pro- 
prietor of the Middlesex Canal, of which he km 
superintendent, 1794-1804. Member of the 
American Acad. His son Loauui, engineer, 
b. Wobam, May IS, I7B0; d. June 30, 1838. 
H.n. 1800. Was often employed in public 
works by the govt. ; and bis skill ia well at- 
tested by the dry docks at Charlestown and 
Newport. 

Baldwin, Mattbiai W., a ptooeer in- 
ventor, and builder of locomolive-enginea, b. 
Elizabethtown, N.J., 10 Dec. 1 795 ; d. Pbila., 
T Dec. 1866. He was originally a ;eweller, 
and, while thus employed, invented a new 
process of (TOld-plating. He afterward mann- 
factnred bookbinders' t«oJ», and calico-prinien' 
rolls, at which time he built his first sieani- 
en;.'ine. In 1 8.12, he conalnictod his first loco- 
moiirefor the Phila. and Gcrmnniown Rail- 
way. called the" Iriinaidc«." He made many 
iinpiirlnnt improvements in locontotive-engincs, 
tnd, in Aug. 1812, patented the flexible track 



locomotive. He waa a member of the Conat- 

Conv. of 1837, and of the State legisl- in 1853 
Many year* prea. of the Phila, Hortic. Soc. 

Baldwin, Roobb Shebkak, LL. D. (Y 
C. 1845), lawyer and aenator, b. N. Haven, 
Jan. 4, 1793; d. there Feb. 19, 1863. Y.C 
1811. Son of Judge Simeon bv a dan. of 
Roger Sherman. He studied at toe Litchfield 
Law School; began practice at N. Haven in 
1814 ; soon became eminent in the profesaion ; 
was State senator in 1837, and pres. jiroteta. in 
1838; [CTresentative in 1840-1 ; gov. of Ct. 
1844-6; U.S. senator, 1847-51 ; and a bibtq- 
ber of the Peace Congreaa in Feb. 1861 , oppoa 
ing the projected amendments lo the Conslitn- 
tion. His plea in the " Amistead " case, m 
which he was asso. with John Quincy Adams, 
was one of the ablest forensic efforts ever made 
in the U.S. Supreme Conrt. In Ihe U.S. 
■enate, he advocated the exclusion of slavery 
from the lorritorT acquired hy the Mexican 
war, and opposed Ihe compromises of 1850, 
especially the Fugitive Stave Bill. — Sm Biog. 
Dxte. bg Rev. Dr. DuOon m N. Englander, Apt. 



New Haven, SB May, 1851.' Y.C. 1781. _ 
loral Yale in 1783-6; admitted to the N. 
Haven bar, acquired an extensive practice; 
waa derk of the District and Circuit Courts 
in 1790-1803; M.C. 1803-5; judge of the 
Stale Supreme Court, 1806-17, and of the 
Court of Errors ; pres. of the Board of Corns, 
to locate the Farminglon Canal in 1893-30, 
and mAorof Ihecity ofNew Haven in '1826. 

Baldwin, Thohab, d.d. (Un, Coil. isoa). 
Baptist clerurmao, h. Norwich, Ct., S3 Dec. 
1753; d. Waterville, Me., 29 Aug. 1635. 
With little early edncation, he became, by dili- 
gent c9brl, an eminent preacher, and thehead 
of his sect In N. E. Ord. 11 June, 17S3, at 
Canaan, N.H., and in Nov. 1790, over the 
Second Church, Boston. Prominent in the 
eelablishmeul of Waterville Coll., Me., 1820, 
and Columb. Coll., D.C., IBSl. He b^an the 
A.n>er. Bttpt. Mag. in 1803; was sole editor 
until 1S17, and senior editor till hia d. 
Several times a member of the legial., and mem- 
ber of the Stale Couai. Conv. of 1820. 
Author of " Baptism of Believers only," 180G, 
and a numlier of sermons. 

BEtlfour, NiBBET, a British i:en., b. Edin- 
bnqfb, 1743; d. l>enbigh, Co. Fife. Oct. 10, 
1823. Son of an auctioneer and bookseller of 
Edinburch. Entering the service as an ensit-n 
in the 4th Foot in 1761, he obtained acompp:iv 
in 1770; was wounded at the battle tii 
Buohor's Hill in 1775, and a^niin in the aciion 
SI the landing on Lent; Island; was atthc-Tiip- 
Inre of Brooklyn, and at the inking of Ntw 
York in 1776, on which oecasioQ he was seni 
horns by the com.-in-chief with despatches, and 
received, in consequence, the brcv. of maj. 
Nov. 19, 1776. He was present in ihe^aciion 
near Elizabethtown, NJ., in Ihe spring of 
1777; in theengagementa ofBrandvwine and 
(icrmaniown ; at the siege of Charleston, and 
served, under Lord romwnllis, part of the 
campaign after the surrender of the latter plnce. 
He «a« com. at Charleston ii 1781, and caoHd 



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Col. Ibr«c Harne** execntloD, &n act of on- Va., Oct, 16, 1761 j d. Shelby Co., Kj., SejH 

iiutiflftble craeicr. He irai app. lieat.-col 23d S, 1853. He mat to Kjr. in 1?79, and took 

Foot in 1778, col. and aide-d»«amp to the king put in manj orthe Indian coaSicts or those 

in IT8!; attained the rank of mBJ.-gen. in daja. Aamaj. of Ey. Tola., hsied ibead^aace 

ITM; serred in Flaoden and Hollaodin 1794; a^nit the BritiBh and IndianB at the Biver 

became iieQt..gen. in 179B, and gen. in 1803, — Ibiaio, and wai ironnded, and taken prJMaer. 

Gov't Mag. 1SS3. Qe woa often choaen to the Ey. I^ial. 



Bslfoor, Walter, nnireraaliBt clergy- BaUsrd,Et>wiAii,D.D.rrrin.Coll.lses|, 
miQ, b. St. Miniaoa, Scotland. 17T7i d. Pr.-Ep. cieivyman, MC. N.H. HUl. Soc., b. 
Charlestoim, Ma., where ha had long been Hopkinion, M.B., 1805; d. Brunswick, Me., 



aallled, 3 Jan. 185!. EdacsCcd a Preahjte- 'Sot. 11, 18T0. Formerly a school -leac her, 

rian, kc come to the U. S. at the age of 30. latterly rector of St. fa a I's church, Brunswick. 

B.'^joired popularity aa an eilempore apraker ; Dr. B. waa well reraed in (he Indian langnagea, 

became a Baptiit at 30, and a Universalist 10 and early hiitory of Maine, and was a conirib. 

Tears later, by reading Prof Stnart'a letters to to the pub. collectlonB of the Me. Hist. 6oc. — 

br. Cbanoing. He peb. " Inqniries Con- Brmne. Teirg. Not. 1 8. 
cerning the Deril," and " Scriptural Impart Ballard, Hehbt B.. com. U.S. Nbtj, b. 

of the Word* tranilaied Hell,'' 1834; "The Md., 1785; d. Annapolis,. Md., May !3, 1855. 

State of the Dead," 1833; "Reply," and Son of Mw. Ballard of the Rev. army. Mid- 

"Letiers to Prof. Sioart," " Letters to Had- ahipman. Nor. 3, 1804 ; lieot. April 36, NIO; 

son," and other con trovertial works. master, April S7, 1316; Capt. March 3, I83S. 

Ball, Dteb, M.D., clergyman and mia- Lieat.intbefriga(e"Coiia^tDtion"iDtbeBetioii 

aionary, b. W. Boylaton, Ms., Jane 3, 1796; d. with the " Cyane " and "Levaol," Feb. 30, 

Canton. China, March 37, 1866. Un. Coll. 1815. 

IB26. HestndiedatPhiliipsACBd.,BndalTala, Balloo, Hobba, a prominent Univ. mio- 

butwos obliged to go South for his health, later, b. Richmond, N,B., Apr. 30, 17T1 ; d. 

Aher • theological course at S. Harea and Boston, Jnae 7, 185S, He was oae of six sons 

Andover, he waa licensed to preach in ISSS, ofRer. Hntorin Ballon, a Baptist miiiiater, 

and ord, in 1831. He taught school in St. An- of whom Benj. and DaTid, lu well aa the tob- 

gnstine, Fla., and was a musioniijand teacher ject of this memoir, afterwards became UnJT. 

in the Sooth until 1637 ; huTing also the d^ne preachers. His faiher, who had a targe family, 

of H. D. from the medical initltDtion in receired no salary for preaching, and was ex- 

Charlaton. He sailed for Siogapora, t/Uj !5, tremely poor. As there were no schools in 

1838; labored there two yaara; went to Macao his native town, nor pen, ink. nor writing^jo- 

in June, 1641 ; remored to Hong Kong in per in his father's house, he waa obliged to be 

April, 1843, where be lost his firat wife; and in his own teacher, to snbstitate birch-bark for 

)St5 removed to Canton, where he again m., paper, and to use charcoal in place of pen and 

aod pasaed the remainder of his life in mia- ink. By persorerance, he enabled him»elr to 

sionary, medical, and edocational labor. For read and write at the age of 16. He began to 

many rear* be printed a Chinese Almaoae. preach when ah. SI, and labored principally in 

He Tis^ied Ihe D. S. in 1854-7. R. I., but sobseqaentlT in variouB ^rliOQs of 

Ball, EpsBAiH, inrealor of the Ohio 'S.&. In 1794, heaettledaiDana. Ma. Atihe 

Reaper and Mower, b. Stark Co., O., 1813. age of 30, he remored to Vt. to officiate in 

Paned his youth without the advantagea of Woodstock, Hartlaod, Bethel, and Baroajd. 

even a common-school education. In 1840, he He theie wrote his popular "NoteB on the 

began to make ploughs; and "Ball's Blue Farablea," 1804, and ''Treatise on the Atone- 

Ptoughs " became a Bocceee. He sabae<^ueat- ment" In 1807, he became pastor of (be 

It associated with himself, in this baaineaa, Univ. aociety in Portamonib, K.H,, where be 

COmeliua Aaltman and Lewis Miller, whose disting. himself by his controTersial writings ; 

lariie establlshnaeat at Canton, O., became and in ISIS remored to Saiem, Ms. He was 

widely known. "The Ohio Mower " appeared iABtalled paB(orof the Sd Univ. sorieiy inBos- 

in 1^. and was patented in 1856 ; and in ton, Dec. 17, ISIT, where he labored over 35 

1B53 the " Buckeye " machine was brought yeaia. He commeoced the Uaivernliit Maga- 

ont. whirh attained a large popnlarity. ant in 1819, condneted for a lew years solely 

Ball, TnoMAJ, sculptor, b. Charleatown, br himself, and afterwarda by Iter. Thoi. 

M*..Juae3, 1819. Poesestingafinebaas roice, Whittemore. Besides the works already 

he wa)i solo part* in oratorios in Boston. His oamed are a Bcriee of 36 lecture sermons, and 

flrstan a'temptawerealportraits. Amonghis !0 select scrmom; "An Eialninalion of the 

best pinoree are those of Mrs. Barrett the Doctrine of Future Retribution." 1846, Uis 

■ctnss, and a full length of Webster. Bo has eaaays. fugitive sermons, and other pnb. work*, 

execDied. in nuirhle, hnata of Webster, Cboale, it is estimated would make 100 ISmo vols. 

Jonas Chickcring; Btataetiesaf Lincoln, Web- In 1831, be commenced with bis nephew, Rer. 

stei. and Clay ; fall-length statues of Webster Hoaea Ballou, 2d, n quarterly publication, eo- 

and Everett, and an eqnestnan statue of Wash- titled the UnivemUiM Bipoiitor, which be ed- 

ii%ton Id the Boston Public Garden. He has iteil two jean, and coniinned a contributor to 

also produced ideal Blatues of Eve, Pandora, till hi* death. A rol. of his fugitive verses 

'Truth, and the Shipwrcckeil Sailor-Boy, In consists mostly of hymns, many of which are 

Feb. I8TI, his atatueof John A- Andrew waa included iti the "Universalist Collection," b* 

placed in the State House, Boston. — Tadar- Adams and Chapin. A Life by bis son, M. H. 

ana. Ballou, has been pnb., also by Thos. Whitt» 

Ballard, Mu. Bi.aiii>, b. Fredencksborg, more, 3 vol*. Sro, 1854. 



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BallOO, HosBA, 9d, D.D. [H. XT. IS14}, |i1o;«t; went again to aes; practiaed medjciat 
Univ. clergyman and anlhor, b. Halifax, Vc, In Ouiuii 1q 1763, and, laking up hia leii- 
Oct. IS, 1796; d. Bomerrille, M>., Maj 27, dence in Eng,, pab. in London, in 1769, hit 
1861. Qrandwo of BeT(j., elder bro. of Eer. " Natural Hintoty of Guiana," a work of mer- 
Hosea Bailou of Boitan, He received his eariy it. He nait wroto " Sir Charles Wentworlb," 
education at Halifax, Vl About 1815, he was a novel in which Chriadanitj was viliHed. He 
wttled a» pastor <rf Stallbrd, Ct., where he was a member of tbe Roy. Coll. of Physiciana 
ooniiuned 4 or 5 yean. July 39, 18SI, he was Loud., and Fellow of tbe Koy. Society. Oaia- 
instailed pastor of the church at Boxbary, ing tbe intimacy of Dr. Fnuiklin, the latler 
where he remained until June, 1838, wben be recommeuded bim to the editors and proprie- 
was installed at Medfbrd, Ms. In May, 1 853, tors of the Monthly Reman, (br wbom be wai 
be was cbosea first prea. of Tafls Coll., 8om- to review all publications relative to America. 
erville, Ms,, which be had been active in es- In this labor, Franklin alao participated. Ha 
tabli thing, and after visiting Europe, and ex- was also a "meddler in the stocks," In the 
Baiinin^ the colleges there, on hia return, Aug. aumineT of 1777, being inspected by the Brit' 
33. 18S5, etilered upon hia dntiea. In Hay, ish Govt, of panictpaiion in the atteicpt to 
1823, he became one of the eiliiora of tbe bam Portsmouth dockyard, be fled lo Paaay. 
Usivertalut ifagaiina (now tbe Tmmpa), and He then went lo Paris lo meet Silas Deane, 
in Joly, 1B30, in connection with Rev. llosea and render assistance to the Amer. cause. He 
Bsflbu. sen., he commenced the publication of bad prcvioual; pub. a vol. in support of Amer. 
the Unietraalul Eipotitor, which he edited eobaial tights, entitled "Bemarks on the Ro- 
many years nnder that title and the title of view of the Conlroverrr between Great Bri- 
the Univtritdia Qiwrter/y. In 1829, he pub. tain and borColonic«,"Loi)d., 1769, writtenby 
"The Ancient History of UnivoTsalism," and Wm. Euoi, He bad "a clear bead and a 
a collection of paalnia and hymns Ibr the use good pen, and wrote some pieces relative lo tbe 
of Univ. societies aod families, 1837. He ed- conoeciion between France and Amer., which 
ited Sismondi's " History of the Cruaadea " were tranataied, and printed in a work, entitled 
IBmo, Bost., 183S. Affaira de rAnglfterrr tl de l'Am£nnut" 

Ballon* Matitkir H., b. Boston, 1833, Bancroft the historian accuses bim of bemg a 

son of Rev. Hosea, editor and proprietor of apy in the pay of the British Government, 

lifilloa'i Pictorial and the Flag of our Union, and of making a dnpe of Deane, who showed 

Author of " History of Cuba," ISS-l, "Biog- bim all hia iastrucuona and correspondence, 

raphy of Bev. Hosea Ballon," and "Life- After tbe peace, heobtained anatentin France 

Story of Roaoa Ballon," a jnvenile work. for tbe BKclusive importation of the bark of the 

Baltimore, Lobd, aee Calvert, George. yellow oak, for the dyers, end aftcrwnnl pro- 

BajiOTOft, AitBOtr, D.D., a DiriurisD cnred a similar patent in Eng., by which be is 

mlniaier, b. Resiling, Ms., Nov. 10, I7SS; d. saidto havereahied £800 a year. lo 1794, be 

Worcester, Ms., Aug. 19, 1839. H. U. ITTS. pub. the first vol. of "Experimental Research- 

D.D. 1810, Though his studies were mtu^h ea concerning the Philosophy of Permanent 

interrupted by the Revo!,, he became one of the Colon,"&c., followed byaaecond in 1813. He 

most accwipli^hed scholars of the conntry. never retumetl to America. 

He sbouldun^d a musket as a volunteer at Bancroft, Geobqb, LL.D., historian and 

Lexington and Bunker's Hill. After spending politician, b. Worcester, Ms., Oct. 3, 1800. 

some time in teaching, he studied theology, H. U. 1817. Sou of Rev. Aaron Bancroft, 

was licensed to preach, and spent three years He studied at the German universities, and re- 

Bs a missiiinary in Tarmoutb, N.S. Feb. 1, ceived at Gotlingen. in 1820, tbe degree of Ph. 

1786, be WHS settled ii. Worcester, where he D. Ketuming to Amer. in 1822, be officiated 

apeni the residne of his life. He was a pio- one year at Harvard as tutor of Greek. In 

neer in liberal Christianity, and took an ac- 1833, in conjunction with Dr. J. G, Co^well, 

live part in aasociattons, conventions, and ec- be established the Round Hill School at North- 

clesiaaiical councils. He pab. a " Entogy on ampton, as a preparatory school for collegiate 

Washington "in 1800, "Life of Washington" rnslrnction. Hetegan at this time collecting 

in 1807, and in 1833 a vol. of controversial materials ibr a bisloiy of tbe U. S., tbe first 

aermona. He delivered, Jan. 1, 1836, a dia- vol. of which appeared in 1B34, and the 9th 

' course ori the 50 years of hia ministry at Wor- 1866. tn 1836, in an oration at Nonbampton, 

eerier, which baa been printed with historical he declared himself for nniversal sufirsgo and 

notes. He was in straitened pecuniary circnm- uncomprominng democTBcy. In 1835, he drali- 

stoncBS in tbe early part of hia career, and, in ed an addresa to the people of Ma,, at the re- 

the last Tears of hia life, he was oppressed by quest of the yonng men's Democ. Convention, 

severe domealic afflictions. Member of the and was active as a public speaker, and in 

Amer. Acad, of Arts and Sciences. Father of drawini^ up political resolutions and addresses. 

Hon. George Bancroft, LL. D. Is 1838-41, he was collector of Boston, and 

BanarofC, Dr. Edwabd, political and waa a A^nent orator in political assembliea. 
scientific writer, b. Westfleld, Ma., Jan. 9, In 1844, hewaa the Democ. candidate for goi. 
1744; d. Eng. 8 Sept. leso. Pres. Adams.in of Ms., hat waa notelected. In 1845, heen- 
bis autobiography, aaya that Bancroft had tered Mr. Folk's cabinet as sec. of the navy, 
been a pupil of Silaa Deane when tbe latter signalirinc his administration by the establish- 
was a sehool-teacher ; after someedacation, be mem of the naval school at Annapolis. In 
was ftppn;niiced to a trade, from which he ran 1846-9, he was rainisler-pienipo, to Great Bri- 
awiiy, anil went to sea in debt to hia maaier ; lain, and occupied biniself in perfeciiiii; his col- 
returned succcsifal, and compengaied Mi em- leetiona on Amer. history. He also brought 



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BAIT 59 UAir 

ab. changM in tb« British nangUioaUira (■- pub. Ibem in tbeadTol. of huworii. Amoiiii 

vonble to Amer. cooiniercs. App. miaister 10 hit pahs, were " ObMirationa on the NuCunl 

Frustiain 1867, snd has DCgotiawd > treat; Prodactioiu of Jamaica," "The lasects of 

witb the !f. Geno. Confed., bv which Oennan VirKinia," ITOO, " Curioiitiee in Virginia," 

iutaralize4 eittuint of the U. S. are raleaied " ObHerratioDi on the nnseea Lapiu, " On 

from allegiance eo the gOTemment of their na- Sereral Sorti of Snails," " A DeicriptioD of 

tiTc coantr;. In 1833, he pab. a tranalation the Piitolochla or SerpMtaria Virginian*, the 

of Heercn'i "Politics of Ancient Greece." Snakeroot." 

Besides □unj' public addresses, he has collected Baniflter, Ck>L. JoHir, b. Vo.; d. near 

ami. of " MiKellaaiee."chieS/ nponhistorical Hatcher's Ran, Diawidilie Co., Va., 

"' ' ■' ■■ ' • ■■ .■ — ■ EduoatedinEng,aQd«indiedlawattheTe[_,... 

Member of sU the patriotic conventions of tbe 

and in that ;eBr be retunied to (he U. 8. A Berol. period ; col. ia the Va. line ; memtur 

smalt Tol. of poems pab. at BosIod in IS33 of ihe Aasemblj, and of the Condaenial Con- 

wilaeasei to the pooticftl enthosiaam nith grenin 1778-9, and ooeof theframers of tha 

vbicb he trarersed the ruins of Italy and the Arlictes of Confederxion. In 1781, he was 

sablima scener; of Swittcrland. Ua was a lienl.-col. of cav. under Oen. La<rson,and,dur- 

KiDCrib. to the N. A. Sraiae. He has filled ing the invasion of Vs., was actire in repelling 

the otSce of pros, of the Amer. Geog^whical the enemv, and lost mneh property. For »pe- 

Socieir, and i« adistiag. member of the Bthoo- cimcni o'f his liierar; ■bilitiea, ace the Bland 

logical and N. T. Hiaforioal SocieUea. Mr. Papcra, and sIm Sparks's BeTol. Catnap.-' 

Bancroft hat aJso pnb. an abridgment of his Gnijiby, attdCampbeil'i Va. 

historj. In Oct. 1855, he delivered ansddrew BaDkhead,JiiiEs,LreT.brifr.-gen.C.S.A., 

on the site of the battle of King's Mountain, b.Va.. 1789; d. Baltimore, Md, Not. 11,1856. 

S.C. 1 another, Sept. 10, IS60, at tbeinaueura- Bon of JameaBankheadofPort Royal, plantar 

tion of the statue of Cora. Pcrr; at Cleve- and Rerol. off, who d. Aug, 1840, App. capt. 

land.O. ; a enjoginm onFreaooU the historian, Sth Inf. 18 June, 1808 ; brigade maj. to Qen. 

in 1859. before the N.Y. Hist. SocieU, and in Smnh, 1813 ; assist. adj,-gen. 5 Aai. 1813 ; 

Usr. 1866, delivered a ealogf on 'Ste*. Lin- maj. 4th Inf. ISAug. 1813; adj.-gen. Sept, 9, 

coin, before both faonsei of Congress. 1818 ; lieat,-«ol. 3d Art. Apr. S6, 1832 ; brer. 

BanKB, Natiuh, D.D., Methodist minis- eol. " for msritorious conduct in campsig:nB in 

ter, and scholar, b. Stralfbrd. Ct., Ma; 3, Florida," July T, 1S3S; col. 9d Art. Sept. 16, 

1778; d. N. Y. City, May 3, 1862, He com- 1838; biev. brig.-Ren. " for gallant and meri- 

mencedbuainesa-lifeasaschoalmasteraQdland- torioos conduct at the siege of Vera Crni," 

snrreyor. making a tour in Upper Canada, and Mar. 39,1847; com. dept. of Oritaba, Mex., 

(finiinDCd these c^cnpations nntil, in 1801, be Jan. 1848, and at the time of bis death com. 

eniered the ttineraut ministc7of the MMbodiat the military depart, of the east His son 

Cbnrcb. In the discharge of this function he Jom P. Barkh&id, capL U. S- N., h. S.C. ; 

travelled in Canada 7 jsan, and, retucntng d. Aden, at the mouth of the Red Sea, Apr. 

to the D. S. in 1808. bad charge of eevenu ST, 1867. Ho com. the fomona " Monitor." 

circuits, stations, and districts, until 1830, which foundered iu a gale off Cape Haiterae 

when he was elected agent and editor of the on the night of Doc. 30, 186£ ; com. " The 

Methodist Book Concern. He was in 1S3B~ Pembina' at the capture of Port Royal, and 

32 editor of tbe Chriilian AdoaeaU and Jour- " The Florida" at the capture of Feraandina. 

aaJ, the C^iarterfy Rtvitw, and also of the books He entered the navy 10 Aag. 1838. 

issued from the establishment in 1839-36, He Banks. Johk, lawyer, 5. Juniata Co.,P«., 

was cor. sec of the miseionarj Bociaty of the 1793; d, Reading, Pa., Apr. 3, 1864. Received 

M.E. Church in 1836-41; prw. of the Wes- a classical edacai ion. Adm. tothebarin I$I9, 

■ .T_-_ _. .r-ij....j|^^ Qj^ 1841-3; than and practised in the wcalem part of ■'■-'' — 

churches in N.Y. and M. C. 1B3I-6; pres. judce 3d jui 

._ ^ Author of " The Er- 1836-47; State treasurer in 1847. 

rt>nofHopkiosiaiusm,""PrcdeiliDation£xam- Banks, NiTHAnuLPaBHTies. statesman, 

hied," " Retbniker Reformed," "Life of Qarret- b- Waltham, Ms., 30 Jan. 1816. His parents 

■on," " Hisloiy of the Methodist- Episcopttl were operatives in a factory. With onlv ■ 

ChDrcb," "History of Missions," 1832, "An oommou school education, he applied himself 

Ori;;iDal Chnrch of Christ," " Emancipa- earneatly to study ; edited a newspaper in Wal- 

tion," "Letters on Sanctiflcation," "Stats tham, and afterward in Lowell; studied law; 

Prospects and BauMinsibilitiea of the M. E. became a popular Democ. speaker, and, during 

Chnrch," "Life of Arminiua," "Scriptural Ptdk's admrnisiration, iKld an office in the 

Vindication of the M. E. Chnrch," 1830. Boston custom house. Member of Ms. legiaL 

Baniflter, Joas, naturalist, b. Eng. ; d. 1849; speaker in 1851-2, and a prominent 

Va,, 1693. UecamelromtheW.Indieslo Va, advocate of the coalition between the Domo- 

andseillcdnearJaracHiomi, Fonnerlj a clergy- crata and Fruesoilers, by which the Wbig as- 

mao, he devoted himself here to botanical pur- ccndencr in Ms. was terminaled; pres, of the 

Hits, in which he was long and succesafully State Const. Coov. of 18S3 ; M. C. 1853-7, 

engaged. Hefellavictim tohisbTuntepunail, leparatiug from his party oo the question of 

bcin; kiUed ^ a Eall while climbing some slavecj, and, after a protracted contest, chosen 

rocks in one of hi* botanical excarsiooa. He apcaker of the house in 1855 ; gov. of Ms. in 

was aiiho time engaBed upon a work on tha 1858-61 ; prea. of tba II lioois Central Rail- 

Dsturnt bistoiT of Va. Li 1680, he sent a road when the Rebellion began, and, offeriag 

catalogue of planu to the namrallal Uaj, wbo hit Mrricet to Pres. Lincoln, was made maj.- 



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g«n. IS Mar, IBGI, and app. to com. the An- touching at Bitaria, the climate proved blal 
nipolia military district, and aabaequentlj that to him. — Noav. Biog. Gtn. 
of tlie Shenaadoah. at Maj, 1S6S, he waa Bu'b^, Mibboib, see Marboii. 
attacked bj Stonewall Jackion, and compelled Bu'ber. Col. Fuhcis, RstoI. officer, h 
to make a rapid retreat. He com. a corp* Princeton, NJ., 1751 ; d. Feb. II, 1TB3. N.J. 
Dtider Gen. Pope in the battle of Cedar MouQ- Coll. 1767. He became in 1769 rector of the 
laio, Va.. 9 Ai^., IBS!, and in Dae. succeeded acad., and pastor of the Presb. Charcb, at 
Gen. Butler in com. of the depi. of I^ Ha Elizabeth town, N.J,, and hod amonff bie papil« 
took Opelou9B9 in Apr. 1863, after defeating Alexander Hamilton, Resigning iheee posts, 
the enem}", soil captarin^ 3,0CK) prisonera, and be was, iti Feb, 1776, commiBsioDed b; Con- 
Alexandria in May, 1863. His capture of Fort eresa major of the 3d N.J. batt. ; lieuL.col. in 
Hudson, 8 July, 1863, opened the navigatiaD No*., and sabBequentl}' auist, insp,.geD. under 
of (he Misaiasippi, and had important reanlti. Baron Slenben. He aerred at Trenton, Prince- 
In Mnr. 1864, he made a fruitless exped. CO Che ton, Brandjwine, Ocrmantown, and Moo- 
Red tCirer, being defeated by Dick Taylor at month, where he was eeverely wounded ; in 
Sabfne Cross It«ads, 8 Apr., and, in turn, [«• 1779, he was adj.-gen. in Sailivan's Indian 
pulling him 9 Apr. at Pleasant Hill. He was exped,, and was wonnded in the battle of 
relieved from com. in May, 1864, M, C, since Newtown, He was engaged in the battle of 
1865, and chairman of tbe com. of foreign Springfield, and in 1781 was intrusted with 
relations, Ue is less eoiinent in debate than the delicate and imporunt dulr of suppreEs- 
M a pnaiding officer. ing the rerolt of the Fa, and SJ. troops, in 

Banueker, Bbxjahih, a negro aatron- whidi be was saccessfiil. He was with the 

omer, b. Md.,KoT. 9, 1731 ; d, Baltimore, Oct. army at Newbnrgb in 17B3i and, on the same 

1806. Of African descent, he learned to read day that Washington annoanoed to the army 

and write of his maternal grandmotber, a white the conclnsion (rf tbe treaty of peace. Col. 

woman, wbo liberated and married one of her Barber was killed bj the falling of a tree 

glares. While employed in daily agricultural while riding along the skirt of a wood. Two 

labor, he tanebt himself mathematics and aa- younger hrcM., John and William, were officers 

ttonomy, and made tbe necessary calculation! id the N J. line. 

for, and from 179S, for many years, pub., al- Barber, Sows Waxnbb, bisloilBn, b. 

manacs for Md. and the adjoining Stales. In Windsor, Ct., 1798. Has pub. " History and 

I79S, hepub, a letter addressed to Jefi^rson, Antiquities of New Haven," 13mo, IS31 ; 

the 90C. of State, He assisted Elticott in lay- "Beligioas Events," l2mo, 1833 ; " Historical 

ing outtheciiy of Washington, and in running Colls, of Connecticnt, 8vo, 1836, Massaeba- 

the boundary-lines of the District of Columbia, setts, 8to, 1839, and New Jersey, 1844, Vir- 

and was complimented for his scientific ac- ginia, ISM, Ohio, 1847, and New York, in 

quiremcnls by Condorcet, sec. of the French connection with H, Howe. He bas also pnb. 

Acad, of Sciences, to whom Thomas Jo&eisoa "Incidents in Amer. Hist." ISma, 1847; 

had sent one of Banneker's Almanacs. — See " Etentenla of Gen. Hist." IGmo, 1844; " Re- 

Memoir bg J. H. B. Lalrobt, 1845, and by J. S. licioas Emblems and Allegories," l3mo, 1848; 

Norrii, 1854, puJ, bg the Md. Uist. Sac. "Enropean Hist, Colls." 8to. 1855; " History 

Baraga, FbehbricD.D., B.C. bishop oT and Antiquities <a N.E., N.Y., and N.J," 

Marquette and Saolt Ste, Marie, b. Dobemich, 8to, 184); "Oar whole Coaoiry, Historical 

Acstrifl, 1797; d. Marquette, Jan. 19, 1868. and Descriptive," 8to, Cincin., 1861; "Hist. 

Hescltledat Sault Sle.M.before1838. Con- Scenes in the U. 8." 1817, and, in connection 

secTBted bishop Not, 1, 1853. Made bishop with Elia. G. Barber, "Historical, Poetical, 

of Sault Sle. M., JaiL 9, 1857, and of Mar- and Pictorial American Scenes," I2ma, 1850. 

quecte and S, S, M., Oct. 15, 1865. Author Barber, JoNaTHAH, M.D., elocutionist, b. 

of "Grammar of the Otchipwe Language," Eng.,n84;d. near Montreal, May 11, 1864. He 

Detroit, 12mo, IB5I ; "Dictionary of tbe practised medicine at Scarboraugb, and after- 

Otchipwe Language," Cincin., 1853, ward at London successrnlly ; came to tbe U.S. 

BaranOTlbft-ril'nof], Ai-axANDiii Avdu ab. 1890; devoted himself to teaching elocution 

ViTH, gov. of Bnssian Amer,, d. at sea n. Java, at Tale and Harvard Colleges ; then lectured 

Apr. 28. 1819. At first a Siberian merchant, on phrenology extensively ; went to Canada in 

be embarki^l, in Aug. 1790, for the Island of 1843 ; resumed medical practice there as a 

Kodiak, and, immediately upon bis arrival, homieopalbist in 1845, and wasatlerward prof, 

opened a trade with tbe natives. In 1796, he of oratory in tbe McGill n., Montreal. Ho 

established a mercantila colony at Behring's pnb. several works on elocution. 

Strait, and. in 1799, be took possesion of the Barbour, Saurb, Eiaiesman, b. Orange 

large Island of Sitka. He had many natural Co,, Va, June 10, 1775; d. there June 8, 1849, 

obstacles to overcome ; but his efforts were as- Son of Col. Tbomas, He obtained a limited 

listed by tbe Bussian company; and he d1>- education while serrinR as a dep, sheriH; be- 

toined from the Emperor Alexander a title of gan to practise law at 1 9, and first disting. 

nobility. After baring lost, and again recover- himself as a member, and then as speaker, of 

Ing in Oct, 1804, the fortress of the Isle of the Va. House of Delegates. Participating in 

Sitka, he established there an important factory, erei? important debate, be ably rindicaled the 

and transacted business with Canton, Manilla, resolutions of Mr. Madi«on in 1798, and was 

Boston, N.Y., and Cal, ; and he even founded the proposer of the anti duelling law. — one 

a small colony in tbe vicinity of San Francisco, of tbe most stringent and effective Ic^^ial. ai.'ts 

He withdrew from the field of bis labors in ever passed. Gtv. of Va, 1813-14; U. S. 

tSlS, but did not revisit bis couotr;; for, teuator, 1B15-SS. sec. of war, 182S'-8i and 



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BAB 61 BAR 

minister to Ettg. in lBSS-9; pres. of the H«f- which heafterwanl com,, and dupUred gttti 

nibarg >;oiiTentiiin in 1839. In the lenaia, he enervf aad actiritr. His fleet, boweier, owing 

look An important part in tha diacusaion of to the Bcarciij of'sailora, waa poorlj mannea^ 

the Mo. qaealion, waa chaimwn of the com- and in the obstinate battle of tbe lOth of Sept. 

niltee on foreign affairs, and nllimaldj pre& this deflciencj, to^pitber vith the siipenoi 

pro 1(10. weight of metal in the Amer. fleet, compelled 

BBrbOOTt Jom B-, politician, b. Culpep- the surrender of Bar<;laj and his entire force, 

per Co., Va., Ana. S, 1790; d. there Jan. 18, He wu danf^ronxlj wounded, and his remain- 

lS5i. Son of Mordflcai, ft Bevol. officer. Be ing arm rendered uselei*. A Iriai b? coan- 

mu at Williun and Mbtt Coll. in lSOS-9; miirshal reanlled in bi* honorablp acquitiiti. — 

then atndied law with bia relatire Oar. B. ; and, Monjon. 
In [he War of 1813, was aide to Oen. Madison. Bard, 

imber of the Stale legist.; M.C. Feb, 1, 1716; d. Hjde Park, N.Y., Mar. 30, 

,BKi' ■ ' " ' ■• ■ — " ' ■ • 

and was pi 

nSnin of Va. and of the D.S. He was of the father, otme to Md., • uerchant, in 1703, bol 

Suie RiEhti school, and was an able debater, soon moved to S. J., where he was man; 

Une of his beet speeches in Congress was de- ;ears a priry-conncillor and second jadge of 

liTcred in dolence of McDuffie's proposition to the Supreme Court. He receired the rudiments 

hreak up the s^itenl of voting for President bj of a classical edncation at Phlle. ; was seven 

States, and establish ti uniform sjrMem of rat- yean a surceon's apprentice there, and began 

iog bv districts. Member of the Const. Conr. ■ lasting fncndahip with Dr. Franklin. He 

of 1829--30, e*IAblished himself in New York in 1T46, and 

Barbour, Pbilip Pkhdlbtos, Jurist aoon ranked among the ma«t skilfnl in his 

and ^litician. Son of Col. Thomas, a BeTol. prolession. In 17S0, lie assisted Dr. Middlo- 

patriot. b. Orange Co., Va., Maj 3ft, 1783 ; d. ton in the first recorded dissection in AmericA. 

Washington, D.C., Fob. Si, 1841. He wa* » In 1739, he was app. to take measures to pre- 

" ' ■ - • ' ■ ..!.... ^^jjj jIj^ spread of ahip-feirer, and selected 

Bedloe's Island for a hospital, of which he 

edged leader of the "war party." M.C., lookcharge. Jn 1778, he withdrew from the 

ieu-25 and 1837-33; an opninent of pnblic citj; but, afterthe Berol., he reau mod practice 

improvements being made b; Congress, and of there, and in 178B became first pres. of the 

a tariff, and sustained the Southern side of the N.T. Medical Societj. In lT9ft, when the 

Mo. question. Speaker of the bouse in 1881 ; jellow-feTer raged in New York, Dr. Bard, 

._!___, __igQf^,jgy^P(,^^j^,g2j_j^,.g, though near 8" !_-.-. ... i — 

Const. Conv. in 1829; prea. of the gave up practi , , 

Free Trade Conv. in Phila. in 1831 ; jni^ of esaay oti malignant plenris;, and several pa- 

the U.S. Circuit Court for the eaatem district pers on the rellow-fever, pnb. in the Amer- 

of Va. in 1339-36; and asso. judge of the loin Sttdiccd Regitler. 
U.S. Supreme Court in 1836-41. Bard, Samuel, M.D. ( U. of Edinb. 1765), 

Bsroena (bar-lha'-nij, Ai.FOit80, a Span- LL.D. (N. J. Coll. 1313), phjsician, son of 

ish missionary to 8. America, b. Coidova; d. Dr. John, b. Phila., I Apr. 1743; d. 34 Maj, 

1596. Ho wrote for the oee of the nativea, 1831. On hi* passage to Edinburgh, where be 

and in their language, aome religious and edn- studied medicine, he waa captured h; the 

anal works. French (Sept 1761), and owed biB release, five 

" '" """ "" — >-—'-• '- " — months later, to Dr. Franklin, then living in 

London. After a tonr through Scotland and 

"First Eng., berecurnedhome in 1767, having gained 

_ the annual medal given by Prof. Hope for the 

Barclay, Hxkbt, D.D. {Oxf. U. 1761), beat collectioo of plants. Be began practice 

Pr.-En. rector of Trinitj Church, N.Y. City, in New York with his father ; organised a med- 

from Oct. 1746 ID his death, 30 Aug. 1764; b. ical school, which was united to King's Coll., 

Alban;. Y. C. 1734. He took orders in in wbich he took the chair of phyaiu in 1769, 

Eng. 30 Jan. 1738, and was some vears a mis- aubsequentlj becoming dean of the tocultj. 

lionarjto the Mohawk Indians. 7'he trausla- He m. his coosin Marr Bard in 1770, pui^ 

tioo of the church Liturgy ini« the Mohawk, chased hia father's establishment and business 



under his direction and that of Revs. N. An- in 1773, and in 1795 took Dr. Uoaack 

drewa and J. Ogil*te, was pub. in 1769. partnership. In 1774, he gave a courae of 

Barclay, J- T., M.D., b. Hanover C. H,, clinioai lectures; caused the eatabliafament of 

Vb..iS07. Three and a half yean a missiouuy a public hospital in 1791, of which he waa 

tu Jerusalem, and since 18SB a permanent app. visiting physician ; and in 181.3 waa app. 

resident there. Has pnb. " The City of the pres. of the Coll. of Phys. and Surireone. 

Great Kins ; or, Jerusalem as it waa, ai it is. While the seal of govt, was in N.Y. City, he 

and is to be," Phila., Svo, <S7 ; "Map of waa Waahiogton'a family physician. In 1798, 

Jerusalem and Environs," N.f., 1836. he retired to bia country^aeat in NJ., but, on 

Bflirolajr, E. H. capt. B. N., com. of the the approach of the yellow-fever, returned to 

British Beet in tlie battle on Lake Erie, b his poat. He took the disease, but, nursed by 

Scotland ; d. Edinburgh, May 8, 1837. Hehod his fiiithfnl wife, soon recovered. He was a 

(erred with Nelson, lost an arm at Trafalgar, skilful horticnltnrist, as well as an eminent 

and assumed the com. oa the lake In Hay, physician. Besides addresses and discoursea, 

IS13. He fitted out the naval armamenl lie pub. " The Shepherd's Quide;" d« Viri 



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hn Opii, 1765 ; an Angina Suffboaiim, Id tqI, tai com. llie 3d brigade of Bulf 'i diriilMi, 

I. Amer. Phil. Trani., and " Cumpeniliiim of E«rell'« corpa. 

1828. vols., b. Brooklyn, N.T., Oct. 19, 1834. H. 
Barkw, Jacob, financier, b. Swan laland, U. IS5S. Fine in Ma claaa. B« stadied lav, 
Kennebec Co., Me., 7 Dec, 1779. He was of began practice ia X.T. Citj, was for a tima 
a Quaker familj, ooDiiected, an hli mother'a connected with the Tribant, and, m Apr. IS61, 
aide, with the motherof Dr. Franklin. At IS became aprirate in the IS^N.Y. Rcgt., in 
he went to New York, w>od b^an to trade OD wfaicb he aerred three montha, riling to lat 
hi« own accoant, and at 31 wu tb« owner of lieot. Be then became lieat.-col. SUt H.T, 
fonr ahipa and a brig, and engaged in larg* Vol*., and, daring the siege of Yorktown, col., 
tranaactioni. He became a State senaKir, and, diatingaiabing himself at Fair Oaka. In the 
when sitting in tbe Court of Errors, delirered retreat from tlie Chidtahominf to Jamet 
an opinion in an inanrance caae in opposition Birer, his rest, rendered important serTicrv. 
to that of Jn4ge Beat, and was snitained by At Antietam, Sept, 17, 1863, he captured iwi 
the court. His ahipa were all captored during atands of colors and 300 priioners, received 
the War of ISia. •He eetablisfaed (he Onion two tercre wonndi. and wu catried off the 
newspaper to admcate the election of Got. field for dead. Sept. 18, ho was Rpp. brig.- 
ClinCon; (tarted the Exchange Bank in IBIS; «n. for dialing, conduct at the battle of Fair 
became largely concerned in stocks, and, on Oaka, Jane I, I86S. He com. a brigade of 
the failure oF the "Lift and Eire Inanrance Howard's dir. at the battle of Chancellors- 
Co.." waa indicted with others for conspiracy rille. Mays, 1B69. At Gettysburg, fa 



defend. He defended himself ably, and again severely woanded. In Grenc'a 
the trial wat quashed ; but public confidence palgii of 1864, he captured the whole di 
was ahakeu, and he removed to New Orleans of Oen. Johnston ; com. a division at the bat- 



e baj, and beeaine ties of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and the 
a poltiical and business leader there ; bnt the assanli on Feterabarg. In the finni struggle 
Bebellion brongbt ruin again upon him, and in and pnrsnit of Lee's routed anny, he rendered 
Doc. 1667, at the age of 88, be was again in essential service. Secretary of Slaie of N.Y. 
bankniptcy. — .Ska incidenti of hit Lijk, ISOO- 18S6-8 ; U.S. marahal for the Sonthem dis- 
ss. A'.l'.. 18M. D. Phlla. D^. ST. 1871. trictof N.T., 1868. 

Barker, Jxins Nir«DiT. aoldler, aaChor, BbtIow, Joel, poet, b. Reading, Cc, 3« 
politician, b. Phils., June 17, 1784 ; d. Wash- Mar. 1705 ; d. Zarnowicke, near Cracow, Po- 
Wton, D.C., Har. 9, 1838. Son of Gen. land, 33 Dec. 1811. Y. C. 1778. He served 
Johu. He was a brave officer in the War of as a volunteer in the Ravol, army, studied the- 
1613, in which he gained the rank of major; ologj, was licensed as a Cong, minister, and 
WBB alderman in 1617, and mayor of Phila. in 1778-83 was a chaplain in the armv, vary- 
in 1620 ; collector of that port in 18!9--38 ; ing his clerical duties with Che composition of 
comptroller of the U.S. iraas, I33S to IBM, patriaiic songs and addresses to keep ap the 
In 1814, he wa» severely wounded in a duel, spirit of the soldiers. About 17B1, he m. a 
and WB9 aaaist. a4j,-gen. 4th milit. diatrict, aiaterof Hon. Abraham Baldwin, nnit delivered 
from 1814 to 1617. He wrote two dnmaa, at New Uavenapoem, entitled " The Prospect 
" Marmion," and the " Indian Princesa ; " of Peace." Seltlinc- at Hartford, he iried book- 
" Superstition," a tragedy; the comedy of selling, eatablished the Ameritaa ilemtni, a 
" Smiles and Tears," and a poem called "The weekly paper, and in 1785 was adm. to the bar, 
Siatera." He was a contnb. to the public In 17M, he pub. a revisionof Dr, Watta'i ver- 
joumals of Phila. and Washington. Hia sion of the Faaloia, conCsining some pieces of 
poem " Little Bed Biding Hood" ia in " Oris- hia own. He was also one of the aothors of 
wold's Poets and Poetry of America." "Sketch the "Anarchiad," and in 17S7 pnb. hia " Vi- 
of the Primitive Settlements on tlie Biver Del- aionof Colnmbus." VisitingEuropein I7SS,as 
aware," Bvo, Phil., 1837. agent of the Ohio Land Co., he pub., in aid of 

Barker, John, D.D., pres. of Alleghany the French revol., " Advice to the Privilegnl 

Coll., Meaiiville, Pa.; d. there Feb. 26, 1860, Orders," "Letter to the National Conven- 

Barkadale, Willi»x, brig.-gen. C.8.A., tion," 17S1, and the "Conspiracy of Kinga," 

b, Rutherford Co., Tenn., Aug. 31, 18SI ; apoem. Towards the end of 1792, a* a dep. 

killed at Gettysburg. Pa., July 3. 1863. He of the London Conatilntional Society, he pre- 

studied at the Nashville U,; removed to Co- sentad an address to the French Convention, 

luiobaa, Hpi.; was adm. to the bar. where ha by whom he was invested with the rights of a 

practised SDCceesfully, and, while editing the Ftvnch citiien, and given employment in Sa- 

Demoerat aostained the principle of State tot, where he wrote Ms mock-heroic poem. 

Rights. During the Mexican war, he aerved "Baity Pudding." U, 8. consul at Alfrfen in 

in the 2d Mpi. Vols. In 1851, he was a mem- 1795-7, and negotiated treaties with Algiers 

her of the State convention to discuss the and Tripoli. In 1799, be pub, his "Letter to 

rompromises of 1850, From 1853 he was a the People of the U. 8..'' and endeavored to 

leading Sute Rights member of Congress of bring about an adjustment of our ditSculties 

the Deraoc, party, until the war broke out; with France, and, in a memoir to the French 

when he left hia aeat, and joined the Confcd, Govt,, denounced privateering as mere pea-rob- 

army. HeBssistcd Bn>oks in his asssnlt upon bery. Having enriched himself by oommer- 

Sennior Sumner. At the head of the I3ib cial apeculations in France, he returned to the 

Mpi. Regi., he look part in thevarions cam- 0. S. in 1805, and built himself an elegant rea- 

»eigns of Va., attained the runk of brig.-gen., ideaee on ibe Potomac, near Washington, la 



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1807, be p«b. " Tbe ColamMad," an epic po- 1613 to 1849, hi had charga of lI •> pablio 

•ID, — ibe moat magaiBccDl work which had icbools of R. I., where be ettabtished a model 

jci been iuatil in America, sail loperbJ; illo*- ijntai of popular edacaiioa. He next inter' 

(nted : but it prored a biluie. App. ambuM- tsled hinuetf in Khool architecture, and, Ironi 

dor to France in IBll, in Oct. IS 13, he wai 1850 to 1854, was Stateaaperintendent. In the 

iDTJted bjr the French minister to a conference samiaer of 1855, he Ijegan the American Jour- 

with Nnpoieon at WUna, bat died before his nal of EdaoatioH. He became pns. of the Amer. 

•iriTal there. A eoloey was delivered in Pari* Asso. for the AdTaacement of Educaticm, ia 

bf Dupont de Nemours, before tbe Societj for I8S5, and was offered ttte pnsidetKj of two 

IM Enconragemenl of National Indiutij; and Btale anlTcnicies. OonunlHioner of the 

an accmint of his life and writingi, in quarto, new dqwrtment of edncation at Washington, 

wai pub., with extracts from "The Coinm- 1867~70. Hia principal works are "Scliool 

biad. Ue wasorte of the foremoil American Aj«hitectare," 1854 ; "Normal Schorls in the 

aatbors of his time, and for his pntrioliam, U. S. and Europe." 1B5I ; " Tribute to Oal- 

-|Riblic scrrices, and pnril; of life, dnerreH a landet," IS53; " NatJonal Ettucation in En- 

'«b place in our hislorr. An edition ol tii* rope," 1864; " Jonmat of B. 1. Inatiinte of 

, nitioil wrilia^ was pqh. 1796. Instruction," 8 rols. 184^-8 ; " Educational 

Barnard, DiHiEi- Dxwei, UL.T)., law- Bio!,TBphj;" " History of Education in Ct., 

yer and politician, b. Sheffield, Ms., 179T; d. 1638-1854;" " Rq>ort on Pnblic Schools in 

Albany, Apr. 24, I8«t. Wms. Coll. 1818. Hia B. I.," 1845 and 1848; "Hints and Methods 

tather.'a naiireof Hartford, was acommiMory for tbe Use of Teacben," 1857; "Lifeof 

in the BeroL Daniel passed bis youth on hia GiekiclClieeTer.andNoieaon the Free Bcbools 

blhcr's larm, Ontario Co., N.Y., bat, iaclining of N. K.," 1856; "Edncation in Factories," 

to literary pnnnits,was,atI4,dep.intbecoun- lS4a; "School Lihrariai," 1854; "Educa- 

ty clerk's office. AAer leaiing coll., b« studied lional Tracts," 1848-6. 

Mw at Bocbesi«r, N.T, ; was adm. to tbe bar Barnard, Ibaxo D., soldier and senator, 

la isai; was county atlomey in I8S6;U.C. b. Aston, Pa., 1791 ; d. Weatcheater, Pa., Feb. 

leS8-30 and 1339.^5. Traraled in Enropein SB, tS34. Receiring an ordlnaiy education, be 

IS30-1, correap. with one of the Bocbesler began to stndy law in Cheater in 1811 ; waa 

joumala, remoTsd to Albany in 183S, and be- app.capt. Utb lof. Har. 11, 1819; maj. Jane 

came a nroiDiDent member of the Whig peny> £6, 1813; wa« dialing, at Lyon* Creek, under 

serring in the N. T. Assraibly. U. S. minis- 0«n. Biisell, and at tbe capture of Fort Qeorae. 

ler to Fraaais, 1849-53. Uaoy of his addresses, fn ^ay, 1813; and left the anny in 1815. Re- 

diKoiuMa, and speeches, have been pub. Id suming his legal itadiee, he was adm. to ibe 

1839. be rewl before Ibe Albany Institute "An bar in 1816, in Weetchesier ; was soon made 

Historical Sketch of the Colony of Rensaelaer- dep. at^,-gen. ; cboaen Stale senator in leso ; 

wick," which was pub. He was a constant sec. of State in isas; and was U.S. eenatorin 

eoairih. to tbe (Fi^ Renaa. The collates of 1897-31. 

Geneva and New York eonferred on him the Barnard, Jdhk, miniaier of Mai^lehcad, 

teneof hUD. b. Boaioo, Not. 6, 1681 ; d. Jan. M, ITTO. 

Barnard, Fked. Ads. Poktkb, D.D., H. U. I700. He was for some lime assist, to 

LL.D. (JeffTColl. Mpi.), acbolar and edueator. Dr. Colman ; but his fondness fbr active life in- 

b. Sheffield, Ms., 1809. T. C. 18S8. Tnlor at daced him toaccompany aichapiaintheexped. ' 

Tale in 1829 ; tev;her in tbe Hartford Asylum to Port Royal in 1707, of which he left a MS. 

fbr tbe Deaf and Dumb in 1831-3, and in a accoiml. In l«ndoa, where he beoiine nc- 

nmilar instiracion in N.T. In 1833-8 ; prof, of quainted with some of the famous dissenting 

math, and nat. philoa. in Ala. U. 1838-48; of ministers, he waaoSered a chaplaincy by Lord 

cbeniiury, 1848-54 ; of math, and astron. (^m Wliarton, bni reHised to confbrm to the articles 

1854; and ptea. of tbe Mpi. U. 1856-61 : and, of the National Church. Ord. minister of 

in 1864, became prea. of Col. Coll. N.Y. In Marblehead, July 18, 1716,as colleagneof Mr. 

1856, be look orders in the Pr.-Ep.Church. An- Cbeerer. He receired Mr. Whitwell as hi* 

tboTofa treatiseon arithmetic, 1B30; agram- assist, in 1 762, and preached his last sermon, 

mar, 1834; "Raporton Collegiate Education," Jan. 8, 1769. Eminent for his learning and 

III54;and"LecnireaonColl<«eGoTemment," pieiy, Mr, Barnard was fiunous among ihe 

I85S. A contrib. to tbe Amer. Jour, of Eit- diTinea of America. He tanght his people 10 

aaim ftom its origin. improre ihe adrantagea of their situation, and 

Barnard, Hamr, LL.D. {H.D. IS5SI, ed-- lookereat pains to learn the "tDTSiery of the 

Dutf- b. UanTord, Ct., Jan. 24, 1811. Y. C. flah-trade,"which was introduced there by hisef- 

IS3a Ho was adm. to the bar in 1835; trar- forts; and heabosticcesafiilly encoaraged them 

elled extensively in Europe until 183T, when to nndertakecommercialroyagcs.and transport 

ba wu a reprewntatiTe in the State lefpil., and tbeir fish to the West Indies and Europe. He 

was twice re-elected. In that body, he effected generally supported at school two boys, whuee 

a re-organiialion of the State common-school parents were nnable to meet tbe expense, and 

qalem. Be was fbr four years sec. of the Board gave by his will £200 to Harrard Coll. The 

(if School Commiiaioners. His lint annual oube, of Mr.BBmBrrlweremostly sermons. Hi* 

rqkort in 1839 was prononnced by Chancellor uas the fini DadleiBQ lecture ever pub., and, at 

Kent " a bold and startling document, founded the age of TO, he pnb. a version of tbe Psalms. 

on the most painstaking and critical inquiry." There is in the Mass. Hist. Culls, a letter from 

Daring this period, be issued 4 vols, of tbe him to Pna. Stiles, giving a sketch of the emi- 

Comxtiait Coaam School Joamal, and sobM- nent minisier* of N. E. One of the first N.B 

fBcntly contiHD^ it from 1850 to 1855. From dergymea who deviated Ihua Calvinism. 



,v Google 



BAB &I BAB 

_ _ I GaiM LL.D. rr. C BttIMB,DAxiEi.H.,eoa4olagi«,bL I7B9; 

i;v4 Bm. ^.fo. C-S.A^ k Emex C(L, d. (Jct-tT, IMS. brbeta; ihnnm fromacai^ 

Xt-, 13 Kit, 1«I9. Wm Faiat, IBXL E» m^ h coajwictioD nih Dr. Griicom, be 

lermg At ■'■;'■—■ cofpa, he brave c^t. 7 n»^.i—iil asd eOBdocnd with repatadan the 

JilT, H-r:: n^. 13 Dcr. 1858; Ecai.«BL 3 Hi^ b^doI (tf :(n Tort. Be vu aUo ■ 

Uu. 1^1: ea.»D«Lia»; tnK.-gcL tcIl Bapdn fna^tr. Boidei bis KTOEsttun- 

n Scj4. 1*41. Be ««■ long imjltiitd Mfcm ■!■(■ » ■ rlnteil arhotir and pbitologtst, be 

F'lm Jackacm md St. mSp, !«-; apea tks n> proUU; the BomanitMnicancboli^t in 

dtlnxx* bf Tampid), Hct-, IB4A-7 ; ckirf ike U. S. ; nd hk leirDed comniBDicatHina oa 



JKC laal (ckace were hIi. in Si 
ikc vitb explxmaT7 ptenm. Bis 



BsJToad, Hex., ISM-l ; eapkned «■ ikc vitb explxmaT7 ptenm. Bis TTidngs in tliat 

If«l(ware Bceakvater, 185!^^, n tbe tmiifi- iamrmal bt " Geofaign] Section of lite Canaan 

i;-!?! of Su FnnoKS hartwr, IBM; nperiu. Mi— n^." " Hcwir on ilie Genera CniounJ 

■d1 innrvuir, C^. Hilit. Ac«L, ISU-C; tm- *t*«w*— .. with BaawnMa G^nrM," " Five 

I lured on Fort! Gune* and llo<x». Mobile Speoei of CUno, mtli Finns/' " Memoir on 

I^^'T-8, and on the ■>»*—" of N.T. barter, Batnclna AniimT. and Doobtfbl Repdles," 

1^59-61. Chief fii^iimi in Maanaaa cM>- 'Oa Magnetic Pobiilj aod BedamaiioD of 

p*i:ni oT Jalr, 1861 ; of Arm; of (he FMonae, Vakm." 

IMI-l. and 'bnr. coL far leTTioea in ite Fe- Bamea, Juns. bi«T. m^.-gen. tdIs., b. 
mnnlar caopaign ; cbief ener. l itJfcjm of Bonoa ; d. Speiagfield, Hs., Feb. IS. 1869. 
Waibin^a, Sept ISCt to Msj, JSi* ; cbief- Weal Point. 1SS». Afm Btrea ynn' anov- 
(.Tizr. "of tlie uiiiiea in tbe ecM" on itaf Krtiee, he its^;Md, and becaate a nilroad eh- 
(if Gen. Giant. 1864-^ ; and brer, brig.-geo. enMcr and SBp eri n t endent on tbe Western 
■Q'l aaj^ea. U.S.A., 13 Mar. IMS, for gal- B. R. of Ml, 1836-18, and chief engineer of 
laoi lad meritoriana serrkxs in the caoipwgn the Seaboard and Roanoke B.R., 1B48.-5Z. 
endine with Lce'i sarrender, and daiiiu the He aided in coanrncdDgaeTeTalolherrailroads 
RebellioD. Aatborof " Snrrejof tbeUthnaa beneen I84B and 1857. CoL latb Ms. rcpt. 
of Tebnanlepec," 185!; "PbeDoisena of the fnim JdIt M, 1861, lo Nor. S9, I66i, when 
Grrmcope," 1858 ; " Danj^cn aod Ddrneei be was made hrig.-geD. ; bier. ■naj..g«i. Mar. 
ol'Ncw York," 1K9; "Notes OD Seacoail 13, 1S65; mnstmd oat, Jan. 15, lS£p. He 
Defence," 1S63; "The C.S.A. and the Battle paitidnattdin most of ibe baules of ihc Annj 
of Bali Raa," 1862 ; " The Peninsalar Cam- of (be Potomac, was at Frcdericksbare. Chan- 
paurt," ISM UointI; with Gen. W. F. Barrr) ; cellorsvitle, (bo skinnisbes of Aldie and Upper- 
" Reports of (be Engineer and ArtillcTT (jpe- i~ille. and at (he battle of Gettjsbarg com. a 
rations of (be Ann; of tbe Potomac," 1 863 ; diriiioii, and was aerenJj woondcd. 
" EdIo^ on Gea. Tottai," 1866 ; and Taiioas Barney, Joeacx, rommodort D. S. Narj, 
icienlitic and militaiy memoirs and irporta. b. Baltimore, G July, I7S9 ; d. Pittsbarg, Pa., 
Corporator of Sal. Acad, of Sciences, 3 Har. I Thr. 1818. Hia pannm resided on a fortn 
1863. — CiiUam. near BaUimoie, when) be wai seat (o school 
BBmeS, Bet. Alhert, Fresh. clcr^:^maii, aniil 10 vcars of age Inclined to a seafaring 
b. Rome, S.Y., Dec I, 1798; d. Pbila., S4 life, he made sereral foreign Tojages, in The 
Dec. I8T0, Bam. Coll. 1830. Employed in last of which, when bat 16 jean of a^e, Iha 
' his fntber'a tannery until 17 yeaisof age. Bo care of tbe ship dcTolred. by accident, apon 
sladied theology B[ Princeton, and was pas(or him. In Oct. 1775, be became maiter'a mate 
of the Piesb. Church of Morristown, NJ., of tbe sloop of war " Hornet," and joined (he 
fiotn Feb. 1835 to 1S30, after which be had fleet of Com Hopkins in the capttire of New 
:Htaige of (he First Presb, Chnrch of Pbila. Providence. Before be was 17, he was made 
Ue held a prominent position tn the new school a tieaL for good condact in tbe action between 
of hij denomination, and took an early and the schooner "Wasp" and the British brig 
decided stand both in bia sermons and writings " Tender." in Del. Bay. Lient of " The 
ai:niii'>i etaTerj. His Bible commentaries are Sachem." Cspt. Isuih Robinson, and, after a 
well knonn. and mv in general nse. The serere action with an English brig, bronghl 
"Nixcson the New Testament" (11 Tols.)had her into port; soon afterward he whs taken 
reached in 1870 B circalation of a million Tols. pri-«neT, bnt wnj almost immediately ex- 
ile b]-o pub. able works on the Epi-.copacy, on changed, and in " Tbs Andrea Doria," aided, 
(he " Scriptnral Views of Slarery," Dameiotu in (he spring of 1777, in tbe defence of "Tbn 
coniribs. (o periodiials, occasional essara and Delaware." Again capiiued in (he (Irigate 
discourses, and an elaborate " Jntroductoty " Virginia," be was excnanged in Ang, 1778; 
Eisay (o Biihop Bailer's Analogy." He was was a third lime a prisoner in tbe following 

Ealpil orator, and ranked high rear, and, after his exchange, was for (be 

lo anlhor of commentaries on Ibnrth lime captnred in " Tbe Saratoga," of 

he Paalma, and Daniel, "Manoal 16gnns; was sent to Plytnootb, and confined 

iermons on Rerirals," in the Mill Prison, whence he escaped in May, 

on," 1855; "Practical 1781. After being retaken, and again cscap- 

e Chnrch and Sinvvr;," ing, he nrrivcd in Phita. in Mar, 17BS; took 

amily Wor^ip," 1858 ; command of "The tlyiler All}'" of 16 gans, in 

and Reviews," 2 vols, which he caplurcd, after a gallnnt liKbl, (he 

i(," 1859 ; " Claims of ship " General Monk " of superior force, for 

Church Mannal," Svo, which the Ui^itl. of Pn. voted him a s*ord. 

bis triaJ for heiuv by After the wurl bo cngnged in business ; iravel- 

["Lifaof 8t.Paal." led in the West in 1786-8, and took part in the 



'7,r; 



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adoption of tbe IT. B. CouititntioTi. In 1793. Onuu, anil tn» to tiei u chief in the noriliern 

while relurning from Cape Francois with b waters of the U.S., be did not besiiale lu plan 

Itige aamber of woman and cbildma, Hhom himBelf andur the ardcn of thai admiral when 

he had rescued from the blacks, hie TBsael waa hs thoaghl a junction aeoeasarj to the ^ood 

captared bj an EnglUb privateer; bnt be re- of the aerrice. Barras hnd at firit fuUowed 

captured her from her priie-crair. A^n cap- D'Estaing, and dialing, himself at the nnval 

tared in IT93 by an EngUsb brig, ha was im- combat of Granada. He fought unilvr De 

pruoned as i pirate, and his snip and cargo Graaae in Cheaapeake Bay, and at the Aniilles. 

coDdemoed. Et 1794,lieacoompanied Monroe alio, on the 35th and S6th Jan. I78S. against 

to Fraoce. and was the bearer of tbe Amer. Hood. whoeeSeetnaa moored undertlieKunsof 

Sag lo ttM Natiouiil Coorention. Made a St. Cbrialopher. whicb was taken by Boiii.le. 

capi. in [be French nnvj, he com. a squad- Barra« was detached to possess himself u( 

Ton, but resigned in 1799. In the War of NeTia and Montaerral, soon afcer whicb be re- 

1813. he engaged successfully in privateering ; turned lo Europe, and retired from the service, 

was made a capu in tbe C. S. Navy, 33 Apr. Barre db lx (deh la b&r), Ahtoinb Lk- 

IBU.and com. the Sotilla (bribe defence of FSvaB, a French naval oCBcer; d. May 4, lesS. 

the Cliesapeake. Ordered to Che defbnce of He was app. gov. of Gniana in 16G.?, a ' 



ashinaton in July, he was severely wounded look Cayenne from tbe Doich, 1667. Lieiti.- 

d made prisoner, while gallantly reaisiing the gen. in 1667, he defeated the Enulish in the 

British invaders at the battle of Bladensburg, Antilles, forcing them lo raise the blockade of 



34 Aug. 1814. A Bword was voted him hythe St. Christopher. In I6S3, he wai app. g 

city of Washington, and a vote of thanks bj of Canada, succeeding Fronlenac. He was, 

(he Icgisl. of Ga. He was sent on a mission to however, recalled in 1685, for having, by his 

Europe in May, 1815, bat returned in Oct., irresolution, caused the failure of tbe exped. to 

•nflonng from bis wound ; the ball never bav- treat with the savages. He was tbe enemy of 

ing been extracted. His death look place Just La Salle, aud is Mid to have enriched himself 

a.s he nail about emigrating wi[h bis family to by his corrupt practices. 
Ky., where ho bad purcha^ land. He was in Barrdi Col. Isaac, a British orator and 

36 enga^ments. In 1780, be m. the dau. of soldier, b. Dublin, 17S6 ; d. London, July SO, 

Alderman Bedford. His son John, M.C. from 1802. His parents, who were French, kept a 

Biliimore, 13JS-7 ; d. Wasbington, D.C., 36 small grocery-store in Dublin. Daac enicred 

Jan. I8ST, a. 13. — See Metaoin of Com. the army in 1747 ; became alieut. Oct. 1, 175.1 ; 

Barwif.bji Mara Barney, Sva.liai. accompanied the axpcd. atiainsl Lonisbarg 1 

BKrnam, PaiNaAs Taylor, showman, b. was app. by Wolfb, " his early protector and 

Bethel, Ct., 5 July, ISIO. He was a trader, friend, major of brigade, May 13, 175S; and 

afterward pob. the Ueiatd of Frtedan in Dan- May 4, 1759, adj.-gen. of the army before Que- 

bury, Ct.. and su9ered 60 davn' imprisonment bee. In the bauleon the Plains of Abraham, 

for a libeL Removing 10 N. V. in 1834. be be- be was so severely wounded as lo lose the sight 

gan bis career of showman in 183S, with Joice of an eve. In West's picture of the "Death 

Hcth, a colored woman, the reputed nurse of of ffolre," Harris llgnre is conspicuous. Ho 

Washington. In Dec. 1841, wiibooi owuing a served under Ambent in 1760, and bore lo 

dollar, he bonght Scndder's Amer. Muaeom, England tiie newi of the surrender of Moa- 

and. at tbe end of one year, bad paid for it in treal ; promoted to lieut.-eol, Jan. 19, I7B1, 

full. In 1843, be began lo exhibit Gen. Tom Placed in parliament through the interest of 

Thumb, with whom he visited Europe in Lord Shelbume in 1761, Barr^ soon found 

1844-7. In 1B49, be engaged Jenny Lind to bimself in the opposition, and, in consequence, ' 

come to America, paying her 81,000 per night was deprived of tne offices given for his service! 

for ISO nights. In 1855, he retired to Bridge- in America. His speech upon the Stamp Act 

port, Cc, and pub. an accouni of his career, in 176S deaervee a place in the memonr of 

He soon lost all be bad mode, and was obliged every American. Tbronghont tbe adminiitra- 

lo compound with his creditors In 1857. 13 tion of Lord North, Col. Barr€ continued the 

July, 1865, hismuseom was burnt. He opened warm friend of Che American Colonies ; dijting. 

another, which was also destroyed by fire, himself greatly by the boldness of his senti- 

aod bas since been interested in Wood's Mu- menu, and his inflexible opposition to the 

senin on Broadway. An unsuccessful candi- American war. He was blind daring the last 

date for Congress in 1857, He bas pub. a 30 years of his life. For IS years, he held a 

" History of Hambuga," and bas written and lucrative office. He was one of tbe supposed 

lecinred on agriculture and temperance, authors of Junius's Ijetlera. A town in 

Bcu^DW6ll, BoBKBT Woodward, state*- Hs. perpetuates his memory. His oratory wa* 

man, b. Beaufort, 8.C., Aug, 10, ISOl. H, U. powertul, bnt coarse, his manners meged, hii 

1831. He studied law; was M.C. in 1899-33; countenance atem, and hisstatnre atbletic. 
pres. of S. C. Coll, 1839-41 ; U.S. senator, Barringer, Dasiel Mobbad, statesman. 

1850. In Dec 1860, be was a commissioner b. Cabarrus Co., N.C., ah. 1807. C. of N.C 

to visit Washingtonin hehalfofS.Candwa* 1836. Heeaublished himself in the practice 

a member ofihe Conted. Congress. Prea. of of law in 1829, became distinguished in his 

iheU. ofS.C, profession; wa* several years in the Slate 

Bazras di Jdeb-b&-ri'), Lodi* CotisT, a l<^sl. ; member of the State Const. Conv. in 

French naval officer, b. Provence ; d. ah. 1800. 1835 ; M.C. 1843-9 ; minister to Spein in 

During the War of Amer. Independence, be 1849-53; aflerward travelled in Europe, and, on 

exhibiial qualities much mora imre than ex- his return, served in the State legitl until 1855, 

perience or courage. Tbe nperior of Da when he devoted himself to literary poriiuil* 



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BA.Il Go SJLH 

He iru n delegnle (o the Pence Congres* of B&rrow, Gex. WASHTNoroir, miniaier la 

l»lil;il.Whil«Salpli.Spring8,Vii„Sep.l.lS73. Lisbon, 1841-3; M.C. 1817-9; b. Tenn. nb. 

Barrltt) Frances Fdlleb, poet, o. Rome, 1817; d. Si. Loais, 19 Oct. IB6fl. He wss a 

N.Y.. Mav, 1836. In 1830, her i)imnta ro- lawjor ; eome jesrs editor of the NatkvilU 

iiiovcmI (o Northern Fa., and, in IS39, to Wor^ liaantr, and a lender oT the old Whig pirtr ; 

tvr, (). She earlj became a cootrib. to the Stale Knator in 1861, and for a time itapns- 

leading* belle-letlres Jonrnnlsof theconntrf. In oned \iy (he federal autbontiea dnriDg the cIti] 

1651 sppcHred a vol. of her poem9 edited by irir. 

Rufus W, Griswold, of great merii, containing, BammdiB, Jos6 Fsakcisco, HtatesmaD 

among other pieces, " Ailea, a Tragedj." In of Honduras, b. 1 779 ; d. S. T. City, Aug. 4, 

1853, aha m.JackBOn Burriii of PontiHC, Mich, 1854. He wb« the flr^i (o raise tha standard 

Aflerafew years' testdeoceffeEl of ihcMissouri, of rerol. against the Spanish Govt. Member 

she took ap her reaidencc in N.Y. Ciiv. A of the finti repoblican assembly, Apr. 10, t8!4, 

youn^r sister, Mhtta Victokia (see Victor), he introduced and carried a decree for [he abo- 

is alMj a poetess. — Poetaand Forti-u^rlie Wtat, lition of slavery, and devoted himself to (he 

Barron, Jaxes, commodore iT S. N., b. cnase of eocta] and civil reform. Pres. of the 

in Vs., ITSB; d. Norfolk, Apr. 21, IS51. He republic in ISi9, be urved with wisdom and 

commenced bis naral Career under his Inthcr, moderation, and organised a general svsiem of 

Jimes, who d. in 1787, and who hold the rank pnblic in^tructioD. Minisier (o the U, S. in 

of commodore of the Va. navy during the 1834, he pur[>osed the annexation of Ilomliiras 

Itevol, war, and was also a member of the Va. to lltc U. S., but died soon after his arrivnl. 

Board of War. His liro. Richan] was a capt. Barry, John, first commodore in the U. S, 

during the whole war. The vessels com. by [he navy, b. Tocnmshane, Wexford Co., Irelanel, 

Barron* were "The Liber[y " and " The Pa- 1745; d. Phila., Sept. 13, 1803. He went [o 

iriot." The former was encaged in 20 actions, sea very young ; came to Phila. at the age of 

and was very s[iccesBfnl. On the formation of IS ; soon roao to the com. of a ship, and accu- 

(he U S. navy, Mar. 9, I73B, he was lonrte miilaicd wealth. When the war commenced, 

lieut., and served under Commo. Bftrry in the bo offered bis services 10 Congress, " abandon- 

brief war with Frunce. Made capt. May 22, ini.'," to nse his o«n langu^e, " itie finest ship 

1799, and ordered to the Mediterranean uiirler and the first employ in America." In Feb. 

the command of his older broilier, Cimmo. 1776, he was spp. to com. "The Lexinglo[[," 

Sumuel Barron, aiid was esloemccl one of (ho 14, in which, after a sharp action, he look 

most accomplished and efficient officers, and " The Edward," tender, the first war-vcs<el 

one of the best disciplinarians, in rhc service, captured by a regular Amor, cruiser in action. 

He served actively afloat until 1807, in which He was then transferred to " The Efflnirham," 

year he com. the trigitte " Chesapeake" at the frigate, wbich being useless during (he snfpcn- 

limo of her Qofortunate enconnler with the sion of navigation the following winter, he ob- 

British frigate " Leopard." Bnrroii was tried tained the com. of a company of vols., and 

byacourt-martial, andsuapendi^dforfiveyears. with some heavy cannon assisted in the opera- 

In 1820, a corresp., which grew ont of this af- tions at Trenton, continuing wi[h the army, 

fair, led to a duel with Deciuur, Mar. 22. 1820, and performing important scn'ices, during the 

in which the latter was kitted, while Barron winter campaign. At the head of 4 b(>a[S, 

was severely wounded. ha carried an enemy's manof-war schooner in 

Barron, SantlBl., commo. U. S. N., hro. gallant style, without the loss of a man ; for 

of Jamea, b. Hampion, Va., Sept. 25, 1765; d. which he was publicly thanked by Washington, 

there Oct. 29, 1810, He was [list inj;, for (;b1- He was for a short time aidej|e-i-nmp (o Gen. 

laniry in the Revol. nav^ of Va., in which his Cadwalader. When the Britiih olnained po,-- 

father, bis uncle, and his brother, also pariiti- session of Phila., he took " The Effingham " 

puted. In I7S8, he com. the brig "Augusta," np the Delaware, wilh the hope of saving her; 

Otied ODt by the citizens of Norfolk against bTitahe was subsoquenily burned by the enemy. 

[he French. Made capt. U. S. navy, Sept. 13, An oScr was made bim, by Gen. Howe, of 15,- 

1 798, he left the merchant-service ; was con- 000 guineas if he would bring in the ship. It 

__' !|j j^^ Tripolitan war; and in I80S was r^ected with scorn. In Sept. 1779, he 



1. a squadron of 10 vessels. Ue co-opcraled took com. of " The Kaleigh," 32, which a 

u !-■__ „ -_ .1 -e of the town of British squadron compelled him to ron — 

t, Apr. 27, 1605, shore at Fox's I^iland in Penobscot Bav. 



but, in eonsoquonec of extreme ill health, soon Feb. 1781, he sailed in " The Alliai 

after returned to the U. S. Col. Laurens, ambassador (o France, and 

Barron, Sauiibl, admiral in the Confed- cruised succeBafnlly until autamn. Mny 29, he 

era(«Davy,b. Va. Midshipm, U. S-N. 1 Jan. captured, after a ceverecontest, twoBrifi'h res- 

1812; lieut. 3 Mar. lB27;com. 15 July, 1847; sols, " The Atlanta " and " Trepasa." Betuni- 

capi. 1855, He com. "The Wabash," the flag- ing in Oct. 1781, " The Alliance" was refilled, 

ship of Commo. Lavalelte in the Mediterrane- and after carrving Lafavette and NoatUes lo 

an, in 1859. Made com. in the Confrd. navy France, cruised in the West Indies, wilh sue- 

in 1861, and put in oharf^ of the naval de- cess, until Mar. 1782, After tbe foundation of 

fences of N. C. and Vo., with the rank of flag- the present navy, June 6, 1794, Bany was 

officer; look charge of the defence of Forts named aa the senior officer, in whieh station he 

Clark and Hatieras during ilie attack by Flag- died. He superintended the buildinc of the 

officer Stringham and Gen. Butler, 27 Aug. frigale " United States," and was assigned (O 

1661, nnd, nfrer ibcir surrender, was a priaoner her command. He was a man of deep religiour 

in New York until exchanged in 1862. feeling, and strict honor. 



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Barry, John, D.O., B. C- bUhop-of Sa- 
vinnab, coiuecnt«d Aug. S, ISS7; d. Not. SI, 
1859. 

Barryi John 8., gor. Michigan, 1S4S-6 
«od 1S50-S, b. Vt. 1802 ; d. Constantine, Mich., 
Jan. IS, 1870. Educated at the public schooli 
af Vt. ; itadied law, but in 1333 vent to Con- 
■tintine, and enenged in mensntile basiaess. 
Member of (he finl Const. Com. of Mich., in 
vhicb he look a leading pan, and was chosen 
StaWBenktorin lS36,BndagBininl840, Mem- 
ber of the Chicago Demoe, Conv. of 1 364. 

Borryi Wiluah FAxquaAli, brer, maj.- 
cen. C.H.A., b. N.Y. Ci:y, Aug. 18, 1818. 
West Point, 1838. Kntcring the +ih Artillery, 
and alationed on the northern frontier during 
the troubles in Canada, he served pan of the 
^mB on an armed schooaor on the Lnkes, and 
alio as capt. of a guard at Lcwiston. in 
1838, he aasisted Mai. Rinn^ld in orjjanixing 
the first battery of light artillery i;itroilnccd 
into the U.S. army ; was onkTi^d to R.I., 
during the Dorr rebellion; bcciinle l9t lleut. 
1842; soned throughout (he Mewcan war; 
waa asaist. ai^j.-gcn. of Pailemon's division, 
1817; aide-diHamp to Gvn, Worth, 1848; 
capt in 1853, and served 2 rears against the 
Seminole Indians. In 18S7, be served against 
the Sioux and Chippcwas in Minnesota. In 
April, 1861, he reinforced ¥on Pickens with a 
company of flying artillery. Maj. Sih Anil- 
lery. Mar 14,1861. Ordered (o Washington 
in Jnly, he joined Gen. Mc Dowel 1, participated 
in ihe battle of Bull Run, and, July 33, was 
ordetwl to re^organiie the field artillery of the 
army. Brig.-i^n. vols., Aug. 30, 1681, atid 
autgned to the atalf of Gen. McClellan, ai 
chief of anillerr of the Army of the Potomac, 
takingpanin tnepetiinsularcampaign. Lient.- 
col. Itt Art., Aug. I, 1863 ; col. 3d An., Dec. 
1 1, 186S ; chief of Art. on staff of Gen. Siier- 
man, 1864-4 ; breT..col. U.S.A., and m^.-gen. 
roll, for campaign of Atlanta, 1 Sepi. 1864 ; 
brev. brip.-gen. U. 3. A., 13 Mar, 186^, for 
•ervices in the campaign ending in the sur- 
render of Johnston's army; and brev. mnj.-gen. 
U.S.A., for merit, services during the Rebellion. 
Author (nilh Gen. Barnard) of "Reports of 
Engr. and Art. Oper«tioaa of lbs Army of 
PoEonac to the Close of the Peninsniar Cam- 
paign," 1863. — (Mum. 

But;, William Tatloh, itateaman, b. 
Lunenburg, Va., Feb. S, 1784; d. Livemool, 
Eng., Aug. 30, 1835. William and Mary 
Coll. 180.1. He moved to Kv. at the age of 
II ; and, being adm. to the bar, his gift of 



ras M.C. in 1810-11 ; U.S. senator, 1814^16; 
jud^ of the Supreme Court of Ky. ; succci- 
siveTy tient.-gov., sec. of State, and chief- 
Justice of Ky. Postmoster-gen. 18S8-33 ; min- 
ister (o Spun in 1S3S; died on bis way to 
Madrid. He acted lu sec. and aide to Gov. 
Shclliy in the battle of (he Thames, and was 
the first D. S. post master-gen. adrailteil to Ihe 

Barry, Williah Tailob Sdllitan. 
lawyer, h. Columbus, Mpi,, Dec. 12. ISJI ; d. 
(here Jan. 39, 1868. T. C. 1841. He took a 
plaalatiin in Oktibbeha Co. ; practised law in 



Columbus S or 3 years ; was a member of ths 
legial. in 1849 and 1851 ; afterward removed to 
Sunflower Co.; M.C. 1853-5; again practised 
law in Colombus; was speaker of the Icgial. 
In 1855 1 seceded from the Charleiton Conven- 
tion in I860; and in 1861 was pres. of (he 
EOcession convention of Mpi.. and member of 
(he Provisional Congress. He entered the 
military service of the Confederacy in June, 
raised and com. the 35th Mpi. Regt. in the 
spring of 1862, and aniil captured at Mobile, 
in Apr. 1865 ; afterward practised law in Co- 
lumbus. — Y. C. Obit. Record, p. 320. 

BaratOW, Col. William A., gov. Wis., 
1834-6 ; d. IiHavonworlh, Kan., 14 Oct. 1965, 
a. 54. He raised (he 3d Wis. Cavalry in 1861, 
with which ho served in the south-west with 
credit until his health gave way. 

BarULBiJ.O.. Canadian journalist. Led the 
College of NIcoIet in 1833. Scudieil medicine, 
and, after a short imprisonment on suspicion 
of having written an ode to Papineau and the 
exiles, established himself in 1838 as an adro 
cate in Montreal. He waa 5 yean editor of 
L'Aeeair da Canada*. M, P. for the count}' 
of Tamaska, 1841-4; clerk of appeals of 
Lower Canada,4 years, and resided in Paris in 
1853-6, where he pub. " Canada Rtcon'juit par 
la France," — Morf/an. 

Bartholomew, Edwa&d StiBFFiELD, 

■ Colehe-ter, Cl., 1822 ; d. Naples, 

■ ~ ■ ■ It of llnrt- 

paint 

ing, and afterward Kulplure, in which he be- 



Way 3, 

bnl, he 



learned dentistry, then pursued t 



came disring. From 1845 to 1848, lie hnd 
charge of the Wndsworlh Gallery in Hartford, 
then came to New York, and about 1850 went 
to Italy. Among his moat celebrated finished 
works, are Paradise Lost, Shepherd Bay, 
Sappho, Youth and Old Age, Monnrc-- - 
CharlesCarroll (greatly admired), Belisi 
the Porta Pincinia, a group rcpresentinit Gany- 
mede and the Eagle of Jupiter, and Eve after 
the Fall. 
Bartlett, Elisu*, m.d. (B. u. i826J, 

physician and writer, b. Smithfield, R,I., Oct. 
6, 1804 ; d. Providence, July 19, 1855. After 
passing a year in Europe, on bis return in 
1827, he commenced practice at Lowell, 
and, in IB36, became first mayor of the new 
city. He delivered courses of leelnres at Pills- 
fleldinl832,andatDanm. Coll. in 1839; took 
charge of the medical department of the 
Tmnsyl. U., Lexington, Ky. in 1841, and 
again, in the autumn onB46, after a second vi^it 
to Europe ; that of the V. of Maryliind in 
1844 ; that of the Med. Institnic of Louisville 
in 1849; and in 1850, that of iho U. of N.Y., 
which position he relinquislied in I8j2 to 
occupy that of Materia of Medica and Medical 
JuriBpmdeace in the Coll. of PhysiciaiH and 
Surgeons of that city, in which he conliniit.'d 
until hia death. During Ihe spring and sum- 
mer months from 1843 to 1850 inclusive, he 
occupied himself in lecturing in the Vt. Med. 
Coll. at Woodstock. His principal works are, 
" The Fevers in the U. S.," 1843; " An Ei.. 
say on the Philosophy of Medical Sclenre." 
"" ' " " An Inquiry into the Dignity and Cer- 



iv-.ioo'^le 



ibcPbiliwDpby or Dew," 1849; "A Discourse June 13, isas, u an English conserrBtiTC 
OD ttie Tima, Characcer, and Works of Hip- ornm; and icgaineda largeandprofiublecir 
pocratea," 18113 ; and pomna, entitled " Simple calation. He afterwards establisbad U 



Mr. DiakeriB'a Oillcrj'," 18SS. He edit«d a withdrew from the ^Uon la 1840. In IMS, 

whWeiht ^onlh^ Jauriml of Mad. Lit., hLou- he inatd the Jwlb-£iixan, aweeUy paper at 

ell, afterwaid mereed into the Med. ilagmme. Dosion. In 185?, be was British consal at 

— See Memoir, fiy 5 B. Didaon, in GiWi Med. Baltimore. 

Biog. BarUett, Jobsfb, wit, poet, and adTmtiit'- 

Bartlett, Iosibod, lawyer, b, Salisbury, er, b. Fljmou^, Ms., 10 June, 1762 ; d. Bos- 

N.a,Julya4,lJ86;d. Ponamotith, Oct 19, loo, 20 Oct., 1837. H. O. 1782. Visiting 

IBM. Dartm. Coll. 1808. Adm. lo the bar Eng., be porsoed a checkered and adTenttironB 

in 1812. After practising a short time at Diir- career, gambled, got into prison, wrote aplsv 

hnm. he removed lo Portsmouth, where be re- for bis release, and went upon the stage himseEt. 

aided lit] Mi death. He held high rank among Procuring a larce stock oF goods on credit, be 

bis diiting. competilors at the M.H. bar, in- was shipwrecked on Cape Cod. and, failing in 

clnding Webeter and Maaon, He was 7 jears busiuess in Boston, studied law. Capi. of 

in the State leg^l. ; was clerk of the State vols, in Shajs' insarreclion, tben openeil a law- 

aenate in I81T-18 ; solicitor for the county of office in Wobuni, painting it black, and call- 

Rockingham in 1819 ; speaker of tbe honse ing it " the cofBn to attract notice. Remor- 

tn IBil ; and M. C. in 1833-39 ; member of ing to Cambridge, be busied himself witb the 

the State Csnst Conv. of 1890. a&irs of the town and of tbe college. Af 

Bartlett, Sows RntSBLi., author, h. Pror- terwards a lawver and politician in Me., and 

idence, K.l., Oct. 33, ISOS ; was earl^ placed memberof the Icgisl. White in Saco, In 1809, 

'- \ banklng-honn, and was for six Tears be edited the Fretman't Friend, and, July 4, 

)ier of the Globe Bank, ProTidence. While delivered an oration at Biddeford. He finally 

there, he was one of tbe projectors of the Ath- closedhis improvident lifb in Boaton. In 1799, 



si' 

Ti 



cashier of the Globe Bank, Providence. While delivered en oration at Biddeford. He finally 

ojectore of the Ath- closed his improvident lifbin Boaton. In 1799, 

, ibcr of the Franklin be dolivered a aattrical poem on Physioijnomy, 

Society for the Cultivation of Science, before before the Phi Beta Kappa Society. The edi- 

which h« occasionaltf lectured. In 1897, be tion of 1823, included aphorisms on men, 

engaged in hnsinesi m N. Y., bat was unsnc- principlea, and things. His poem, "TlieTicar 

ccssful, lie then established a tbrelsn book- of Braj," was qait« celebrated. Be delivered 

store 1 was an active manager of (be N. T. tbe 4tb of July oration at Boston, in ) 799. 
Hist. Society, and a pngector of the Eibnolo- BaPtlett, Josi^h, M, D., signer of Ibe 

[icnl Society. In IBM, he was app. by Prea. Declaration of independence, b. Ainesbnry. 

rajloc lominisalonor to fix the bonodaiy-line Ms., Nov. 31, 1729; d. May 19, 1795. With 

between the 0. S. and Mexico, ander tbe treaty a common-school education, and soch koowl- 

of Quadalnpe Hidalgo, wbluh occopied him edge of medical acience as he coald acquire 

nntit Jan. 7, 1863. Be pub. in IBM a person- from st«dy with a practitioner of his native 

al nHTTative of esplorationa and incidents in town, he commenced practice at Kingston, 

the counirlee which bo had visited; having N.H., in 17S0, and sooobecameeminent. Dnr- 

prsvionslj pabliebed, in IB-tT, a smalt work On lag Ae prevalence of a fatal throat- disenee 

the Progress of Ethnology, and, in tS48, a among cbildren, in 1754, be introduced tbe 

Dictionary of Americanisms, Ho became aec. use of Peruvian bark with success. In 1765, 

of State of R. I., May 1, 1855, ami still holds and unoaity until the Revol., Dr. Bartletl 

(hat office, having arranged, e<litcd, and pub. was chosen lo the leglal. ; in 1770 was app. 

the records ofthecolonv( 10 vols 18.16-1790); lienl.-col. Tthregt. of militia, but was deprived 

acting gov. 1861-2. Mr. B. Iins hIso pub. of hia commission in Feb. 1775, on account of 

" Bibliography of R- 1." 1864 ; " A Uialoiyof the active part he took in the controversy with 

the Destruction of H.B. M. Si'boaner, Gospee" Groat Britain ; he was a member of the com- 

1863 ; " Index lo tfac Acts and Resolvea of tbe mitlee of safety, upon whom devolved, lor a 

General Assembly of B.I. ," 1758-1863; "Bib- time, the whole execniive govt, of tbe State, 

liothecs Americana," 1493-1800, 4 vols., 8vo, and on the -orgsnixa tion of govt, by a provin- 

1865-70; " Literature of the Rebellion," N.Y., ciiil congress, of which he was a memW, he 

8vo. 1866; " Reminiscences of Albert Galla- was app. a jastice of the peace, and col. of 

iin,"N. Y., 1949; " Memoin of R. i. Officers the 7th regt.Scpt. 1776, A delegate to Coa- 

iii Service during the Rebellion," 4 to, 1867; gress In 1775 and l7T6,he was thelirat lo give 

■'I'rimevHl Man, 1868; "Naval Hiat. of R.I.," Bis vote lor the Declararian of Independence, 

conirib. to tbe Hist.Mag, He has two aonain and its first signer after the President, - in 

the U. S. aervico, Jonn R., llent. com, U. S. N., 1777, he aocomuanied Gen. Stark to Benning- 

and Hkiirt A,, capt. U. S, marine corps. ton, as agent of the State, to provide medicine 

Bortlett, Sows 6bkrbbn, M.n., Joor- and other necessaries to the N.H, troop*. 



:, b. Dorsetshire, Eng., 1790; d. N. J., From April to Nov. 1778, he was again a 

Aug, 34, 1863. He was educated a physician CKMelo Congress; wasanp. chief-justice of the 

in Lonlon ; app-, on reconmiendation of Common Pleas in 1779, jadge of theSapreme 

Sir Asttey Cooper, surgeon in tbe royal navv Court, 1782, and chief-justice in 1788. He 

in 1813; was taken in the packet " Swallow, was an active member of the convention called 

bvan Amer. frigate, and remained aprisoncrin to adopt tbe Federal Constitution, in 1788. 

Boston until 18)3. He m. al Boston, and es- From 1790 to'1793, ha was pre«. of the State, 

tabli:-hed himself there aa a ph|rsician. The and, under the new constitution, gov, in 1793; 

AUiieii «■• conmenced \>j him id New York, reiiringframpubljcbuiiiuess in I79i on account 



_iuot^le 



of inflrm health. He wu pre*, of the N. B. 
med. kn:., which be wm chieBj iasmuncDtat ib 
HHiiiding, and receired an honorarj dei^ree of 
M.D., from Danm. Coll, He was alwnja a 

Biiroaoflaaiiiiac, and a friend to learned meo. 
luaoD JoalAH, U.D., M. C. 1811-18, a phr- 
tidaa of exteiuive praciice, d. StrMbam, SO., 
Apr. 14. 1838, a. TO. 

Bortlett, WiLLiAx, a beoemknt mer- 
cfaani, b. NewboTTpart, Jan. 31,1748; d. there 
Feb. S, 1841. Descended from one of the 
ftnt settlcn of that ancieot eoim. Acquiring 
great weal^ by mercantile enterpriKS, he em- 
ployed it in asaiaiinj( the needy, and eapecinjly 
(o advance the caniie of reiigion and moraLi. 
The Rmpennce tefbnnation, foreign misHooa, 
and the grMnitou edoeation of joune men for 
the miniatiT, w«te eapecial object* of his mani- 
ficence. He gave SM.OOO to found the Theol. 
Sem.atAndoTer; then liberally endowed a pro. 
(isaorahip, and erected an expenaive dwelling- 
booae for the OH of the incumbent. Ku bene- 
Giciiona to thia iniiimcion wore eacimated, by 
AoM fantitiar with hia aSTura, to have readied 
the mnniSeent *nm of a quarter of a million 
dollar*. He gave a large amoont in ^ ag- 
^r^te to Qtber worthy objecta. 

Bartlett, Willi^x U. C, LL.D. (Oenera 
Coll.), prof, of nataral and experimental phi- 
kMophj at Wwt Puini, b. Lancatter Co., Pa., 
1801. Weal Point, 1836. AaaiaLPraC Eng^. 
Mil. Acad., Aog. 13S6 to Aug. 18S9. Acting 

frof. nat. and exper. philos. Not. 1834, and 
rot. iince Apr. 20, 1836. Author of " Elem. 
TreatiM on Optica," 1839 ; " Element* of 
Hechaaica," of " Nat. Pbllo*.," 1850, " Aoon- 
■lici andOptiu," N.Y., 1852; "Analytical 
Hechanic*, 18Mi "Spherical Aiironomy," 
IB5S. Member of Philoi. Soc. of Phila., and 
of Acad. An* and Sciences, Boston. 

Bartlet, Bbv. William ^toodlbt, 
Prol.-Epii. clorKjinan, b. Ncwbaryport, Ms., 
Apr. 8, 1809. Gen. Theol. Sem. 1839. A.M. 
of Trin. Coll., Hartford. Formerly roelor of 
Immaaael Chmrch, Little Fall*. N.Y. ; of St. 
Andrew's, Prorideoce, R.I. ; and of St. Lnlce'a, 
Cheliea, Ms. Member of the Ms. Hist. Soc., 
and of the N.E. Hist, and Qcneol. Soc He 
pah. " The Frontier Miasionary," a memoir 
of Rer. Jacob Bailey, Bro, ISA3; contrib. to 
the Mahaiai QaartBif an article on tocbI cul- 
ture, in Mar. I8<3; and in 1864 deliTeredat 
Lowell an oration at the tercentenary celeh. of 
ihehirthof Shakapeue, which wa* pub. Con- 
tiib. hiat. papcn to rarion* periodicals, and to 
the " Hemorial of Bishop BarfccM." 

Bartle7,HouiEcai, gov. of O., 1844-6, b. 

Fayette Co., Pa, Dec. 16, 1783; d. Oct. 10, 
1870. His grandparcDBa emigrated in June, 
1724, and settled in Loudon Co., Va. He at- 
tended Bchool daring interrats of labor on his 
fatber'* farm, rumored to Ohio in 1809, and 
engaged in ■grkulmre in HonHScId, Bichland 
Co. Capl. and adj. under Harrison in the 
War of 1813. Wai a State senator 1817-18 r 
rvgialiT of the land office, 1816-33; M. C. 
1833-31. T. W. Bartley, wa* acting gov. in 
1844.— Utmair, bg A. T. Goodwin. 

Bartol, Ctid* Adoostus, anihor and 
Cong, clergyman, b. Freeport, Mc, Apr. 30, 
18)3. Bowd.CoU. IB3S1 Camb.Div. t>cboal. 



i9 SJLR 

183S. Settled ai collaagDa paator with Ra« 
Cbarlea Lowell, D.D., of the We*i Cfaunib. 
Boilon, Mar. 1, 1S37. Hi* principal writin);* 
are " Picture* of Europe," 1830 ; " Diicoursea 
on the Chri*tian Spirit and Life," 18SU ; " Uii- 
counea on the Christian Body and Form," 
1854; end a history of the " West Chnrcb 
and it* MiaiBlers." His latest work is on 
ecclesiastical polity. He hai alM pub. many 
occasional and miacellaneoai discourse* and 
essays, beatdea numerous oontribs. to the lead. 
iag periodicals of the day, and aereral poetJcal 
compositions. 

^rtoii, BiNjAKiif Smith, M.D., natu- 
ralist, b. Lancaster, Pa., 10 Feb. 1766 ; d. 19 
Dec 1815. Sun of Rev. Tho*. Barton br a 
sislerofRitlenhonse the mathematician. Wliile 
a student in Pa. Coll., he accompanied Bitten, 
bouse and the olber U. S. aommiiskineri) lo 
settle Ibe boundary line west of Pa. Frooi 
1786 to 1789, he was studying mediohie at 
Edinbnrgb, London, and at Outlisgcn, where 
he look his degree of M.D. He then settled 
in Phila., where he aoon acquired an exteutive 
practice ; wa* in 1789 app. prof, of nal. hist. 
and botany in the Coll. of Phila., and Apr. 
1813, wo* appointed prof, of materia medica. 
Besides paper* contrib. to the Amer. Philo*. 
Trans, and to the itidical and Pligiia^ Journnl, 
begun by bim in 1804, lie pub. " Obeervationii 
on acme parts of Natural History," Lond., 
1787; "New Views of the Origin of ihe Tribes 
of Americs," 1797 ; " Elements of Botanr," 

1804, and in 2 rols. 1812 ; an edition of dul- 
lon'8 Materia Maliea ; " Eulogy on Dr. Prieji- 
In ; " Dincoutse on tbe Principal Desiiicriiia 
of Nat. Hist," Phila., 1807 ; '■ Collections to- 
wards a Materia Medica of the U. S.," 3d ed., 
1810 —Str Biag. Stetei.buliiinfpliea. W.P. 
C. BarUm, MM.,and ThaArr'i iltd. Biog. 

Barton, William P. C, M.l>. |C. of 
Pa. 1808), prof, of botany in the D. of Pa., 
nephew of B. S. Barton ; d. 1855. X J. Coll. 

1805. Uepnb. "Flone Philadclphics," 4io, 
181&-2S; "Compendium "of the same, SvoU., 
1818; "Flora of North Amerioi," 3 tuIs., 4to, 
1821-3; " Materia MedicaBndBoMay,"!Tols. 
"Medical Botany," 2 vols., 8yo ; "Hints ro 
Naral Officers cruising in the W. 1.," 1830; 
"Plan for Marine Hospitals in the U.S." 
1817 ; " Memoirs of B. S. Barton." " Di^^er 
talion on Nitrons-Oxide Gas." he. 1808.— 
AUOaiu. 

Barton, Gbh. William, R«to1. officer, h. 
Providence, R.L, 1747 ; d. there Oct. 2i, 1831. 
He held the rank of lient.-colinthe R.I. militia, 
when on the night of July 10, 1777, Kith a 
small party, he crossed Narrogansett Bay , passed 
nnobsened 3 British frigate*, lauded about 
half-way from Newport to Bristol Ferry, and 
captured the British Gen. Preacott. For this 
aerTtco, Congreo* honored him hy tbe pre>en- 
tation of a sword, a commission of col., and a 
grant of land in Vt By the transfer of loms 
of this land, he became cnlon^ed in the toils 
of the law, and was imprisonwl for debt in Vi. 
many years, until liberated by Lafaycite, who 
paid the claim against him in 1S25. Col. 
Banon was wounded in the action at Bristol 
Ferry in Ang. 1778, and was disabled from 
further aervica during the war. Membi^r of 



luoi^le 



i. — Sat Lifi ^, by i/r>. G. M. WO- Coll- and of lbs Ma. U. u 

ft'onu, IB39. Id tho general coDference in ld44, when tht 

Bartow, FRUlcia S., brig,-gso. C.B.A., ■eparetion between the Methodist churchc* 

b. Oft. ; killed in battle oF Bull Run, Vb., Jul; North and Sooth look place, he drew up the 

31. IS61. protest of the Southern members against the 

Bartr&m, Jobh, botaniM, b. Derb;, action of the confereace upati slaTehoTdinfr, and 
Cljesl«r Co., W., S3 Har. 1699 ; d. 22 Sept. in 1K45 was member of the conreiitton at 
ITT7. Left an orphan at tbe a^of 13, bewu Louisvillo which organized the Church South, 
Belf-iauijbt, and became proficient in botanj, and author of its report. In 1S4B, he becamo 
mediuiui!, and surcei;. In (ha intervals of editor of the Southern Mtlhoditt Qaaritrlg 
agricultural labor, bj which he supported a Revitio. He was chairman of the commis- 
Utm family, he mode excursions to Fbi. and sioueis of the Church South to settle tbe con- 
to Canada, and attheageof TO made ajoume; trovers; bctireeo the two diviaion* of the 
lu East Fla. to explore its natural productions. Church. In 1S49, he was elecirai bishop, ord. 
He WHS also a akilful mechanic, and built the May, IS50. Ha pab. a vol, of " Sertnons," 
house in which he lived. In I73S, he founded 1850, "Lectures on Infidelity," " Loclurci and 
kia the banks of the Schiijlkitl, near I'hile,, the Essays on Moral Science," and sermons and 
flrai botanic gsrden in America, and which still sketcnes. His life was written by Rer. Dr. 
bears his name. The gardens of Europe are Henkle; and bis " Foathamoas'Worlts," edited 
indebted Co hiscontributions; and so mo foreign by Rot. T.N. Ralston, appeared in Nashville, 
scientiflcbodiesbcstowedtheirbonorsafKjnhim, 2 vols., 8»o, in 1855. D.D. of Weal. U, 1838. 
and pub. communicatioiu from him in their LL.D. of La Grange Coll. 1S45. 
transactions. Until 1758, he was a membei' Bosllio deGaJIia(b&4ee'-le-od&gi'.mit), 
of the Society of Friends. He pub. in 1751 Jose, b. San Jos£, Brazil. 17«0 ; d. ab. ITS5. 
"Obsen-ations" on his travels to LakeOntario, One of the fouDders of the Brazilian Acad. 
and " Descripdon of East Florida, with a Author of " Uruguay," a popular poem, and 
Journal," 1766. — See MenviriaU of Bartram some [yrics. 
and Marshall, tditedly Dartington, 1849. BaSS, Edward, D.D. (U. of Pa. 1789.) 

BartrftlUt William, naturalist, son of first Proi.-E|us. biahop of Ms., b. Dorchester, 

thcpreceding. b.Kinesissing, Pa.,gFeb. 1739; Nov. 23, 1726; d. Sept. 10,1803. H. U. IT44. 

d. 22 July, 1823. He est^ljshed himself in lie taught school for several years, and was 

business m N.C. in 1761 ; studied natural ord. in Eng., Ma; 24, 1752, by Bp. Sherlock 

history, and acconipaniod his father in hit at the request ot the society of St. Paul's 

botanical ezploratioas in E. Fla. ; resided some Church, Newburyport. In 1796, he was elected 

time on the River St. John, and retamcd botup bishop of the Prol.-Epis Church of Ms., and 

in 17TI. In 1773-8. beeKplo>«dthaPloridas, was consecrated May 7, IT 97. He was after 

CaroKna, and Georgia, and transmitted to his wards elected bishop of the R.I. churches, and 

employer, Dr. Fothergill, at London his valuo- in ISO-t of those in fl.H. 
ble collections. Elected in 1782 prof of Busett, BicaiBD, gov. of Delaware in 

botany in tbe U. of Fbila., he declinod, on ac- 1T98-I801 ; d. Sept. tBIB. A member of the 

count of ill health. In nss. he became a old Cont^ress in 1787. und of the convention 

member of the Amer, Philos. Soc,, and was which framed the Constilulion. He was U.S. 

admitted into other scientific bodies at home senator in 1789-93,and was U.S. districtjudge 

and abroad. In IT91, he pub. an account of in 1801'-2. Ho was a lawyer of repute. Hi* 

his travels, including notices of the Creeks, dau. Ann. m. James A. Bayard. 
Cherokees, and Choctaws. In 1789, he wrote Bassini, Carlo, music-teacher and writer, 

a R'ply to a scries of questions proposed to him b. Cuneo, Piedmont, 1812 ; d. Irvington, N.J.. 

on inucoodiuon of those Indians, lately printed 26 Nov. 1370. Obtaining distinction as a vio- 

in the Trans, of the Ethnoloi;ical Siicicty. He linist, bo went with an operatic company to 



IS the author of the most complete and nc- South America, liecame din 
rate table of American omiihologr which settled as a teacher of mi _ .^ . 

had appeared previously to the work of Wilson ; Among bis best known works are "Art of 



and science owes to him its knowledge of many Singing," 1857 ; " Method for the Barytone." 

curious nnd beautiful plaoia pecotiar to this 1868; "Method for the Tenor," 1866; "Me- 

cominent. He also pub. "Memoirs of J. Iodic Exercises," 186&; "NewMethod,"lB69. 

Burlram." " Anecdotes of a Crow," " Descrip- He composed some exquisite pieces. 

li.in of Certhia," and a work on tbe site of BatclleldeT, Samdel, inventor, b. Jaf- 

llri«iol. fray, K.U.. 8 June, 1784. In 1808, he began 

BaSOOm, Hehbt Bidlehan, D.D,, the manufacture of cotton at New Ipswich ^ 

LL.D., bishop of tbe M. E. Churcli South, superintended the erection of the Hamilton 

b. Ifancock, Delaware Co., N.Y., Mav 27, MilU at Lowell in 1825. and of a mill for the 

1796; d. IxmiSTille. Ey., Sept. 8. 1850. £ntcr- York Maouf Co. at Saco.Me., in 1831. Ue 

ing the ministry in 1813, alter filiing various now lesidos in Cambridge, Ms. Among hit 

appoinimenta in the Ohio, Tcnn., and Ky. con- inventions, that of the dynamometer, for ascer- 

ferences. he was elected cheplnin to Congress, tftining the trnwcr for driving machinerr, first 

Prcj. of Madison Coll., Pn„ in 1837 ; he then ns^d in the York Mills in 1837, is perhaps the 

iH'cnmo agent of the Cotonizniion Societv, greatest. In early life, he contrib. to tlie Pott- 

From 1832 to 1842, he was prof, of moral M'.o. and has pub. a " History of the Cotton 

science and belles-lettres In Augusta Coll., Ky., Maiiuf. of the U. S '' 

und was subMquenily pres. of Transylvania Batemaa, Da. Epbkaik, b. Cumbrrinnd. 



lyV^ioo^^le 



BA.T 71 BA.X 

NJ. IJIOi d. (here, J>a. 99, isa9. Wbila a conieniiun in ISSS. On the electiaa of Fm. 

mechjtnic'B appreatice, he itudicd medicine, Lincoln, he accepted the poM of D. S. Mty.' 

became noted In the profeuion; wai maaj gen., reiigaing in SepL 18&1. 
jctn in the 8ut« legisl. ; wu an M. C. 1S16- Bates, Ih&ac C, lawyer and Btaleaman, b. 

23, and U. S. senator, I89S-9. GnoTille, M«., 1780; d. Washington, D.C-, 

BUeman, Kite Jo8iFHrR£(Mra.Oeor^ Mar. 16, 1S4S. T. C. 1803. He leltted ai a 

Cruwe), actreu, b. Baltimore, Md., Occ 7, tawrer in Northampton, rose to eminence at 

1S41I. Her father, H. L. Buleman, wa» a veil- the bar, and nru for man/ yean in both branoh- 

Lnown theatrical manager] her mother, Fraa- esofthe State legjd, and in the exec, council. 

•■es, BQ acrivsB and dramatist The children, M. C. ISS7-3&, and in 1813 vas elected U. 8. 

Kate and E11eii,weToon thestAgealmait from senator, making an able speech amiilit the 

inrjnL'T. bllen retired from the itage, and ii annexalion of Texat onl; a h* daf* beforo 

nnw Mn. Claude Greppo. Kale re-appeared, his death- 
Mar. 19, 1850, alter 4 yean' ibttence, aa £ixu- Bates, JosRCA, D.D. (T. C. l818),Klio1at 

^litK.ia a drama by her mother, at the Winter and divine, b, Cobaatet, Ma., Mar. 20. I77C; 

Garden, and perfonned in a Tarietj or paru d. Dudley, Mb., Jan. U, 1854, H. U. ISOO. 

antil, in Dec. 1S6!, she made, at Boiton, her Deacendcd from Clement, b. En|c., l592,oine 

tir«t appearance as LeaA, — a chamcter with to America ab. 1536, settled at Kint'bam, and 

which bcr name ia now identified, and in which d. 1671. The boh of a fHrmGr of limited 

Hhc has appeared in all the larj^ eitiei of the meana, he toiled on a farm until be waa 17. 

U. S. and Great Britain. In London, where On learing Harvard, he became an aasist. in 

ahe appeared flr^t in Uct. 1863. the part wag PhilltpB Acad., puraaingacouracoftbeol. itud- 

rejivated 211 ni|;htB in Bucccasion. Oct. 13, iet at the same time. Ord. pa«lor ofthc Cong. 

IS66. she became the wife of George Crowe, Chnrch in Dcdham, Mar, 16, 1803, where he 

some time uditor of the London Uailn Nt<et, labored sneceiufully until Mar. 1S18. Pres. of 

who resides near Bristol, Eng. Htddlb. Coll. 1818-39. He was suliseqaeaily 

Bates. BABKiinia, adrocate of cheap poet' chaplain daring one Bession of the U. 8. sen' 

■^■e, b. Edmonton, Eng., 1785; d. Boston, Oct ate; and was installed pastor of ■ chnrch in 

II, 1853. He waB brought to this coanlry by Dudley, Har. Si, 1843. Member of the Amer. 

hit porenlH when a child, and became a Buptisc Acad, of Aria and Sciences. He pub, " Remi- 

preacher in K. L, but was afterwards a TJniia- niscencea of Rev. John Codman ; " two ser- 

rinn. For a short time, ho was oollector of the munaon Intemperance, 1813; a volume of Ser- 

porl of Bristol, bat in ISSS removed la N. Y., mona ; Inaugural Addreis, 1818 ; Anniversary 

where he puh. a weekly paper, 7Ti« Chritllaa Discouree at Dudley, 1853 , and Sermons and 

Iiiqairrr. While holding on oftice tn the N. Y. Disconrses. — Spragiu. 

poti-offlce, be lamed hia attention to cheap Bfttes, JoBHC*, finaacier, b. Weymonih, 

poaisge, publishing pamphlets, writing in the Ms., 1788; d. London, Sept. 94, tS64; 

iKWapapers and magaiinea, and lecturing on son of Col. Joahna, who d. 1804. He re- 

thc subject in various parts of the U. S. He ceived his early edaeatioa from Rer. Jacob 

succeeded in the redaction of the land postage Norton, and, ac the atee of 15, entered the 

(o a reasonable rate, but died before dfecting coiinting-houte of William U. Gray in Boston, 

a corresponding decreaae in the rate of ocean Entering the employ of Mr. Gray's father, 

postage. long a leading merchant of N.E., he was tent 

B^eflf Edwakd, LL.D. (H. n. 1858), by him to the north of Europe, to look alUr 
statesman and jarist, h. Belmont, Goochland his jnteieats there. la ISSS, he formed a con- 
Co., Va., Sept 4, 1793; d. St. Louis. Mar. 25, nectinn in London with John Bnrini;, ander 
1869. Educated nnder the care of Benjamin the firm of Bates & Baring, On the death 
Bates, a relative, he in 1814 umigratcd to Mo. of Mr. Holland, they were both made partners 
with his elder brother Frederick, who was sec. in the house of Banng Bros. & Co. In 1891, 
of the territory, and its gov, 1834-6, Com- he was ompiro between the commisaiunerB of 
mencing the pracliceof law in 1SI6. he became the English and U.S. t^vta, for settling claims 
eminent at the bar ; was app. pros, atty. for groiving out of the War of 1 81 3. In 1 8A3, he 
the St. Louit Circnit in 1818; atty .-gen. of contributed 950,000 to the Public Librnry of 
the new State in 1830-33; U. S. 'dist. atty. tbe citv of Bo:<loii. then being eiiublishcd, on 
1634-6; was many yean a loading member condition that the income of bis fund should 
of the Mo. tegisl., member of the convention annnally be spent in the porchase of hooka of 
whieti framed the coustilntion of the State ia permanent value and anthoriiy, and that the 
I'M, and wal a memberof the 34th Congress, city should provide comfortable accommoda- 
The delivery of hia celebrated speech at tbe tions (or their use. both dav and eveniiiii, by nt 
Chicago Internal Improvement Convention in least 100 readers. Dp to tfan. 1358, when tit* 
1847 brought bim into geaeral notice. He, building was dedicated, he had given to it 
huWBver.rcfaBed to be a candidate (broOice in some 30,000 vols., besides the sum above 
Mo., and declined a seat in Pre*. Fillmore's named. The large ball of the library ia desig- 
cabinet. He was the (Viend of Henry Clay in anted as Bates Hall. His only surviving 
1934; Bupporleil the admlnlslralian of Mr. child ia the wife of Van de Woyer.'an eminent 
Ailaou ; lo 1854 was an opponent of tbe re- Belgian statesman. During the Rebellion, bis 
peal of the Mo. Compromiw ; co-operated with Bym|>athies were actively enlisted in behalf of 
the Fre« Labor party in Mo., and opposed the his country, and he did mnch by prndentcoun- 
adtnission of Kanaaa uader the Lecompton ael and iudicious anggeaiions to avert a war 
Conititution. Judge of the St, Louis Land between England and the US, — S's ^f'■mllr^al 
Coanin 1858-6, and pnt. of tbe Bait Whig o/Jothua Bala.JhailAt Cii^ <^ Dotton. lS6i. 



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Baugber, Henkt h., D.D., Lotheraii 
ctcti^rniBn, and edufator, b, Abboutown, Pa., 
Hb. ISU31 d. Gett^iburg, Pft., April U, IS6S. 
Dick. Coll. ISS5. Us sludied theology at 
Princeton nnd Gettysburg ; vas licenced lo 
iH-csch bv the Hd. synod ; elected pastor at 
Boonsburo' in 1829; look charge of the claaal- 
L-ul schuol aiOeitysburg in 1S30; and in 1S32, 
wben il became a coll., filled the chair of the 
Gruck lBni;ua^, and belles-letbM, until 1850, 
when he became prea., coatinuiDg in chat office 
□mil his death. He vas a froqaent coatrib. to 
Ihc Ecan-iflicat Revitw. 

Baume, Fbbdesick, lieni.-col. or the 
Briinswii;k Dra^-ooaa ia Burgoyne'l expod., 
mortallv wounded at tbe battle of Benaington, 
Vi., 16* Aug., and d. le Aug. ITTT. He ar- 

rircdiu Canada in 1776; 13 Aug. 1777, be was 

defeated by the loilitia under Gen. Stark. 

Baxter, QsoBoe Addison, D.D. (D. of 
N.C. laii), Preab. clergymBQ, b. Rockingham 
Co., Vs., 23 Juir; 1771; d. April 34, IB4l. 
Liberty Hull, 1796. Licenaed bj the Lexing- 
ton Presbytery, 1 Apr. 1797. Prof, mathe- 
matics Ht LibcrtT Hall (afterward Wash. Coll ), 
19 Oct. t79S-1S27, and was at the same time 
pH'ior of New MontnoQib and Lexiaglon. Iq 
1627, be became the lacond prea. of Waab. 
Coll., Lcsingtou, Va., reeifrning in IB39.' In 
Apr, 1KI2. he accepted the office of prof, in the 
Union Theol. Sem., Prinoe Edward Co. — 

Bay, Elihc Hall, jurist, b. Tori, Pa., 
1751; d. Charleston,S.C.,l9NoT. 1838 An- 
ilrew. hia hither, a native of Ireland, long a 
Preib. miniater m Pa., d. Newtown, L.I., 1 776. 
The eon was attorney-gen. of S.C, under the 
colonial r^yi'me, and, from 1791 to hIa d., aaso. 
jiuiice of the General Seaaions and C. C. P. 
Author of " Reports of Superior Coorls of S. 
C. aincc the Kevol.," id ed., 3 Tola., 1809-11. 

Bayard, Geoboe Dabhibll, gen., b. Sen- 
e(« K,illa. N.Y., Dee. 18, IS3S ; killed at Fred- 
erickiburg, Va., Dec. U, 1862, W. Pt. 1856. 
Entering the lat Cavalry, he became capt. 4th 
Cavali?, Aug. 20, 1861. He com. the lat Fa. 
Cavalry, and was made brig,.H:en. April 28, 
1862. Attached to Gen. McCall's reservea. he 
participated in the various battle* of that 
in^ corps. Nov. 20, 1861, he made a 
brilliant and succesaftil daah at the head i 
regt, npon Dranesville. Me aubsmi 
lerved in the army-corps of Gen. McDi 
end in the army of Va., under Gen. 
After the ballteofAntieiam, he com. a ca 
bri;ra<le in the advance of the army, with ' 
he did excellent service, making frequent d 
into the enemy's lines, and driving them 
the aaja of the Blue Ridge ; chief of ca 
army-ciirpa ; engaged in the haltlee of i 
Mountain, 9 Au^, 1862, Uanassas, Aug 
A\. and in the defences of Waahington, 
Sepl.-Occ 1862. He waa atlarhed to 
Pruiikliii's com. at 'he attack on Frede 



BAY 



Bayard, Juiis Ahhktoh, a 

Phila., 28 July, 1767 : d. Wilmington, Del., 6 
Ang. 1815. N.J. CoU. 1784. Of Huguenot 
de«ent. On the death of hia ftthtr, Dr. J. A. 
Bayard (8 June, 1770), he wai received into the 
family of his ancle. Col. John. He studied law 
under Geu. Joseph Reed ; was adm. to the bar 
in 1787 ; settled in Del., and acquired reputa- 
tion and practice. M.C. 1797-1803, and a 
leader of the Federal party ; U.S. senator, 1B04- 
13. He disting. himself in conducting the im 
poachraentof Senalor Blount; conlrib, power- 
fullv lo the election of JeSerson over Burr in 
their memorable conteit for the Preaidency; and 
in the debate which preceded the repeal, in Mar. 
1802, of the judiciary bill, displayed eonsum- 
mate ability in defence of the system, which 
was, howevnr, overthrown. He declined the 



under Ruasiau mediation, he led Phila, 



afterward visited Eng., and with his coUeagaea, 
Meaara. Adama, Clay, Gallatin, and Rusiell, 
negotiated in Dec. IBM, at Ghent, tbc treaty 
that bears the name of that place. Indaded in 
the commission to make a commercial treaty 
with Great Britain, he was preparing to ^o 
there, when an alarming illness caased him to 
return home, wbieh he reached only to die. As 
a lawyer and political orator, he took high 
rank. His son Jaubs A. was D.S. senator 
from Del., ISSl-eS. Another son. Richabs 
B., n.S. senator, L836-9 and 1841-5; c/iuijrf 
to Belgium, 1850 ; b. Wilmington, Del., 1796; 
d. Fhila., 4 Mar. 1868. Ann.liis wife, dan. of 
Gov. Richanl Basse tt, d. 10 Dec. 1854, a. 76. 

Bayard, Col, Jobn, merchant, and Re vol. 
patriot, h. Cecil Cu„ Md,, 11 Au^'. 17:13; d, 
N, Brunswick, N,J., 7 Jan, 1807. Jlember of 
the Bcrol, Cummiitee of Safety ; maj, 2d Phila, 
batt., which he led at the battle of Trenton ; 
many years speaker of the Pa. Aisembiy ; mem- 
ber Old Congress in 17B5 ; removed in 1788 to 
N. Brunswick, of which ho was mayor, and 
judeoof C.C.P. 

Bayard, Sam vel, jurist (1'65-1840], pub. 
" A Digest of Cases on the Lnw of Evidence," 
1810, and an " Abstract of the Laws of the 
U.S." 

Bavfleld. Hbkbt Woliet. an EuL'tisb 



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laland, Aug. IT, ISOI. Hikring finished his BftylOT, Coi. QaoKaa, Berol. officer, b. 

BroleuioiiAl educadoQ in LontloD, ha settled in Hanover Co., Vs.; d. 1TS4, at Baibodoes, 

.Y. in 1773. The preralence of thecronpin wbicher be luul gone for hi* h^lh. App. aide 

that cit; afibrded him an opportuDitj for the to Washingtoo, Ang. IS, 177$; ■erred al 

diiplaj of bia eldll and judgment, treatini; it Trenloa, and cairied (he nam of that soccei* 

in a nev aianoer, aa nn inSammatorj diiieaita ; to Coagrm», by tnhoni he «m praiented with 

and, in 1781, his pablication.eatitltid " A View a hone cap&naoned for scrvics, and recom- 

of the Croap." led to the adoptian of bis plan, raeoded for promotion. Made coi, of dragoons, 

In the autumn of 177A, he revisited London, Jan. 8, 1777; lurpriied and daogeroaslf 

where he engaged in stucij and practice with woaaded od the night of 3ept. 27, 177S, at 

tbo aid of Dr. Hunter ; and, in the folloving Tappao, N.Y., by Gen. Qrey. 67 uf bis men 

ipring, be returned to N.Y. a» a snrgma iu the were bntebered in cold blood, and the romaio- 

Engliib annj, under Sir Vf. Howe. This der, with himself, captured. He serveil to tbe 

po«t he resigned in 1777, and passed the re- close of the wAr, and wu eeteemed an oSear 

maindcr of hia life in practice in thatdty. In of bravery and merit. 

1787, hegavelactaresonaargery; in 1793, he Bayly, Tuoiua Hen>t, M. C. fromTa., 

was app. ibeflrst prof. ofauatomy inCol.ColL; b. Accomac Co., Va., 1810 ; d. there June S2, 

and, m 1793. prof, of sargerj, hia favorite 1856. U. of Va. Son of TboB. M, (1775-1. 

lubjeci. In 1796, he pub, a lreatiieon;ellaw- Jan. 1834. M. a 1813-15. N.J. Cull. 1794.) 

fever, in which he ia said to have proved its Became to the bar in 1830. At cbeaeeofaS, 

local origin, repadiatiog the theory of contagion, he wai chosen a member of the Aatemol;, and 

He had previoiuly been upp. health physician was r&elecied for five years in succession. Ho 

of N.Y., and, in 1798, pub. his "Letters trom was elected by that body a brig.-gen. of militia ; 

the Health Office." He died of ship-Aver. In was judge of the Circuit 8npcrior Court until 

17SS, his hoDMi was broken into bythe"Doo- lS44,andU.C, 1815-56, He was foretime 

tor's Mob," who destroyed his cabinet conwln- cbainnaDofthe bouse Commitieeof Ways and 

ing his valuable colls, in morbid anatomy, be- Means. He lived and died an the spot where 

lidea some valuable preparations. To him the his English ancestor! landedin 1666,andwher« 

Stale of N.Y, is indebted for its quarantine tbey esiabliiihGd the family home, 

laws. In 1781. hepub."AnginaTracheatis," Beaoh, Abbahxn,D.D. (Col. Coll. 1789.) 

with the mode of euro, 8vo, H.Y. — ThaAa: Proi.-Epis. clergyman, b. Chcohire, Ct., Sept. 

Baylies, Fbahgis, lawyer and politiciaa, 9, 1740; d. Sept. 11, 1828. Y. C. 1757. Ho 

b. Taunton, Mi., Oct. 16. 1783; d. there Oct. was ord. by the bishop of London in Jnne, 

28, IB5S. After receiving an academical edn- 1767. Rector of N. Brunswick, N J., until 

cation, he pnutisod law in TanntoiL H.C. 1783; assisLminislerof Trinity Church,N.Y., 

1821-7; member of the State iegisl, 1837-32 I78S-I813. He pub. "Hearing the Word," 

tuid in 1835; register of probate, 1818-30; and a "Fnnet*! Sermon on Dr, Chandler," 

e&ar^<fa#uVa to Brazil in 1333. Author of 1790. 

a valuable history of Flym. Col., 3 vols. 8vo, Boaoh, Mobeh Yalx, invent, and pub., b. 

1 838, repub., with notes and additions by S. G. Wallingford, Ct., Jan. 7, 1800 ; d. there July 

Drake, in 1866. 19, 1868. Exhibiting in his boyhood soma 

Baylies, Nichoij^, judge, b. Uxbridge, mechanical skill, bewas apprenticed to a cabi- 
Mt., 1773; d. Lyndon, Vt., Aag. 17, 1817, net-maker at Hartford, subsequently went into 
Darim. Coll. 1794. He practised law at Wood- business for himitelf at Northampton and 
stock and Montpelier, and was a judge of the Springlleld ; manulactnred a gunpowder en- 
Supreme Court of Vt. in 1831-1. Author gine lor propelling balloons, and endeavored 
of " A Digcated Index to the Modem Reports to introduce steam-navigation on the Con- 
of the Coorts of Common Law in Eng. and necticut, between Hartford and Springfield, 
the U.S." 3 vols., 1814; and an " Essay on Hii plan was executed by others, his inventive 
Frt« Agency." (kill enabling them to take a steamer over 

Baylies, Willum, M.D,, physician, b. what had before been deemed the insurmount- 

Uxbhili,-e, Ms., Dec. S, 1743 ; d. Dighion. Ms., able Enfleld Falls. Ha next devised a rag- 

Jnne 17, 1836. H. U. 1760. He established cutting machine, now in general use iu paper- 

himself as a physician in Dightou, where he mills; then engaged in the mannfaciure of 

remained throngh life on exceedingly ■acceslful paper in Ulster Co., N.Y,, but lost during tbe 

and popular practitioner. He lealonsly en- 7th year all he bod before made. Iu 1835, he 

gaged iu the political cootroveriies of the times, removed to New York, became interested in tbe 

was a representative of the town of Dighton ; San newspaper, the pioneer of the penuy pcess, 

a member of the 3 Piov. Congresses of Ms. of which he soon made himself sole proprietor. 

in 1775. serving on several important commit- During the Mexican war, be was sent to Mex> 

lees ; was also a member of tbe State conven- ico by Pres. Polk, as on agent, to arrange a 

tkin ihatadopted tbeFederul Constitution; and treaty of peace. The n^otiatioos, however, 

Stale senator, 1783. He was for several years when neatly concluded, were broken off bv a 

A judge of the C. C. P. for tbe connty of false report that Santa Aiia had annihilated the 

Bristol, and for a long time register of probate army of Gen. Taylor. Mr. Beach retired ^m 

for that connty. M. C. 1805-9. Member of baiiQcse in 1857, and remmed to his native 

tbe Acad, of Arts and Scicnccii ; of the Ms. town. 

Hint. Sac. nnd also of the Ms. Medical Soc., of Beall, Behjihik Llotd. col. U.S.A., b. 

which bewas one of tbe founders. His (wo D.C.id.Ba]L, Aug. 16,1863. SooofM^.Beall 



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of Hd. ; app. csdit, Jan. IS] 4; cnpt. Wash. 
City Vola. for the Florida war, June 1, 1836 ; 
capt. Sd DragooDB, JoQe B, IS36 ; brer, major, 
March IS. 1837, "for^tallantr]- in var aKainat 
Florida Indiam ; " maj. lal Dragooni, Feb. 16, 
1847; brov. lieat.-col., " for gallant eondocl in 
battle of Saata Croi lie lioialea, Mez.," Mar. 
16,1848; lient..col. Mar. 3, 18aa;col. lacCav- 
alrv. May 13, 1861; retired Feb. IS, 1863.— 
Gardner^ 

Bealli GaM. Bbazih, d. Wooaier, Obio, 
Feb.su, 1S43, a. 73. App. from Pa. ensign, 
Man:h T, 1792; batt-adj. and q'maater, 1793; 
serred under Wajne; and was brig.-gen. of 
ObioVola. in Sept. ISia. He occapied rarious 
public aiaiioni in Ohio, and iraa M.C., 1813- 

Beall, WiLuiM Dbnt,- cot. U.S.A., b. 
Md..l7SS ; d. Prineo George Co., Md., Scpi. 24, 
1829; a IDHJ. in the Revol. nniir; dialog, at 
Long Island and al Camden, S.C. ; ha waa app. 
maj. 9th Inf. Jan. S, 1 799 ; dep.-odj.-gen. aod 
depl.-inap.-gen. April, ISOl); diabanded Juno 
IS, 1800; lieuL-cof. Sih Inf. Dec. 19, 1808; col. 
3d Inf. Nor. 30, 1810; iransfurre.!. April, 1812, 
to Sth Inf. ; re«isned Aug. IS, 1812 ; he com. 
a regl. of militia in the battlo of Bladensburg ; 
sheriff of Prince George County. — Gardner. 

Beard, Jakes li., artist, b. Buffalo, 1815. 
James, bis father, removed !« Paineiville, O. ; 
d. there a b. 1827, leaving a wife and S email 
children penniless. With little teaching, be 
made bimdolf a portrait-painter, settled in Cin- 
cinnati, and vas manyyear^ a leading artist in 
the West, Ho pointed Harrison, Clay, Taylor, 
and J, Q, Adams. Among his compositions 
are "The Long Bill," "The Land Speculat- 
or." and the "North Carolina Emigrants." — 
Tackerma.1. 

Baard, Wh. H., anist, bra. of Jamei H., 
b. Paineaville, U, ab. 1824. At the age of 21, 
he tKcnine a peripatetic portrait-painter ; settled 
Id BnffaluinlBaO; visited Europe in 1858-60, 
and after the Idas of his wife, to whom bo 
had been recentW united, in the latter year set- 
tled in N.Y. Ciiy. He brought with him a few 
humorous pictures, " The Antronoiner," " The 
Owl,"" Bears on a Bender," and " Grimalkin's 
Dream." His other pictures are " The Guar- 
dian of ihe Flag," "In and out," " Little Bed 
Biding Hood," " Christmas Eve," " Rainins 
Cats and Dogs." " A Bird in the Hand," anu 
"Dance of Siienus." — Tad:trman. 

Beardaley. Sjukfbi., LL.D. (Ham. Col. 
■ 1849) a N.Y. politician, Iawyer,and judge, b. 
Otsego Co., N.Y. ; d. Dtica, S.Y., May 6. I860. 
He studieil law in Rome, Oneida Co., where he 
pi'iicii^ed nntil his removal to Utica in 1825; 
dist. attv. of Oneida Co., 1821'^ ; waa State 
senator in 1823; U.S.dist. atty. for the north- 
ern district ofN.r. in ieS7-^l ; M.C. from 
Oneida Co., K.Y., in 1831-6 and I843-S ; and 
shairman of the jndieiary committee; atty.- 
een. of N.Y,, 1837 ; app. jadgu of the Sap, 
''- rtof N.Y.. 1844, and chief-ju---^- ■"- 



1777; d. Elizabetbtown, N.J., Nov. 2 
NJ. Coll. 1797. He was a tutor in thi 
tntion in 1798-1800, and, in 1801, wi 
dsacon, and took charge of a parish in 



bethiown.NJ. After being rector of St. Peter's 

Church, Albany, N.Y., and- co-rector of Christ 
Church, Baltimore, he was, in 1813, app. pro- 
voet of the 0. of Pa., filling also the chair of 
Mental Philoaophv. Here he pub., in 1822, 
"A Seareh of Tmth in the Science of the 
Human Mind," a work \a defence of the phi- 
losophy of Locke. After IS years' connection 
with this university, he took charge of the Ep. 
Chnrcb in Trenton, N.J., and, while there, 
pub. an examination of Channing'a arguments 
against the Trinity. In 1836, he letLirned to 
Eliiabethtown. He also pub. "An Examina- 
tion of the Oxford Divinity; or, the Tncta- 
rian Controversy." — Blalce, 

Beasley, Gbh. Nathiniei., pioneef of 
Obio ; d. Knox Co., 0., Mar. 27, 183S, a. 84. 

Hewas a noted Indian 

a large and powerful n 
and Wayne's campaigns; aiterwarus seiilea in 
Chillicothe, O.; was a member of the legist., 
and a canal commisaioner, and many years a 
mal-gen. of militia. — A. T. Goodtaan. 

Beatty, Ret. Cbasleb, Presh. minister, 
b. Co, Antrim, Ireland, ab. 1715; d. Aug. IS, 
1772, at Bridgeion, Burbedoes. He came 
while young to Amcr., engaged in trade, stud- 
ied theology under Wm. Tcnnent, was licensed 
Oct. 13, 1742, ord. Dec. 14, 1 743, and succeeded 
Mr, Tcnuent at Neshaminv, 26 May, 1743. 
In 1760, he visited Eng, to obtain aid for the 
Fresh, elergjr, their widows apd orphans. 
Sent to Va. and N. C. in 17S4, be accomp. 
Franklin in an exped. against the frontier lu' 
dians. as chaplain, in ITSS. He was often en- 
nwed in missionary labors among the Indians 
in Western Pa., and was esteemed for his piety 
and charily. His journal of a two-months' 
tour lo promote religion among the frontier 
inhabitants of Pa. was pub. in London, Bvo, 
1768. — Spraifite. 

Beatty, Joan. M.D., physician and sol- 
dier, son of Rev. Charles, b. bucks Co.. Pa,, 
Dec. 10, 1749; d. Trenton, N, J.. April 30, 
1826. N. J. Colt. 1769. He studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Rush, bat joined the armv earlv 
in the Revol. conlesi. and, in Sept. 1776, had 
attained the rank of licuc.-col. in the Pa. line. 
At the capture of Fort Washington, he was 
taken prisoner. Severe treaimciit ^ remly im- 
paired his health ; hut, baring been exchanged, 
he was app., Ma^aS, 1778, to succeed Dr. Bur- 
dinot aa commissary-gen. of prisoners, with 
rank of col., which post be resigned Mar. 31, 
ITSO. He then settled as a physician in 
Princeton; waa adelegate lo the OldCongress 
in IT83-5; waa frEquenlly a member uf both 
branches of the State legisl,, and speaker of 
the boose ; was a member of the ronvention 
that adopted tbeFederal Constitution ; and was 
a member of Congress in 1793-5. From 1795 
to IB05, he was sec. of State for N.J. He su- 
perintended the erection of the bridge across 
the Delaware at Bloomsbary, and, in I8I5-S6, 
was pres. of the Trenton Bank. 

Beaohamais (bo'-iZ-nlt), Alex., Vis- 
count, a French gen., b. Martinique, 1760, guil- 
lotined atParis, 23 July, 1794. Hescrvcdasa 
maj. nnder R«chaml>ean in the Amer. Revol. 
war. Dep. from Blois to the sinrcsJiPn., ha 
was one of the first to j.jin the lias iiat; b» 



lyv^iuo^ie 



BXIA. 75 BOA. 

swne pni. of the Nulotiml Awembljr ; gta. of and obtained Mcreily trmn the French Oort. 

diruion in tha army of ihe Qhiae in 1TB9; l.OOO.OOO lirrM.an equal mm from Spain, aad 

miniaier of war in 1793; bUel; Mcnted of armBandammnnitionfrom the public anenals, 

haHug promoted tbe lurreader of Houti, ha on condition that he would pay for or replace 

WM cotidemned by the rexol. tribao^. Joie- the same. Doder tbe firm of Koderiqae Hoi^ 

rbiac, hii widow, benune Einpreu of France, talez & Co., early in I7TT he forwarded 3 aliipa 

bDEeoe, his son, mtdo by Napoleon riceray with SOO pieces of ordoance, SS.OOO muslceta, 

of Italy, d. 18S4. SOO.OOO lb«. of gnopowder, and other ammu- 

Beanhamaifl, CsAiiLBe, H^hquis de, aition. He had also engaged more than SO 

iuitaraleanorLouisXlV.,goT.of NcwFraace, oSi:era, amon^ them Pulaski and Sieuben. 

I*K~46, wM an able and efficient offlcer. He Hecooiinuad hia shipments, aniil, in the bcKin- 

bad b«en disting,, and bold the ranii of com' ning; of 1779, tbe U.S. were indebted lo bim in 

modore in [he nary. On the breaking-out of more than 4,(>l>0,000 francs. Tbe final bulann 

war with Eng., he fortified and strengthened of this claim, ab. 800,000 franci, woi not paid 

the connirr, and built tbe fortreaa of Crown ntitil 183S. The transaction, far from barinij 

PoinL — Jiorpm. been proQuble to him, reaalted in loaieii, which 

BeftlUSQ {bo'-ihoo') HrjtciHTas Mabii he was enabled to withstand, throngh govt, aid, 

L. DR, a Fr«ach officer, who com. and was and Bocccasful specniationa of Tarioua kinds. 

icilled al Braddoek'a deftaai, at the battle of Tbe aid furnished by Bcaumarchaii was of in- 

Monongabela, S Julr, 17S5; b. Montreal, 9 catculahle advantage to tbe Amcr cause. The 

Aug. 1711. He had attained tbe rank of recent biography of this remarkable man, by 

capt. and the Cross of St. Louia, for ser- M. de Lomenie, discloses the Msity of Arthor 

rice in the nary. In 1T33, he obtained the tiec'a statement to Congieaa, that this aid lo 

seigniory of La'Colle, on the Chambly ; sue- Amer, was a gift : it was not so. The ship- 

cccilcd Contrectenr at Ft. Dn Quesne, in 1755, ments of Boderiqae Hortalei & Co. were to 

and plannetl iho ambascode which dealroyad be re-imbursed by retum^cargoes of rice, Itv 

the army of Braddock. bactM>, and indigo; and the ulsebood of Lee 

Beaiijoiir ( bu'-ihoor*), Louia Felix, db, pUced Silos Deane in the position of a man 

author and diplomatist, b. ProTence, 1 76S ; d. trying frauduloatly to obtain payment for a 

July I, ISse. He entered the diplomatic ca- ^ft,and prerented Beaumorchaisfrom fumiah- 

reer in 1 788, and was successively sec. of lega- ing farther aid, by cutting off his means of 

tiuo BtMunicbaod Dresden, and consal-gen. in domg so; since he had already far aiCceeded 

Sweden and Greece. Afterwards sec. andprea. the capital loaned him by France and Spain, 

of the tribunate, lie wrote twii remarkable tracts — Stt De Lamenu, " i&uuiarcAoii and kU 

on the treaties of Lauerille and Amiens. la Timti," 

1804, he was app. consnl^gen. and charged- BeSOmont DB (deh-bu'-niun'), de la 

agaira to the U.S. While here, he composed Bomusre, GusTAT* Aitqubte, a French 

a work, which, on his return in 18U, he pub. advocate and writer, b. depart, of Sarthe, Feb. 

with an adminble map, under the title of " A S, 1802 ; d. Paris, Feb. Sa, 1866. In IS31, he 

Sketch of tbe U.S. at Iho Commencement of was commissioned, with DeTocqueville, to visit 

tbe 19th Century." He was made cousu|.gen. tha U.S., and examine its penitentiarjr- syaiem. 

of Smyrna in 1816, inBji.-gen. of the French Their report, " Ou Sgilkiat Penitentiaire aur 

establishments in the Lurant in 1B17, and, re- .^(ati Uaii <t de kxi Appliralioa <n Fruna," 

turning to France in 1819, was rewarded with has become a standard work OD the subject, 

the tide of horoo. Beaumonl also wrote " Marie, au de t'Eirlavage 

Beatunarohais {bO'-ndk.sha'), Piebrh am ^foof/ni'i," which has been translated and 
AcouBTin CsAoit, DK, b. Faris, Jan. S4, reprinted in the U. S. He was a member of 
l'3i; d. May 19, 1799. He gave striking the chamber of deputies in IS4U, of the con- 
proof, while young, of the possession of me- stiluent assembly, 18-18, and was app. amtiassa- 
chanial and musical talents ; assisted bis la- dor to Eng. by Geo. Cavaignac. Ue was a 
tber ID watchmaking, and afterwards became graadaun of Lafayette, and, in 1836, he m. a 
teacher of the harp to the daughters of Loni* srandKlau. of Ihemarquia. He was Imprisoned 
SV. Ue laid the foundation of bis immense for opposition lo the roup d'eat of Dec. 3, 
wealth by a rich marriage. In hia celebrated 1851. He wrote in 1839 " L'lriandF, Sueiate, 
lawsuit Bgainet Goesmao, he exhibited all his PolUiqae, <f B^igieaee " (2 vole., 1339). 
talent ; and his " Memoirs," pub. at Paris in Beaumout, WiLLiaM, M. D., a celebrat- 
1174, entertained all France. "The Barber ed physician, h. Lebanon, Ci., in 1785; d. 
of Seville " and " The Marriage of Figaro " St. Louis, Apr. S5, 1853. After completing 
hare given him a permanent reputation. In bis medical education at St. Alban'a, Vt.. in 
his memoir, " MfSix Spoqaa,"aa relates tbe 1812, he was app. assise surgeon in the U. S. 
dangers to wbicb he was exposed in a rovol., army, in which be served until IBS'. In 1835, 
where a celebrated name, talent, and riches while stationed at Michllimaclnai:'. be became 
were snfHcient causes of proscription. As acquainted with the Canadian St. Martin ; and 
early as Sept. 1775, he had submitted to the it is to his experiments with this man, that Ur. 
kiu^ a memorial, In which he insislal upon the Beaumont is indebted for his wide-spreud fume. 
nec«uliy fur the French Govt, to come aecredy A gnnahot wound in the aide of St. Martin, 
to tbe oasisiaDceof the Colonics against Eng. healed without cloaing np,io that the sioiiiuc-b 
Ai an agent of the French ministry, he pass^ was exposed to obserralion ; and Dr. Ucau- 
part of 1775 in Eng., where he had interviews mont made careful experiments fur sevfral 
with Arthur Leo. By leliers, representations, years upon the processes of digestion. The 
atid adroit fi-iiiery, he bronghtorer Maurepas, result ol bii obtervatioiu, pub. iu 1338: >i>ed 



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sew light DDoa thii moit intaresdoK and Moiui; oommusion, uiil ths oij^aniiUiODi foi 
imporiaDt Bubiact, aai is tbe oniy aolAoritj, (ha care and edacotion of the ft«dmen 
based on actiua obiervation, in tbal braoch of Beak, Gbobob, painter and poet, b 



After learins tbe armT, Dr. Beau- 1749 ; d. Lexington, Kf., Dec. M, 1812, 



lAoritj, (ha care and edncotion of the ft«dmen. 

aoch of Beak, Gboboi 

■; f,- ■ ^*"'" 1^*9; d. Lexingti 

mont practised hii pToressioa at St. Lonii. was app. prof, of 

BeaureRHrd, Vbtbb Gdstatds Tod- Acad, at Woolwicb in 1T76, butlost tbeofice 

VANT.^n. U.S.A., b. on hiahther'B plantation, for ntglecting iti dniiea. After coming to 

near N. OdeaDi, 181T. Wett Point, 1838. Amer. in 1T9S, be was emploved in painting 

Entenof! the iBt Art., bewa«tninelerrad to tbe by Mr. Hamilton of the Woodlanai, near 

engineer corps ; became Isi lieat. in 1839, and Fhila. Beaidea origiiml poena pieces, be tnuM- 

in tbe Mexican war won tbe brereti of capt lated Anacreon, and larn portioai of Horoer, 

at Contrersa and Cbnruboico, and m^. at Tirgil, and Horace. £ pab. " ObaerratioD* 

Chapultepec, where be was twice wonnded. m toe Coioet," 1813. 

He «&■ preaent at tbe caplnre of [he city of Beck, JooB Bbodhhad, M.D., b, Scbe- 

Mesico, and receiTed another wound at the nectadj, Sept. 18, 179i: d. Rbinebeck, N.T., 

Belen Gate. Capt. Mar. 3, 1853. After the Apr.9,lBSl. Colomb. Coll, 1813. Bro.ofT. 

war, be had charge of the conatruction of tbe Bl, Nicholas, Lswia, aad Abraham Beck. Ed- 

N. Orleans mint and coalom-honae, and of ucaied by his uncle, Bev. John B. Romeyn of 

tbe fortificatioiu near the months of the Mpt. BhindiBck. He commenced practice on tbe 

Besigning hi* commission Feb. 90, 1861, he completioa of his medical sti]diea,in IBIT, and 

joined the rebel armj; was made brig.-gen., became dialing. Inl823, with Drs, Dyckmaa 

conducted the attack on Fort Sumter, and, in and Francis, he eatablisbed the N. Y. M<d. aad 

June, took oom, of the army at Manassas. Phy. Joamai, of which he was T Ttan chief 

July ai.hogained thebattleofBallBun,aiid editor. In 1836, he was app, prof, of materia 

was the same its; promoted to be gen. C.S.A. medica and boiany in the Coll. of Physicians 

Uar. 5, 1S62, he took com. of &e aimy of the and Sargeons, hot subsequently exchanged the 

Miss., under Gen. A S. Johnston, who joined chair of botany for that of medical Jarispru- 

bim at Corinth, ab. Apr. 1, and directed the dence, which, tether with that of materia 

battle of Bbilob until be was killed, Apr- 6; medioa, he continued to hold until hit death, 

after which, Beauregard held the chief com. Physician of tbe N. Y. HoapiiaI,'1835-iS. Be 

Fortifying himself HtCorinth,hebddtheanny Pub. "Medical Essays," 1843, and, with his 

of Gen. Halluck in check for nearly 3 monlba, bro, T. Bomeyn BM:k, produced the great 

and, vhen forced to retire, did w> with slight work on " itledical Jurisprudence," 1833. Al- 

loss. He was soon after relieved, at his own so author of " Infant T Mrs peu tics," 19mo, N. 

request, on account of ill health. In Ang., he T., ISIS; "Uiat. Sketch of the Stale of Hedi- 

receiTed the com. of the military dept.com. cine in the Colontes," 1850. — See Aftntair, bg 

posed of S. C. and Ga. Jan. 31, 1863, be is- C. B. Gitnan, in Grou'i ited. Biog. 

Bued a proclamation, aa gen. com'g in S. C, Beok, Lkwih C, M.D., chemist, b. Sche- 

(hat the blockade of Charleaton harbor had nectady, N.Y., Occ 4, 1T9S ; d. Albany, April 

beenraised. This canard was soon disproved ; 31,1853. Un. Coll. 1B17. Bro.ofJohnB. 

bat be successfully defended Charleston against and Theod. Romeyn Beck. Adm. to practise 

Dahlgren and Gillmore. In May, 1S64, he medicine in Schenectady in 1818, he reaided in 

joined X,ee at Bichmond; com. at Petersburg St. Louis in 1830-SI, and a^rward settled in 

in June ; took com. of the military diriaion of Albany. Prof, of botany in the Renlielaer 

the West, Oct. IT, and com. at Charleston, School, 1824-9; prof, of botany and cbemia- 

6.C., in the following spring; but. on Qai. try in the Vt. Acad of Med., ISSS-Si ; gave a 

Sherman's approach, retired to N. C, and course of chemical lectures at Middleb. Coll. in 

united his forces with those of Geo. J. E. Apr. 1637; mineralogist of the survey of N.T. 

Johnston, who sntreodeted sood after to Sber- in 1637. In 1S30, ht was app. pnrfof cheai- 

man. . istry and natural hiatoi7inRntgera'tCo1l.,nDd, 

Beok, CHJtKLHs, Pb. D., LL.D. (H. U. at the time of his deBtb,wasprof of chemistry 

16G5|, scholar, b. Heidelbeiv, Germany, Aug. in the Albany Ued. Coll. He pub. " Account 

19, 1798: d. Cambridge, Ab., Hor. 19, 1866. of tbe Salt Springs at Salina," 1836; "On 

Educated at the D. of Berlin, be studied theol- Adulters tions,'' 13mo, N. Y IB4G ; "Botany 

og/also; wasoid-Jnly, 1822, and, iu 1833, re- of tbe U. S.," and of the "U.S. Horlbof Vir- 

ceived his degree at Tnbinsen, He was some ginia," ISmo, 1848 ; " Mineralogy of N. Y.." 

lime tutor at the U. of Bade; but his republi- 4lo, 1B42; " Illinoia and Missouri Gaieltacr," 

can sentiments endangered his liberty, and, in Bvo, IB£3; "Chemistry," 1S31. For a com- 

1624, he came to Mew York. He soon con- plete list of Dr. Beck's writings, MtHemeir, 

DOCted himself with tbe Honnd Hill School, ly Aldta ifarrJi in Gntt't Ated. Biog. 

Northampton, but in 1830 established a school Beok, Paul, b philandiropic merchant, b. 

.. ou:i:„. .u. o_jg^„_ opposite West Fhila. ab. 1760; d. there Dec. h3, 1844. His 

O, he was prof, of father emigrated frooi Nnremberg in MM. 

re at Cambridge D. Tbe son was apprenticed u> a wine-mercbant, 

ilannacripts in the served in the militia during the Bevol., and, at 

liter, described and its close, began a highly ■successful basinesH- 

ber of the Oriental career, accumulating avery larze fbrtnie. He 

>f Sciences; was 9 was long port-warden of PhiTa., one uf the 

was a luan of en- banders of the Pa. Acad, of Pine Arts, pres. 

>lic spirit ; and was and a liberal benofocior of tbe Deaf and l>ninb 

BoldKrs' fund, the Institution, one of tite originators, and subs^ 



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qntnilv iba prai^ of the Amcr. 8. S. TJnIon, it MontrenI on doty, hi* •uburdinate, Cnpi 

and ITS* m IJuGMl'COiitnb. b> lilermrj, religJou, Buttcrfleld, aiirrEnilerod in h must coivardi; 

kod chariiBb]« obJQctB. manner u ihe Cedan. Jul; 30, 1776, he wai 

Back, TsBODOKio RoKBty, M.D., LL.D., ordered bj Congrein to be tried bv coun-mar- 

nMdiotl prof, and anthor.b.Scbenectiidy.N.T., tial for neglect ofdai}-. Hewaa afterward maj.- 

11 Aug. 1791 ; d. Dlica, N.Y., 19 Nnr. IS6S. gon, 8ti div. N. H, militia. 

Un. Cull. 1807. He atndied medicine nnder Bedell, O&boobt TowhsekI), D D., an 

iJr. Boaack, obtainod his degne in 1811, be- eloquent clerc^an, b. Siatan Island, Oct, 38. 

)^ praclice in Albuy, and in 1818 addnued 17BS ; d. Baltimore, Ang. 30, 1834. Col. Coll. 

tlie Albaaj Societ)! of Aru upon Ibe mineral ISll. Hia molhor was a »isteror Bishop Moore 

reaon.-cea of the [J. S., bellered 10 be ihe first of Va. Ord. deaMn,NDy. 4, IBU. In ISlS.be 

pub. afttemacic acMunt of Amer. mi&eiala. becnme rector of the church in Hudson, and, 

Airo.in 1SI5 prof of tboinaiiiuteBof loedioine, in 1818, of that in Fajetteville, N.C.. when, 

■iiJ k-uiurer on mod.jariKpnidencB.iQtheColI. after 3 jeari of anocebirtiil labor, it! health In. 

ol I'liyi. and Sargeons in Wesiem N. Y. ; prof, dnced bim to oama north. The Church of St 

ut med. Jurisp. at Fairfield Med. Coll. in AndTew'a,iii Pbila., was bnitl fbrhijn, and wai 

lb.;ii-36, and, Irom 1836 to 1840, prof, of mal«- oonsecrated May 21, 1833. Here Dr. Bedell 

rid medica ; prof of maMria medica in ibe Al- officiated till bis death. Hia aermons were re- 

baitv Med. Coll. t840-Mi principal of the Al- nutrkable for slmplicitj and point; and none 

buny Ae«d. 1817^8; mule prea. of the State could hare heard him preach without remcm. 

Mci. Society in 1820 ; a manager of the N. Y. baring and appreciating the peculiarities of his 

State Luoaiio Asfluni, and in ISM elected oratory. He pob. "Cause of the Qrecka," 

pres; ■ foandcrand actireaapparteruf the Al- 1837; "Ezekiel's Vision;" " Ii it Well?" 

ban/ Inititutt, and some yean iu pres; mem- "It is well ; " "Onward, or Cbriitinn Frogres- 

ber of many learned societies, and an earnest sion;" "Pay thy Vows;" " Kennnciation ;" 

pramoterofaUpbilanthro|Hccnterprises, Hia "Way Marks;" " Basket of Flowers ; " " Bi- 

siutiiiics of the deaf and dumb inSnonced the bie Siodies," 9 toIb., 1 829 ; " Religious Son- 

Siaie Iwisi. to take measures for their ednca- venlr," 1834. Thirty of bis sermons were pnb., 

tion. He edited for many years the Americott with a Memoir by Rev. Dr. Tjng, 1836, 8to, 

Journal of Iniaitilf, and In 1823 pub. hia fkr 3 vols. 

moai work on "Medical Jurisprndeitce," — a Bedford, Gtnmi no, Revol. patriot, mem- 

sun<lard work in Europe aa well asinAmerio. her Old Congress In 1T83-S; go*, of Del. 1796- 

Uealso pub. many addresses, reports, a5id eon- 7 ; d. Newcastle, Del., 30 Sept. 1797, while In 

tribt to M'ioniiflcjooraals. — Sw il/<«toir», iy office. B, Phila. Lieut, in the French warin 

F. H. llaniltoa, in Ortm't iloi. iiiog. 175&; in^j. 90 Mar. 17T5 ; lieut.-col. in Uas- 

BeOllwitll,SiROB{»OB, anEngliahgen., let's rogt., 19 Jan. 1776,and wounded at White 

b. \'.b3; d. 20 Mar. 1833. He served as a^j. Plains; mu>ter-m.-Ken. 18 June, IT'S. — .Sm 

of grenadiers in the nnsucccssfal attack on Life Gm. Head, bi/ IVm. T. Heed, 1870. 

Fort Moultrie ; waa at the battles of Brooklyn, Bedford, Uuniriira, Jan., cousin of the 

White Plains, Brandywina, Monmouth, and preceding, alsoa Revol. pBtriot,b. Phila., 1747; 

the caplaro of Fort Griswold ; became a capt. d, Wilmington, Del.,30 Mar. 181S. M. J, Coll. 

in May, 1777, and aide to Knyphaitsen, and in 1771. Practised law at Dorer, and afterward* 

June. 1783, became aide to Carleton. whom he at Wilmington, Del. Member of the le^isl., 

■ccomp. to Canada in 1T86. Adj-gen.inK. and atiy..)^n. of the State; member Con u 

Amcr. in 1793; col. 1795; gov. of Bermuda, Congress, 1785-6, and of the convention that 

l79S-1803,andaflerwardaorSt. Vinceut'sand formed the U. S. Constitution ; U. S. district 

Barbadoesi and, in 1809-10, captured all the judge from 1789 to his death. — Lijeo/Oto. 

French W. Indies. Made full gen. 4 June, Send. 

1814, and coo).-in-chief in Ireland in 1816-90. Bedfiwd, Guidfiiro 8.,U.D. (Rutg CoU. 

Beokwitb, OsoBaB C, U.D., Cong, clar- 1829), b. Baltimore, 1806; d. N.Y. City, 9 

gymin, d. Boston, 1* May, 1870, a. 70. A Sept. 1870. Mt. St. Mary Coll. 1835. Gruud- 

loonder of the Amer. Peace Society ; 33 y eitra oephewof thepreoeding. Prof at Charleston. 

it< corresp. sec. ; editor of its magazine, Tlie 8 C., and afterwards in (he Albany Med. Coll.. 

^mrufc o/ ffocc, and d«TDtul his whole tlma bat in 1838 went to N.Y., and obiained a 

and mind'io the cause. lucrative practice. Prof, of midwifery in the 

Bed&rtl, PiSBmR, Oanadinn jurist and pol- U. of N.Y.. 1B40-6S. Author of " Lei^lnrea 

ilieian, b. Quebec 1^63; d. 1827. One of the on the Diseases of Women and Children," 

Snt naii<e Canadians adm. 10 the bar, leader " Midwifery," 18S9. and haa traoslaieO from 

of the opposition to Gov, Craig in the Aa- the French, and edited, "Chailly'sMldivifery," 

•emHy, and one of the founders of L« Caiia- " Magrier's Anatomy," " Bandcloeiiuc on 

din. newspaper. He was imprisoned for eome Puerperal Fever," " Boitseaa on Choltrn, Ac." 

violent aitscka upon the exorative in this jour- BodinRSr, Maj. Geobob M., Revol. 

lul. and. after hu release waa long a district officer, b. Va. ; d. Lower Bine Licks, Ky., ab. 

jiidee. — ijorr/aa. 1830. One of the earliest emigrants to Ky., 

Bsdel, Coi~ TiNoTHt, Revol. oflleer, d. he served aa adj. in the cxped. against Chil- 

Hav«rhill, N.H., Feb. 1787. Oriipnally from lieoihe in 1779. a* maj. at the battle of Blue 

Salem, N.U., be aeltlod in UaTcrbill, was a Licks in 1783, and didgoodservicethroughnut 

lieut. in GaSe't re^ in 1760. and lervod in the war as an Indian spr. He led a bait. 

Canada. App. capt. of nngen, July 6, 1773. from Winchester, Va., nmler St. Clair, in hia 

C«l. IsiN. II. n^Jan. SO, 1776, he joined the exped. iu 1791 ; was maj. of U.S. Inf from 

NortWn army nndw Sohayler. Wnlls absent Apr. 1 792, to Feb. 1 793 ; was a member of the 



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SEHy 78 bxib: 

Ky. legwl. in 179a, and M. C. from 1803 to " The Tme Bemedy for ihe Wnm)C8 of Wo- 

180T. man," 18S1 ; "Treatise on Domeslic Econo- 

Bedinger, Henbt, politician, b. near mj,"aworkon>'Phj9iologj,Bnd theCondition 

Shepherds town, Va., 1810 ; d. there Nor. S6, and Babiu of American women," 1356, and 

1858. Daniel his father, a Rerol. loldicr >nd the first vol. ofacourse on theolozj mid moral 

DC. leader, d. ab. 1830. He begao to philosophj. Bheha«a1sopnh. "Uousckeepi:r'B 



practise law at Shephenlstown at sa ; was after- Eeceipt Book," " Sue^tions on Education," 

wards H pannerof hiabro.-in-law,Gen.Oeora[e 1889; "Letters on Difficultios in Kelieion," 

Ru«c, al Charletiown; sncceeded him as M. C. 1836; "TheUoml lnstrnctor,"lB38; Memoir 

in IB45-9, and.in lS53-8,WBsminislerloDeD- of her brother, Rer. George BtKchcr, 1844; 

marlc, scttlias by a treaty the vexed question " Tmlh Stranger than Fiction," 1850; Phvs- 

of the Sound dues. Be wa« • popnW and iolorr >nd Calisthenics," " Letten on Health 

effeeiive speaker. aDdHappineia,"lS55;d.Btmira,May 12, 1678. 

BeOi Babhakd E., bTi|;.-)::en. C.8.A., h. Beeoher, Chasleb, ion of Or. Lyman, 

Charleston, S.C.,ab. 1835; kilted at the battle b. 1816. Urd. 1844 pastor of a chnrch at 

of BuIlBun, JoiySl,IS6I. WeatPoiut, 1845. Newark, N J. ; settled at Georgetown, M^., 

Enieriflg the 3d Inf., he was brev. for eal- lince 1857. Hebas pub. apopuUrTol., "The 

laniryat Cerro Gordo, where he was wounded. Incarnation, or Pictures of the Virgin and her 

and for Cbapollepec, where he was one of the Son ; " " RcTiew of the Spiritnal Mantfeila- 

:ning-pany. 1st lient. 1851 ; capt. 10th tions," ISmo, N.T., 1653 ; " Fen Pictnres nf 



inf. Mnr. 3, 1855, and, being ordered to Utah, the Bible," 1855. With his brother Henry 

■■ ' 'a batt. of vols, from Ward, ' " "' "■"' ' " " " 

He resijrncd Mar. 3, H™ni 

g app. brig..gen. tb the rebel jBeeOber, Edward, D.D. (Marietta Coll. 



it.-col. of a batt. of vols, from Ward, he prepared the "Plymouth Coll. of 
. „. .... ,,. - ,. . and Tunel," 185" 



Dec. 1B5T, to Sept. 1858. He resided Mar. 3, 



1841 ), eldest son of Her. Lyman, clerKvmi 

Itoe, JcDOH Thouas of S.C., a Hero), b. 1804. Y. C. 1823. He studied divinity ai 

patriot ; member of the Assembly, speaker of Andorer and New Haven ; was lolor at Y.C. 

the faouiie of reps., member of the privy in 1835, pastor of Park-eL Church, Boston, 

council ; judjie of the Slate conns ; member 18aS-31 ; prcs. 111. ColU Jacksonville, 1631- 

of the council of safety ; lieuL-gov. ; member 44 ; pastor of 8alcm.«t. Chnrtb, Boston, 1846- 

of Continental Congress, 1780-a, and tinally 56 ; now pastor of a church in Galoshnr;:, III. 

judge of the district. Suffered greatly in prop- He has pnb. " Conflict of Ages," l^j4. " Papnl 

erly by the war. He pub. "Reports of the Conspiracy," 1855, a work on "Baptism," 

Dist. Court of S,C." 1810. ISmo, 1850, and "Riots at Alton," IS.18. 

Beebe, Bbkalebl, Col., a Revol officer, BMOtaOT,HBi<RT Ward, apoputaroraior, 

b. Litchfleid, Ct., Apr. S8, 1 741 ; d, there May and ninisier of Plymonth Church, Brooklyn, 

!9, 18S4. In 1758. he joined Rogers's Rangers, N.Y., eon of Rev. Lyman Boecher, b. Lileh- 

and was engaged in tlie sanguinary fight in Geld, Cl., June H. 1813. Amb. Coll. 1834. 

which Putnam was captured, and shared in Ihe He studied theology under his father at the 

reduction oF Montreal. Cap t. in Jan. 1776, Lane Sem., Cincinnati, and nasHrat settled in 

be wna app. to Hinman's r^,, and was made 1837 as Presb. minister at Lawrcnceburg, Ind, 

Kisoner at the capture of Fort Washington. In 1839, he removed to Indianapolis. In 1847, 
sj. in Aug. 1777, hBvingjuBtbeenexchnnged; he becamepastor of the Plymouth Church, 
lieut.-col. 1780 ; col. early in 1781 ; and was He visited Eng. in the sammer of 1863, and 
•oon after ftpp. 10 the command of the Ct. rendered important service to his rouniry by 
troops raiseil for [he defence of the sea-coast, bis eloquent vindication of its policy in the war 
From Oct. 1781 to 1795, he was frequently a for the Union, In Apr. 1865, at .the reqnest 
member of the State legisl. His son Lbenezer, of the govt., he delivered an oration at Fort 
maj. U.S. A., d. in the setrtco daring the War Sumter, on the anniversary of iu fall. Be- 
of 1812. sides orcasional addresses, he is the author of 
Beecher, Cathaeimb Esthbb, eldest " Lectures to Youn); Mtn," editor of " The Ply- 
dan, of Rev. Ljiiutn, b. East Hampton, L.I., mouth Collection of Hymns," also one of the 
Sept. 6, 1800, received her earlv education at founders of the liidrpeiiiifil, a weekly religions 
Lilcbfioid. Thedeaihof Prof Visher of Yale newspaper of N.Y. Two vols, of these contribu- 
Coll., 10 whom she whs betrothed, was a severe tioni have been collected under the nume of the 
blow, from which she »>U|fht consolntion in a " Star Papers." Frogmeutsfrom his <Uscour>es, 
life of activity. Iu 1822-32, she conducted a entitled " Life-Thoughts," and " Kotcs from 
ftraale scm. lit Hartfonl, and prepared for the Plymouth Pulpit," Lave had a wide circulation, 
press a manual of arithmetic, 1830, and ele- He has. also pub. "Eves and Ears," 1862; 
menlary boohs of instruction in theology and "Freedom and War,'' 1863; "Korwood," a 
moral philosophy. In 1832, she accomp, her novel of New-England life, 1866 ; and " Sci^ 
father to Cincinnati, where, for 2 years, she was mons," S vols. 8vo. He is a popular lortnrcr; 
at the hend of an institution for female in- and, as a preacher, he addresses himself with 
struciion. She has for many years employed vigor and effect to the hearts and undersiand- 
hcrseir in developing a plan for female Chris- ings of his hearers. He opposed the institntiun 
tiun education, to be promoted through a of slaverv, and, in the presidential content of 
national board, with high schools and normal 1856, too^ an active part in favor of the Repnb- 
scbouls to provide a sufficient supply of well- licans, not only with his pen, but by addressing 
Instructed teacher*. Among her writings in moss meetings throughout the Noruiirn Slates, 
this cause ore "Domestic Service," "The — Srt Menofoar Timt, ball. B. Slaict. 
Dnty of Amcr. Womett to their Country," BeeCher|LTMAH, D.D., an em' sent Fresh. 



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79 BBIL 

■Daraioed CoIamboB'sTiew of a vcsWrapasBiM 
to India. In 1483, b« woa >pp. a comToii. lor 

He 9iu^i»l tbeology under Pres. Dwight; wu calculaiing hd ascrolftbe and ablts of dcclea- 

pasior of ibo churcL in E. Bamplon, L.l.,from biod. Next ;ear, ha woa counograjiher lo ibe 

I>«e. i:<JS to 1810; ofllieFimCburch, Licch- exped. to tbe W. coast of Africa. Id 1486, be 

Held, Cl.. Iroin 1810 to I8SG ; of the Hanover- eBtabluhed a Flemish i-olony ai Fiiyal. and in 

iL Church. BvBton, from IS2S u> 1832, and of 1490 retamed to Kuretnberg, where be con- 

tbe Second Church, Cincinnati, 0., in connec- llmcted a terrealiial globe, on which historical 

tion with tbe presidency of the Lsoe Tbeol. noticea were written, and which is a valnable 

Sem. there, from 1832 to 1851. Returning to memorial of tbe dincoTcrieB and geog, knowl- 

Boston, he preached occaaionall;, but romOTed edge of tbe time. Tbe discovery of Fayat is 

to Brooklyn in 1855, where he ended his days, cbiimed for Behcm in 1-459, and of Brnsil 

In Liwhlield, be aided in organiiing tbe Mis- in U84 (8 yiwrs before the voyage of Co. 

sionnrf, the Education, and the Amct. Bible lumbus). 

Societies. In Ibo theological cuntniversics Sebringf Vitus, a Banish navigator, well 

which led 10 a division of the Presb. Church in known for his shipwreck and dieath on an 

1837-6, he look an active part, though free from island still disting. by his name, b, Uorsens, 

bitlerneaa. Bia forcible preaching, bis strong Jutland, 1680 ; d. Dec. 8, 1741. In his youth, 

riewi in regard lo evangelical iralh, and bis he made several voyages to the East and Wcit 

boldness in denouncing laxity in regard to Ibe Indies. He made, in 1725, an exped. to the 

■landard of Christian orthodoxy, made a deep Kortbem Seas, to discover an overlund passage 

impression on the pablic mind. He was tbe to America. He served in tbe Ruaaian navy, 

most widely known. and tbe moat Influential, and, in 17:28, was intrusted by Petur theGreat 

preacher in the couairy, from 1815 lo 1851. with an oiped, lo ascertain hon far the coast 

Ue was consptcuouB in the temperance move- of Aiuer. extended towards the east, bnt made 

famous series of sermons on no drscoreries of consequenc^ either in this o 



intemperance, which greatly aided the cause, the two subsequent vovages for the same govt. 

His numerous pnblications, mostly sermons, in 1730 and 1741. In the last of these at- 

include a vol. on " Political Atheism." His lemots. be was shi 
Antobiography, and a selection of h 

edited by his son Charles, wera pnb. in 18E5, name. He became a commodore in 1732. 

in ! vols., 12ma. His works, 3 vols., 8vo, wars Though Bebring'a exped. terminaicd so unfor- 

pub. Boston, 1859. All bis sons became Cong, tunately, the Qnding of this island led to (be 

clergymen ; vii., William, Edward, D. U., discovery of others abounding with valuable 

Georgefd. 1643), Uenrj Ward,Charles,Thos. furs, and finally to that of the Aleutian Isles: 

K., aad James. The daughten are Catharine it is also the foundation of tbe claim of Russia 

B. and Harriet (well-known authors), Mary, to that part of America. 

and Isabella. Belolier, Sis Eon-ASS, arctic explorer, 

Beeobefi Fkbdihio Wilmajc, British graoddon of JurlgeJonatban,b.lT99. Entered 
navigator, b. London, Feb. 1796; d. i here Nov. the Engliab navy, 1813; present at ihe battle 
29, 1856. Son of the tjainler, Sir Wm. He of Algiers; com. "The .£tna," 1930; "Tbe 
entered the navy at the age of 10, and saw Terror," and " The Erebus," for arctic service, 
■erviceat New Orleans; a iieat. in 1S15; in in 1B33, and "Tbe Sulphur" in 1836-43; 
1618, be sailed under Sir John Franklin on his knighted in 1843; capt.Df"The Saiaarang " 
Grai voyage of arctic discovery, acting as artist in tbe E. Indies, 1843-9 ; com. the exped. in 
to the exped. In lS19,he accomp. Sir Edward searcbof Sir John Franklin, 1852-4 ; admiral, 
Parrjin " Tbe Uecia," in his first arctic vo;^- 1861. Author of several narrativee of hia voy- 
age. In 1831, he was commissioned, wiib hia ages,aod other works ; d. London, Mch. 18. 1 '<7T, 
brother, H. W. Bsechey, lo survey the north BoIChST, Jobatkah, a colonial governor, 
cout of Africa from Tripoli lo Deme. Made b. Cambrid^, Ms.. Jan. 8, 1582; d. Elizabeth- 
a com., he sailed in 1835, in "Tbe Blossom," town, N.J., Aug. 31. 1767. H.U. 1699. Son 
on another arctic ozped., uH Cape Horn, to of Andrew, one of the council of the province, 
act in concert with Frsnklin and Parr;, and, who d. in 1717 ; and ^ndson of Andrew, who 
having passed Behring'a Straits, arrived in lived in Cambridge in 1646. His education 
Aug. 1826, at apoinl north of Icy Cape,reach- was carefully superintended by hia fathi-r 
i-j'! in boats 71* 23' 31" N. lat., and 1.56° 21' Visiting Europe, he formed an acqunintnnL's 
SO ' W. long. He pnb. a narrative of thia voy- with the Princesa Sophia and her son, iifter- 
ageiiilS3l. Beechey subsequently discovered, wards Eing George X., which laid the founda- 
in 1837, two secure liarbors south-east of Cape lion of bis future honors. After his return 
Prince of Wales, and near Bcbt^ng's Straiu, firom a six-years' sojourn, lie was a menhant 
which he named Port Clarence and Grantly of Boston, a member of the Frov. Assembly, 
Harbor. In 1829-39, he was employed in mak- then a member of the council, end in I7:;9 
ing surveys of the coasta of S. America and was sent as agent of the province to F.rn^ 
Ireland. In 1854, be was app. icar-adm. of land. This position, according lo Huich- 
ihe blue, and in 1855 was chosen prea. of the inson, was not attained by him in a very 
Rov. Gcog. Society. creditable manner. Nov. 29, l7S9,hewaint'p. 

fiehem, Mabtim, geographer and navi- gov. of Ms. and N H. Ue was snpersoclvd 

gator, b- Nuremberg, ab. 1*30; d. Lisbon, July, in 1741, in consequence of the violent clamoi 

1506- He studied astronomy and mathema- against him. He succeeded in vindicaling him 

tics; went in 1477 to Flanders, and in 1480 to self at Ihe British court, and look the govt, of 

IJsbon, where he is said, b; Herrera, lo have S.J., where he arriTed in 1747, and where be 



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paan^ ibe T«ti»!oiIer of hii UA. H« ezleaded 8to, IT94-8; " The Fomlera," airork of vii 

the clurwr of K J. Coll., wu iu chief pUroo and huioor, deecHptive of American manners ' 

Aod benefacior, and raadered cBunec* lervice a cenlai? diH-ODrneoi] ibe Diacoierf of Aner- 

to the 6^ll:. ica, 179a; " DiiuertalionB nnon the CfaaraclCT 

Boloher, Jomitbui, jariat, b. Bo«iaii, and RMurreciion of Chriit, 1795, IZmo; and 

July !S, 17ID; d. Uali&z, Harcb 9>, 177S. conirib*. lo ihe Columbian and BoOim mag- 

H.C. 173S. Sod of Glo*. Jooatbaii. Heatndied axinea, the Hist. Colli., and the newspaper* of 

lair at the Temple, London, and attained aame the daj. Uis hisiorical writingi are charac- 

-_i .L. o-igjjii, (i^r i£g ,fg( 0,^ of lemed by extintire intormalion and reseaich. 



the Grvl tetilen of Chebnclo, afterward! called He was highly eiteemed as a preacher. 

Halifax, and being, in 1760, senior coanciUor, Memoir, with selections fixjin hiscomeap., wu 

was, on the death of Got. Lawrence, app. lieoL- pnh. bv his eraad-dan. in N. Y., in 1847. 

uoT., in which office be was soccseded by Col. BeDuiap, William Goldbvitb. brev. 

Wilmot in 1763; epp, cbief-ja»tic» in 1761, brig..gBO. UTs.A., b.NBwborgb.N.Y,, Sept. 14, 

and in the iane year, a« oom.-in-cbicf, nude a 1794; d. Fort Wacbita, Tex., Not. 10. IBai. 

treat; wilb the Hirainicbi, Micnuc, and other Hade a lieac X3d Inf. Apr. 5, 1SI3 ; disiinp. 

tribes of Indians. Axdbxw, hiason, a dialing, and wounded in the sortie from Fort Eric, 17 

ciiitcn of Halifax, was member of the ooaneil, Sept. 1B14 ; capt 1 Feb. IStS ; brer. m^j. 1 

1801. Feb, 1B33J maj. 8th Inf. 31 Jan. 1642; and 

Belotaar, Jobifb, D.D., clergyman and Mar. \b, 1843, brev. lieBL-col. for good cod- 

auihur, b. Binniugbam, Ens,, Apnl B, 1794 ; duct in the Florida war. He was with Geo. 

d. I'hila., July 10, 1859. lie came lo this Taylor on the Bio Grande ; was brer. col. fur 

country in 1S44. His pnblicadons nnmber services in the battles of May 8 and 9, 1846, 

neHriy SOO. Among them are lives of and wu presented with a sword by hie fel- 

Whiiefleld and Boberi Ball, "History of Be- low-townamen of Newborgh, Acting inap-- 

lijjions Dcnominatioiis of U.S.," 1B5S ; " Bap- nn. at the captare of Monterey ; lieoi.-col bih 

&ii Manual," "Sketches from Life," " Foetid Inf. Sept. 26, 1847; brev. brig.-gcn. 23 Feb. 

Skeichea of Biblical Subjects," " The Clercy 1847, for Baena Vlatlu Fiom Dec. 1848 lo 

of America." 18SS; "The Baptist Pulpit of Me Mav, 1891, hewai in oom. of Fort Gibson. In 

U.S.," 1850. He fnmished many of the biog- IS3S-9, Capt. Belknap estaJilisbed Fort Leav. 

rapbies for the Anier. Portrait Gallery. His enwonh near the liie of die thrlTing city of 

last book was " A History of Uynuis and their that name. 

Amhors." Belknap, William Wokth, sec. of war, 

Belgrano, Mahubl, a Soath-American 1869, b. lo. 1831. NJ. Coll. 1848; Princeton 

patriot, b. Buenos Ayrea; d. 1820. His par^ Mil. Coll, N.J. Serredlhningh the Rebellion, 

cuts, who emigrated from Italy, were wealthy ; and. in tbe eampBlgns of Tetm. and Ga., com. 

and their son, after completing tiia education at a divihion. Coll. of rerenne in Iowa, 1866-9. 

tbe U. of Salmonca, was app. sec. of the con- Bell, Chablkb H., rear-adm,, b. New York, 

sulale at Buunos Ayres, and became popalar. Ayig. 15, 1798. Midshipm. Jane IB, IS12 ; 

He enlercil zealously into the measure of de- licni. Mar. 28, 1820; com. Sept. 20, 1840; 

poking the Viceroy Cisneros, in May, 1810. capt. Aug. 12, 1854; commo. July 16, I8S2 ; 

Raised lo the raok of gen., he com. an unsnc- rear-idm. July 25, 1866. Ho was in Decatur's 

cessfuiexped. against Parogniy. Sept 4, 1812, aqnsdron in 1813-14, in that of Channcy on 

Belgrano gained a victory orer the royalist Lake Ontario, in 1814, and in Decnlur^, in 

gen. Pio Tristan at Tucuman, and on the 13th the Mcditanniiean, in 1815; in 1824, com. 

Feb. following obtained another Ticlory over schooner " Ferret " in the W. Indies ; wasctui- 

him at Salts, bat imprudently released Trig- sized at sea, and remained 21 houra on lue 

tan aod his iroop* upon Ibeir parole, which the wreck ; attached to " The Erie " in 1829 ; as- 

Spaniards diahonorilily fiolstcd. In (Muse- aist«d in cutting out the pirate schooner "Fed- 

quenceoflhJB, Gen. Pezuela, with the very same eral " from the forts at Oundalonpo, W. I.; 

troops, adili-d to others collected in Peru, a^ cum. Norfolk nai-y-yard, 1860; com. Pacific 

laikcdanddefealedhimal Vileapniiu, Oct. I, squad. IB62~4; N, Y. navy-yaid, 1865-8;d. 

1813, and n^-ain at Ayoma in the same year ; New Brunswick, N. J. Feb. 14, 1S7S. 

and San Martin succeeded him in the com. Bell, Hxkbt H., rear-adm. C.S.N., b. N.C. 

Belknap, Jsbbmt, D.D. (H. U. 1792), ab. 1808; drowned at the mouth of Osaka 

cler);ymau and historian, b. Boston, June 4, Hirer, Japan, Jan. 11,1868. Uidahipm. Aug.4 

1744; d. tliero Jane SO, 1798. U. U. 1762. 1823; lient. Mar. 3, 1B31 ; com. Aug. 12, 1B54 . 

U« studied theology, taught school 4 years, cant. 1861 ; commo. Jnlj 16, 1862 ; rearadra. 

was paator of a chaitb in Dover, N.H., from July 35, 1866. Hia first service was in " The 

Feb. IS, 1767, to 17B6, and of the Federal-sL Grampus," in clearing the coast of Cuba of 

Church, Boston, from April 4, 1787, until bis pirates. He com. one of the vessels of the E. I. 

dfiith. He founded tbe Ma. Hist. Society in squadron, which, in Nov, 1896, captured and 

1791 ; was an overseer of Harvard U., and was destroyed the four barrier forta near Canton, 

a useful member of many literary and bnmane China, Assigned to the Golf aqaadron in 

societies. Elo was a warm friend of the Reiol, I86I, he took nn active part, as ficel-captain, in 

and of (he Federal Conatilntion, an opponent the capture of New Orleans and the tAe^t of 

of African slavery, and a promoterof literature Vickii burg, and did csscniial service in the 

and science. Besides nomerous sermons, he coaai blockade. He was for a time, in 186-3, in 

pub. fl " History of New Ham|)sbire," 3 vols., com. of the West Gulf Fquadron ; and, when 

8vo, 1764-92; a collection of Paalma and Adm. Thatcher waa ordered to other duty, its 

Hymns, 1795; "American Biography," 2 vols., com, again devolved on him. In July. 1869, 



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SmL. 81 BEL. 

he wu ordered to oom. the B. L aqtutdroo, Pre*. Hs. Med. Auo. I65T. Be w«nt to ihc 

and wM TUTT MiiT« In patting down ibe pi- seat of war aa aurg^on of ibe llih M'>. rem., 

rales ihitt iamtei the Cbioeae wat. In I86T, bat was soon afier made brigado-suri^n in 

be wot retired, bnt bad not been rtUered when Hooker's diriaion. Dr. Bell was the nuiliorot 

be was drawnod. several *ble professional works, and some nolit- 

Bellf-TAiiES, lawjer and statesman, b. Fran- ieal etMya, also of an JnTestigatioD of Hlleged 

ce*iown. A'.[I.,NoT. 13,13011 d. Gilford, N.IL, spiritual man ifes tat tons. 

Mayse, 1SS7. Bawd. Coll. 18J3. Sod ofOor. Bell, Petbk Uansbhodob, col., b. Vn. 

Samnel. Heetndied law wiihbia bro. Sniauel Capt. Texas Kan^^ra, 1845-6, on rrODticr ser- 

D. Bell, and al the law school at LitchQeld, Tice. Lieat.-col.afHavs'Bregl. raoonti'dvuU. in 

Ct. ; In 1839, wu adm, to practise in Oilman- Hcxican vrar, ISlT-a'; col.of reeC for fiunii-jr 

ton, N.H., and ab. 1S31 remored to Exeter, deftnce, from Jnly 1848, (o Feb. IS49; jror 

where be practised llll 1946, when he romoTed of Texas, 1849 to 18S3 ; M.C. 1853-7, uf.cr 

lu Gilford. In 1846, he waa elected to the ward jad^ of the Supreme Conrt of the Stute 

N. U. Iq^l. from Exeter ; in 1830, a member — Gardner. 

tit the Siate-CoDst. Coav. from Gilford ; and in Bell, SuinBi,, LL.D., statesman end Jii- 

1S5}. be waa elected br thelegisl. to the D. S. rise, b. Londondcrrf, N.H., Feb. 9, 1770; d 

senate. ~ Cheater, N.H., Dec. 33, 1850. Diirtni. Co!l. 
1793. His ancestors were ori^^inal]/ Irum 

_ . . . . Seotland, but settled near Londonderry, Irc- 

Bam'l Bell. Many jears a merchant in Ches- land, where hia grandfather John was b., who, 

ler; conncillor of the State; and sheriff of in 17E3. emitted to Amcr. with his ^mily, 

Bockin^ham Co., 1823-8. and settled in that partof N. II. known 8.4 iho 

Ball, John, statesman, b. near Nashville, town of Londonderrj, where he d. in 1743. He 

Tenn.. Feb. 15, 1797 ; d. there Sept. 10, 1869. worked on hia bther's farm until IS, when ho 

U.of Nashv. 1814. tie studied law; wae adm. prepared himself for,coll. After gra<lnHting, 

to the bar in 1816, and settled at Franklin, be studied taw, and'waa adm. to praciiic in 

WilliamMn Co. In 1 817, he waa elected to 1796; member of tbe le^isl.in 1804-3, occnpv- 

the State senate; wai M. C. in 1837-41, offl- iag the position of ipenkcr; in 1807 and 18U3 

riating during one urm as speaker; waa sec. was a member of the senate; in 1809, a meni- 

of war in l!l<ll ; was in 1847 a member of the ber of the exec council ; in 1816-19, jndt;cDf 

Teaa. legial., bnt, before the dose of the year, the Snp. Court of the State; and in 18)9-33, 

waa elected to the D. S. senate, and was re- gov. Declining a re-election, he was a mcml)cr 

elected in 1853, serving from time to time as of the U.S. senate from 1823 to 1835. He rc- 

chairman of important coiamittees. He waa ccrved the degree of LL.D. from Bowd. Coll. 

the Union candidntc for Pre*, in 1860, Mr. Ev- I83t. Amona hia sons were James, a celebrated 

ereltbeint; oD the ticket for rice-prea. In Con- lawyer, Saml. Dana, LL.D, and Luther V, 

grcss. ha was an earnest adroeaie of the policy M.D., LL.D. His youngest son, Col, Lcwta 

of protecting American ioduatry, and of im- Bell, b, 1S3S, d. of wounds at Fort Fiabcr, 

pro'ing thegreairiTersand lake harbor*. He Jan. IB, 1865. Broirn D. 1853. Uebcsanihe 

Imposed nullification, favored the inception of practice of law, entered the army in April, 1861, 

pelitioDS (or the abolitian of slavery in the as cape, lit N.H. vols., and. at the time of his 

Dbtrict of Columbia, oppoaed the policy of on- death, waa col. 4th N.H. vols., and acting brig.- 

Dexation, favored Cho compromise measnreaof gen. 

1850, and protested against the possatn of Che Bell, SAKinL Dana. LL.D. (D.C, 1B54), 

Nebraska Bill in 1854. lie took tlecidcd ground jariEt, b. Franceelowo, N.H., Oct. 9, 1798; d. 

ai^inst the so-called Lecompton Conaiitation, Manchester, N.H., July 31, 1868. H.U. 1B16. 

■nd in an elabonie speech charged that that Sou of Gov, Saml. Bell. He began to practise 

measure tended direcJy to the overthrow of the law in Meredith, removed to Cliestcrin 1820, to 

Union. Hr, Bell waa one of the very lew Concord in 1830.and from 1839tohisdealhIived 

Southern men whose conrse was wholly na- la Manchester, He was a member of the legisl. 

lioosl in character. in 1S25 ; solicitor for Rockingham Co, in 1823- 

BeU, LuTBEB V, M.D., LL.D,, phyaician, 8 ; sevenil years clerk of the legitl. ; commis- 

•on ofGoT. Saml. Bell of N.H., b. Chester, sioner to revise the statntcs of N,H, in 1830, 

N.H.. Dec SO, 1806 ; d. In camp near Bndd's 1843. and 1867 ; Jodge of the Police Court, 

Ferry, Md,,Feb, 11,1863. Bowd. Colli 823. Manchester, 1846-9; joitice of the Saperior 

HostudiedmedicineinN.T. City with an elder Court, 184&-S5; justice of the Supreme Court, 

l>ro,, received hiadegreefrom the Hanover Med. 1855-9; chieFjustice, 1859, to Ang, 1. 1861. 

Srhool.and began practice in N,T. Afterwards, He was one of the most eminent and profound 

removing to his native town, he became eminent jurists of N.E., and an early and valnable 

u a surgeon and as a medical writer, gaining member of the N.H. Hist. Society, Vice-prcs. 

a Bovlslon priies before he was 30. The es- of tbe N.E. Hist Gen. Society, from 1859 till 

tablii^ment of tbe State Lnnatic Hospital at hit death, 

Wotceiier, Vs., canscd him to advocate a aimi- Bellamy, JoaiFH, D.D. (U. of Aberdeen, 

tar insiitudon for N. H, ; and he was saperia- 1768). Cong, minister of Bethlehem, Ct., from 

lendeni of Ibe McLean Asylnm, at SonerviUe, I740lohiBd:,SMar., lT90;b, N. Cheahirc.Ct., 

&Ia., from Jan, 1837 to 1856, In 1845.ho vitlted Feb.30.1719. T.C. 1735. He was One of the 

Europe for the trustees of ihe Botler Hospital moat learned divines of tbe country, was n Mipe- 

for the Insane, at Providence, B.I. Dr. Bell rior preacher, and instructed many young men 

waa inl890oneoftbe«xec, coDaciIofMs.,and in divinity. Hia syatem of tbcolngy is Mnii'ar 

waa a member of the Const Conv. of 18S3. tothatofjono. Edwards. Huapp.arsi.ce w..s 



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commandin); ; and he pasacised jrreat wit and 
liuruor. During the great rcTival of 1743, ho 
prcsct.eil in niany pluc«s in S.JS. enti NT. 
AnllMir of " Truo Beli^fion DclincBlcd," 1 750. 
" Theron, Pnulinas, and Aspasio," 1799, Hiiil 
" Mature and Glory of the Gospel," l7S:t. Uig 
workivcropab.iQS rola., 1811, and in 2 Tola., 
ISJD, will) a Memoir by Ur. T. Edwanlii. 

BeUingbam, Rxchaid, gov. of M^.. oE 
whivli he vas an uriginal patentee, b. in Eng. 
in 1592; d. Ubc. 7, 1672. Ho was bred a 
Innycr; came to Amcr. in 1631, und the next 
vuar was chosen dcp.-eov. In 1641. he \iaa 
chosen t^v. inopp. to Winthrop; wosrD-clioaon 
in IC54, und again in 166e, al'ler tho death of 
Enilicott, continuing in oScq for the remainJor 
uf his life. He was long a prominent public 
ni'in, was dep.-gor. 13 years, and gov. 10. In 
166J, he was made maj.-gen. ; and in thot year 
the bin^ sent four commissioners to regnhite 
the HlfHirs of the province, ordering Bellinghani 
and others, who were obnoxioas, to pnicocJ to 
Eag., and answer the accasations against thcra 
in person ; but llie Gen. Court, by theoilTico of 
the ministers, refused compliance, and main- 
tuinei] the charter rights^ His Miijesiv, how- 
' bytheprewntof ashi^ilosd 



- . . _, J8.38. He was theprincipal originator 
of the C/iriitian /nf Hirer, a Unitarian newspaper 
ofN.V, in IB4S. nnditschiefninlrib. aniilthe 
SHramer of 1850. Be is a ready extempore 
speaker, and a popular leclurer, and has spoken 
and pub. much upon the prominent topics of 
llie day, e9[)ccially those of a social and philan- 



He 1 






of 



s. Hon 
n religioi 



o aOirm thut 



he died dislrHcteil. This is rendered , 
from the fnct, that he sulfercd nt Times from 
temporary aberration of intellect. His sister 
Anne, widow of Wro. Hibbens. an assist., was 
executed as h witch in June, 1636. His will 
provided, that after the decease of hi i wife, and 
of his son by a former wife, and bis grantt- 
daughler, the balk of hi a estate should be Spent 
fur the yearly maintenance "ort:oodly minis- 
ters and preachers " of the true chureli, which 
be considered to be thai of the Congn.'gaiion- 

Bellomoat, Riobakd Cootk. Eabi., a 

popular colonial gov., b. I6JG ; d. N.V., Mar. 5, 
ITOl. His father, Richard, was raised lo tlio 
peerage tur services in restoring Charles II. 
Richard was the first of his three sons ; was in 
parliament in 1688, and in saKor.d succeeding 
ones ; but in that held by James If. at Dublin, 
in 1689, he was altiiinted, having been one of 
ihe first who went over (o the I'rinco uf 
Orange. He received his iiupointment early in 
Jlay, 1695. hut did not arrive in N.Y„ n place 
then remarkabjy infected with the two dangcr- 
ous diseases of an unlawful trnda anil practice 
of piracy, until April, 1698, He reached Ros- 
toii. May 26, 1699. Ho succeeded, by affabili- 
ty and condescension, in ingratiating himself 
with Ihe people; wisely avoided alt controver- 
sies with the legisl., and thus obtained a larger 
sum ai a salary and as a gratuity than any of 
his predecessors or successors. He did much 
to suppress piracy, and sont the notorious Capt. 

General 
where be 

a. (H.U. 

N.V., b. 
11.1833; 



tScirfion Emmi'iitr, In 1857, he delivered 
a course of lectures on "The Trealnieni of 
Social IJiseases," before the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, and before the Dramatic Fund So- 
ciety of N.V. Bii address since pub., entitled 
" The Relation of Public Amnsemonts lo Pub- 
lic Morality, especially of the Theatre to the 
Higher Interests of Humanity,'* N.Y,, 1957. 
Ill I860, Dr. B. pub. in N.Y. " Re-Btalcmctils 
of Christian Doctrine in 2i Sermons," and hm 
sime pub. ■' The Old World in its New Fnce " 
During the war Ibr the Union, Dr. Bellows 
held the important post of head of the U.S. 
sanitary commission. In 18^4, he supplied 
fur a time the pnlpit of his dcceascil friend 
Starr King, in Sun Frunciseo. — Da^incL 

Belmont, Rnv, Fb^ncis V^chos db ; 
•). Montreal, 17.32. Of a disting. family in 
Burgundy, and highly edaca tod, he abandoned 
b.iiiiant prospects at home to become a mis- 
siDHiir; in Canada. In 1680, he took charge 
of the school connected with the Irixiaoia 
Mission at Montrenl, and at his own cost built 
a chuteh there, of which he became pastor in 
1691. From 1701 to his d., he was superior 
of the Seminary of Montreal. Anthor of a 
" fllitoire da Canada," printed in the Colls, of 
IheQuebecLit. and Hist. Soc. — O'Cn/Wmn. 

BflLtOQ, Fbancis S., col. U.S.A., b. Md. ; 
d. Brooklrn, N.Y., Sept. 10, 1861. App. 2d 
lieut. light dragoons, Mareb ST, ISI2; pay- 
master, June a, 1813; aide^frcamp to lien. 
Gaines, and disting. in defence of Fort Eriv ; 
assisi.-adj.-gen. OcL IB, 1814 ; assist.-insp.- 
gen. May, 1B16: capl. 4ih Inf. July, 1817; 
major 4th Art. Sept. 16, 1839; liout.-col. 3d 
An. Oct. 13, 1 845 ; com. his regt. in the Val- 
ley of Mexico ; brer. col. for gallant conduct 
in battles of COntreras and Charuhnsco, Aug. 
au. 1847, and disting. in the capture of the city 
of Mexico; eol. 4th An. June 10, 1857; re- 
tired in Aug. \%6\. — Armtt Did. 

BonaTtdaB (iia-navcc-des), Alonso db, 

Friinciscan friar, euthor of a memoir addressed 
to the King of .Spuin in 1630, concerning the 
temporal and spiritual aftairs of New Mexico, 
the character of. the country, and the nations 
inhabiting it, pub. Madrid, 4to, S3 leaves. 
When, in 1621, the religioos establishment wns 
erected by the provincial cboptcr into a t'«»- 
(orfia, Bennvidos was elected custodian. So 
snecessfal was his administration, th.-m in 16-27, 
the viceroy ordered him to report thereon in 
person to the king. The result was the above 
memoir. — Dai/cLinek, 

BenodiOtjDAViD.DD.b. Oct. 16, 1778, 
Settled in the ministry in early hfe; pub., in 
1813, ■' Gen. HicL of the Baptist Denam. in 
AinericaandOthcr Parts of the World, "2 vols., 
8vo, new and enlarged ed., N.Y. 1838 ; " His- 
tory of All Religions," Umo, 1824 ; " Poem d« 



hyGoogle 



BTCivdiDTaDDton/'eSept. 180T;"Fift; Tears 
■mong the Bapdsu," 1S60, He preached, 
OcL lb, 1870, at ttw «ga of 93, at Famucket, 
B. L when ha died, Dec S, 1 874. 

Beoedtot, Em*STDS CoBii8Lia§, LL.D. 
(BDtg. Coll. 1865), aathor, h. BranfoM, Ct., 
Hrt. 19, 1800. Wma. Coll. 1S!1. Son of 
Be*. Joel. T. He uught school ; waa adm. to 
the bar in 1834 ; became a trustee of schools in 
New Torkin iai3 ; a member of the Board of 
Edocalion iti I BSD, and prcs. for several fears, 
reaifniirts in 1863. Since 1S&5, a regent of 
;he U, of N.T. Member of the citv council in 
1840. and oftbe legisl. in IB48 an^ 1864. Au- 
thor of "American Admiralty," IS5U: " A Unn 
throDkrh Earope," 1860; "The Hrmn of 
Hildeben, and other McdiDval Uymni," 1868, 
and manf pamphlets, reviews, and ad<lres;ies, 
including " The Beginnin;; of America," an 
anniTersary discontBo beforo the N.T. Hist. 
3oc in 1863. Blember N. T. acnalc I8TS-3. 

Benedict, Lhwis, brev. b^i;•.^ten. U. S. 
vols., b. Albany, N.Y., Sept. 2, IB17 ; killed 
at the battle of Pleasant Hilt, La., Apr. S, 1864. 
Wmi. Coll. 1837 Adm. to the Albnn; bar in 
1841 ; was citj att;. in 1845-6 ; jaAgt advo- 
cate, 1847; surrogate of Albany, 1848-53; 
member N.T. asscmblj, 1860. Made lieni.- 
col. 73d N.T, voIb. June, 1861 ; 
pwinBiilar cai 
Willianubarg, 
finemenE in Libbj and falisburr Prisons, he 
was exchanged ; col. 16ad N.T. in Sept. 1862, 
■ndordered to the Gnlf.uhere he became acting 
brig.-gen. Bis bravery was conspicoous in the 
assaallon Fort Hudson, Jane 14, i86<?, where be 
gained bis brevet, and in the Red Biver campaign 
at Pleasant Gmve, Apr. 8, aad at Pleasant Hill, 
Apr. 9, where be cum. the 3d brig.. I at dir., 
19lh corps, and where be fell, while brave); 
leailing a charge 6n the enemy. 

Benet, Stefhen v., maj. U.S.A., b. Fla. 
West Point, 1849. Entering the ordnance 
depi., be wss iniirnctor ia ordnance and gun- 
nery at West Point, 1861-4; brer. maj. and 
licnL-col. 13 Mar. 1865, and maj. ordnance S3 
Doc. ISG6. Translator from the French of 
Jomini of "Campaign of Waterloo." 1853; 
anthor of" Military Law and Courts-Hart ial," 
IS62. — Ca/lam. 



S. 1784, His parents, who were Huguenots, 
were driven from France ; spent some years 
in London, where Ibey became Quakers, and 
came to PhiU. in Nov. 1731. Apprenticed to 
a nien.'hanl, he Idnnd that trade excited too 
worldly a spirit, and articled himself to a 
.'ooper, but m 1743 began to teach in Ibo 
Trinity School, continuing to teach nearly all 
hi? life. His simplicity and benevolence made 
bim [he idol of the poor. During the Revol., 
and the occupation of Phlla, by the British 
troojii, he was indefatigable in alleviating the 
snfftrini^ of prisoners. His writings were com- 
posed chiefly with the view of inculcating the 
peaceful doctrines of [he gospel in opposiiioo 
lo the Spirit of war, to expose the flagrant injus- 
lice ofslavery, and to Sx the stamp of infamy on 
the traffic in human blood. He was the auchor 
»f " A Caution to Great Brituin and her Colo- 



nies, in ■ Short Reprusentalion of the Calnrailoni 
State of the Ensljived Nrgrues in the British 
Dominions," 8vo, 1767 ; " Some Historicnl Ac- 
count of Guinen, with an Inquirv into the Rise 
and Progress of the Slave Trade'," 1773; '■ 0I>- 
servations on (he Indinn Natives of this Conti- 
nent," 1784; "A Short Account of the Socifty 
of Friends," 1780; "Dissertation on the 
Christian Kelijjion," 1783, and tracts against 
the use of nrdent spirits. In 1783, he ad- 
dressed a letter lo the Queen of England, on 
the subject of the slare-traile, soliciting her in* 
fluonce on the side of humanity. By his will, 
he left his estate, after the decease of his wife, 
lo ihe African school, In which he taught the 
last two years ofhis life. There is a full and 
interesting memoir by Boberla Vaux, l3mo, 
N.T., 1817. 

Benham, Hbubt W., brcv. maj. .gen. C.S, 
A,, b. Cheshire, Ct., ab. 1816. West Poioi. 
I8J7, first in his class. App. 1st ticnt. en- 
gineers in July, 1838; wounded at Buena 
Vista, Mcsico, and brev. capt. 24 May. 1848; 
assist. U.S. coast survey, Mar. 1853, and super- 
intended the construction of fori itica lions 
around N.T. City; brev. col. 13 July, 1801, 
for Carricks Ford; brig.-gen. vols. 13 Ang. 
1861, and disting, at Bich Mountain and Cheat 
Mountain Paae; atOipiureof Fort Pulaski, It 
Apr. 1862; com. in attack on Secessionville, 
8.C., 16 Jnne, 1863; com. engineer brigude, 
Army of the Potomac in 1863-4; mnj. of 
engineers, 6 Aug. 1861; lieu(.-col. 3 Mnr. 
1863; col. 7 Miir. 1867; brev. bri;;,-gen. 13 
Mar. 1865, for Ihe campaign ending in Lee's 
surrender, and hrcv. moj.'gen. for gallant serv- 
ices in the Rebellion. Engaged in the construc- 
tion of harbor and coast dcfonces of Boston, 
1865-7. — Cullum. 

Benjamin, Judah Petbr. Inwyer and 
politician, b. in St. Domingo, of Jewish par. 
ents, in 1812, In 1816, the family emigrated 
to Savannah. Ga. The son entered T. C., but 
left, without graduating, in 1827. He began to 
study law in N. Orleans in 1831, was clerh to 
a notary, taught school, and afterward m. Miss 
St, Martin, one of his pupils. Adm. to the 
bar in 1834. he was soon its leader in N. Or. 
leans. A Whig in politics, he was in I84S a 
member of iho State Const. Conv. U.S. sena- 
tor in 18,53-61, he attained pre-eminence in the 
southern wing of the Dcmoc. party. He hmi a 
sharp controversy with JetTersoo Davis ; lint a 
duel was prevented by an apology from the 
latter. Ho advocated the KBnsBn.N\ljra<kn 
Bill in 1854, bnt subsequently insisted ihni >1ie 



from Not, 10 till alter The 
capture of Roanoke Island, Feb. 7. ISOl. 
which cfliiacd his resignation ; and he wn» iip|>. 
sec. of State, to succeed B. M. T. llnntpr. 
Mr. Benjamin whs largely interested in ili? 
Tohnantepec Railroad sueculalion, anil a jiai 
ticipant in the so-called Houmns lnnit-;rrnnc 
He is at present (1871) a member of the Lon- 
don bar. 
Benjamin, Pabe, poet and journuli-i. h 



vv^ioc^le 



l>eraerBra, Aug. 14, 1B09 ; i. N. T. City, IS BensOD, EaBSKT, LL.D., i 

Sept. 1S64. TrJD. Coll., Hartford, IB29. His jurist, b. N. Y. Cilj, SI Jane, 1746 ; d. 3^ 

lalher, a N. Enftlander of Welsh descent, re- maica, L.I., Ang. U, 1B33. Col. Colt. 176*. 

Bided aa a merchant at Derocmrs. An illneiB He waa a member of the Berol, eonmittee of 

ill his 700 th, improper! J ticaeed, canwd him a mfet}> ; waa a proficient in thetrieocBOfplead- 

permanent lameness; and he wai sent to Lis ing; heldabigb rank in jnriipradencc; was in 

iHther'e borne iD N. E., for medical advice, and 1T77 aop. firM Bti.-gen. oF ibe State ; kbb also 

to beeducoled. He studied mo years at H.U., a member of the first State legisl. of 17T7 ; one 

^egan to practise law in Boiion in I83S, and of the three commissioners to saperiniend the 

waa one of the original editors of the Nne- embarkation of the Tories for Nova Scotia in 

EnifiaiidMag. In IS3S. he removed to N. Y.; June, 1783; delegate to the Old Contrrest in 

edited, in connection with C. F. HofFinan, ibe 17S4-8; H. C. 1789-93 and 1813-15; ra- 

Amencan MontMii Mtrj., and subeequentl; the gent of Ibe N. Y. U. in 1 789-tSOa ; jodce 

X<-ioYorktT, with Horace Greelej. Ha was of the Supreme Court of N. Y. 17M-ieol, 

cnsjnged Jan, 1840, in cOnnoc^on with Epes and of the U. S. Circuit Conn. He received 

Sargent and R. W. Qriawotd, na editor of the literarf honors from H. U. in 1808, and from 

Nem \Foi-U, a cheap weekly periodical, a Dartm. Coll.in IS11. First pres. of the N.Y. 

yeaci after, he sold bia interest in this Journal, Hist. Society; aathorofa" Vindication of the 

and was afierward a lecturer both in prose and Captoi7 of Maj. Andn!," pub. 8to. N. Y., 

Tcrw. His poems bare never been collected, 1817, "Memoir on Dnich Nanieg of Plaoes," 

Benneii Philip, pioneer iron mannfac- 1835. 

lurer of the West, b. Chester Co., Pa., 1763 ; Bflntley, Oidboh, a Bevol. soldier of 

d. S9 July, IS3S. He aerred in the Revul. ai^ remnrliable lang«titj, b. 1751 ; d. Constanti*, 

my under his relatiTe, Gen. Wayne. In I79S, Oswego Co., N. Y., Jan. 1858. 

he' erected a ftwge in Spring lownahip. Centre Bentle?, Wilham. D.D., miniiter, poll- 

Co., and hy so doing ■ssislcd in dereioping ttcian, and scbotar, b. Boston, Jone 3S, 17G9 ; 

■he mineral wealth of that district. Tbo bar- d. Salem, Dec. 39, 1819. H. U. 1777, and 

ougb of BeIlefont« was greatly indebted lo aHerwards tutor ibuc Ord. over the Second 

bis enterprise and liberalilj. He was a m^.- Chnrch in Salem. Sept. 24, 17S3. For oh- SO 

(ten. of militia. >*«", he edited the Ewex lirgittrr, a DGrooo. 

Bennett. Calbb P., gov. of Del., and last print. Hia knowledge was uncomraoniy exteiA- 

Burviving ofllcer of the Del. rejn. in Ibc Revol. «ve and various. Sis theological diacourw* 

army ; d. Wilmington, Del., May 7, 1836, a. were marked br a good deal orfrecdum and 

*B. He held the rank of maj., and waa en- oirginalicy, indicating Unitarian sentiments. 

gai;ed in the battles of Brandywine, Qennan- His raluahle library and cabinet he bequeathed 

town, and Monmouth. Got. from 1833 lo bia lo.the coll. at Meadville, Pa,, ood to the Amer 

dcatli. Antiquarian Society at Worcester. Besides 

Bennet, David, physician, b. Eng., Dec. sermons, he pnb. a collection of psalms and 
I, 1615; d. Rowley, Ms., Feb. 4, 1719. Be hymns, three Masonic addresses, and a Mason- 
posses^ hia teeth and bis senses to the a^ ic charge, and a hist, of Salem, in Hiat. Colls., 
of 103. Hia wife was Rebecca, dao. of Rofitr vol. vi, 

S|iencer, and sister of the wife of Sir Wm, Benton, Thomas Habt, statesman, b. 

I'hips; and his son Spencer took that name, near Hillsborongh, N.C., March 14, I7S3 ; d. 

and was tieut,-i;ov, of Ms. Wasbintfton, April 10, 1858. He studied 

Bennett, James GoKDOn.fnnnderand pro- eometimcat a grammar school, and nfterwanls 
nrielor of the N. Y. Htmld, b, Sep. I, 1T9S at »t Chapei Hill U., but, before finishing his 
Keiv Mill Koilb, in Ban ffa hi re, Scotland. He studies, removed to Teim. He studioil law, 
went lo a Bommt'Catholic wm. al Aberdeen, soon aitained eminence in the profession, and 
intending to take orders in that church ; hut, served one term in the legisl., where be pro- 
acting under a sudden impulse, be embarked cured the passage of laws reforming the iudl- 
for Amcr. in Apr. 1819, and, arriving in Hull- cial ayaiem, and giving to slaves the benehi of 
lux. kept school for a living. Coming to Bos- n jury [rial. He became aide-d»«Bmp to Gen. 
lou in the antumn of IS19, he became proof- Jackson, wiib whom be contracted a close 
iiiulcr in the pnb.-bonse of Wells and Lilly, intimHi'y, which was suddenly tenninated hy 
ititd wrou aevenil poetical pieces. In IS;ia, he an attny with pistols and daggers, in which 
went to New York, connected himself witli severe wounds were given and received, and 
v:iriouj iiapers, and became a warm partisan which estranged them many years. He was 
ol iIk Dumoc. pariv in the columns of the col. of a Tcnn. rcgt, from Dec. IBIS to April, 
.V.wlort Courier, the Natiowii Adrvcatt, the 1813, end lieut-col. S9lb Inf. from 1813 to 
laaairer, Coaritr and Inf/iiirtr, Nrio-Yark 1815. Removing in 1S13 to St. Lonis, be 
OMt. PmiOjilBanian, at Phila., and in May, eslabliabcd the j/tnotirt Inquirtr, also practia- 
1835, issued the flrstnumheror the AVw-Yani ing Ian, and took H vigorous part in favor of 
IJrriiM, with wbichjoumal hia name has since the admission ofMo., notwithstanding her slav- 
been identihcd. — &eMemoiTiofJ. G. lieaneO crv constitution. He was rewatdod by a seat 
ami his T!»ui, N. Y., 185S ; d. June 1, 1872. in'rhe U, S, senate, which ho held fbr 30 years. 

Bennett, Milo Ltmin, LL, D. (D, C, In this body, his energy, iron will, indnstrv, 

l8Sl).jurist, b. Sharon. Cl., 1790 id. Taunton, and self-reliance placed him in the front ranL 

Ms.. 7 July, 1868. Ynle, 1811. Litchf. Law He opposed the administration of Mr. Adams, 

S('hi>ol. I'ractised law in Bnriington, Vt. ; but Elrongly suppuncd tbose of Jackson and 

Judye Vt. Snp. Court, 1839-59. Author of Van Buran. Upon the U. 8, Bank question, 

* Vermc nt Jnittee," and other legal text-books, he made several elaborate speeches; and hit 



t.Google 



BIER 

epinioas in bvor of a specie currcaaj proenred 
fur Uim the nobnfiM* of " Old Uullion." He 
was p«culisrJf llio cspoaent anil ({iiArdiui of 
the iDlereatKH tbe Wei>t, nnJ, bj persialeDl ef- 
lori, hueceoled is liberaliiing ibe policj of 
i;uTeruQieal in reluioa to tbc sale of public 
iaoda. TtlepriMwuretiucedloSI.Saperacre; 
andintiineolbec imponan t chaage*, iiicl oding a 
lumMte*d law, were (ecared. Ue also procured 
tbe repeal of the lax on talt. and succeeled in 
tbrovLDg open for sale and occopation Ihe 
aaliae and mineral iandi in tiia hands of ihe 
General Ootl, liiiharto withheld. Ue waa 
Ihe earl/ and uotiiing advocBM of a railroad 
K> Ihe i'aeihc, did mach to open up and pro- 
tect tbe trade with New Me;iica. lo establish 
milicarj UattoBt on the Aliisonri, lo culiiTaie 
■micable relatioDS with the Indians, and pro- 
moM the eummeiia of our inbind seas. Ue 
DKived the expuagiug of the reioluiion of 
oetuntB opon Uea. Jncktton, and Bui-c«8*fiilJj 



thatoF^SC). HesDppotledtheMexiean war,op- 
posed Ibe Comproinise Mea«urea of 1 aiO, think- 
ing the fagitire-slare law clause defective and 
ill-jndfjed ; wamiy opposed nallificodon, and, 
in 1850, was dateated for the senate by the 
ultra slaTcry men of his party. To break np 
(be ascendency b{ this i»rty, Col. Benton, in 
IBS2, UDoniK^ himself a cBodidate for Con- 
grcM, and waa elected. Agunst the repeal 
of the Mo. Compromise, he excned all his 
strength, delirerinff a memorable speech in the 
lioase, that did much u> excite the country 
against the act. Ue was defeated in ISbi by 
a combtnaiion of his old opponents with the 
new Amer. party, and slumped tlic Stale for 
gov, in 1H56, but failed o( an election. In tbe 

E residential election of that year, he supported 
luchanaa in opposition to his son-in-law Fre- 
mont. Ue then dcroied himself to literary 
pursuits. His " Thirty Vcars' View " was 
linishod in 1654. Ue also pub. an nbridt;ment 
of the debates of Congress from the fuunda- 



Uicks free-thinkers with great inganuity and' 
effect 

Serkeley, Sib Wiixiam, royal got. of 
Va., 1641-77, b. near London, ab. 1610; d. 
Twiekenbam, July 13, 1677. Son of Sir M 



In 16-)1, ho wna app. gov. of Va., arrived in 
Feb. 1642, and by some naluury mcaaorcs, as 
well as by his prcpoasessinK manners, soon 
rendered himBelf acceptable to the people. 
During the cttil war in England, Berkeley 
look the royal side ; and Va, was the last of 
the possessions of England which acknowl- 
edged the authority of Cromwell. He mmii- 
foiiied sbtvwdness as well as courage when the 
fleet of parliament appeared in the James 
River in 1751, and made cenns satiaraclory to 
both partieo. Upon the death of " worthy 
Samuel Mathews," in 16&9, Berkelev was 
elected to anccaed him by tbe people, lie re- 
mained for a long time at the bead of affairs. 



and only lost popularity by 
verity toward the rollowers of I 
whose rebclli 






Elisabeth, dan. of Col. Jbidcb McDowell of 
Itockbridge Co.. Va. 

Berokel, Pbtuk I. tav, of Etotterdam, 
miniiier from Holland lo the U. S. ; d. New- 
ark, N.J., Dec. 17, ISOO, a. 76 

Berkoi^, GsomoR, Bishop of Cloyne, b. 
KileriQ, Ireland, 13 Mar. I6cl4 ; d, Oxfonl, 
Enif, 14 Jan. ITfia. Trln. Coll., Dublin, 
Fellow, in I'OI. Ue had disting. Iiimsclf by 
hii "Theorr of Vision" (17ua) and other 
philosophical writing!, when, in \1-H, he was 
mode Dean of Derry. In 1725, he pub. " A 
fmpoial for Converting the AI>ongines of 
America," received from Gleorge I. a charter 
foracoll., aad, embarking for Ameriia. arrived 
at Newpurt, K.L, S3 Jan. 1729, Finding at 
lenifih that his scheme was iiapmciicuble, he 
rvluctantlv look his departure in ^L'pi. 1731, 
n 1733, 



gave 
benefaclton 



:, anil a t^irn 
I Yale and 



In his " MinoM I'bilosopher," Ikrkule]' at- 



Nathaniel Baeon. 
&ithles9nesB and 
obalinaGy had given occasion. Many were 
put to death, and be was only restrained by the 
remonsiranco of the Ansernbly. Charles II, 
is reported to have said, " The old fool has 
taken more livis in his naked countiv than I 
have tflkon for my fathor'a mui der." 'through 
the influence of the planters, lie was recalkfl, 
and d. before he could iiavoan interview with 
the kinff. In hia reply to tommisaiimors sent 
10 inquire iiiio tho cundiiion of the colony, 
Berkeley said, " Thank God I there are no 
free schools nor printing-presses; and I hope 
there will be none for a hundred years; for 
teaming has brought diitobedienco and heresy 
and sects into tho world, and priniinj; hns di- 
vulged those and other libels," He wrote two 
plays, and is the author of " A Description of 
Virsinia." folio, 1663. 

Berkentaout, John, naturalist, b. Leeils 
1730; d. April 3, 1791, nt Beffelaltinh, near 
Oxford. M. D. of the U. of Lcyden, 1765. 
In t77B. be WHS sent by the British Govt, 
with the eommissionon to America, and wiis 
for some time impriaoned at Phila., on su^^pi- 
eion of having been sent as a s|>y by LonI 
North, and of impi'Oi>er intrigues with the 
members of Congress at Phila. He was re- 
1^ arded, on his arrival in England, with a pen- 
sion. Hu wrote some botanical and other 

Bemard, Sib FnANCie, gov. of Ms,, and 
benefactor of Harvard Coll., b. Nottleh.im • 
Lincoln Co., Ent;:,, 1714; d. June 16, 1779. 
Eiluca ted at 0;ifDrd. where be look hisdegm-in 
1736. HewasBsoliciiorai Doctor's Commons 
when made gov. of M.J. in 175S. Ue sucreeil 
ed Pownall as gov., arriving Aug, 3, 1760 
The Stamp Act and other arbitrary me:isures 
aroused the hostility of the Colonies, not only 
to Ihe crown, but to its local represcntntives. 
Bernard bad no talent for concilimion, and 
atlcmptcl to crasb the spirit of freedom by 
causing troops to bo sent to Boston. The 
attempt to obMin an alteration in tho charter. 



BBB 86 BKR 

traniTertins the rlKl>' of electing Ihe council Berrien, Jons BIacpbersoh. LL.D. 

from ttie general court to ttio trown, tbough it «Ut«*nian, b. N.J., Aug. S3, I7SI ; d. Sbtbq 

brought upon bim the indlgnaiioa of Ibe peo- nab, Ga , Jan. 1, 1856. K. J. Coil. 1796. Son 

tie, waa »o p\tatiog to tbe ministrj, tiiat, on t>f Mai. Jotin Berrien by a dan. of Capi. John 

it rei:all in 1769, he waa creal«d a baronet. Macpberaon of the provincial navy. Adm. 

One of hl> Imi public mcaiurei waa tbs pro- to pracliw at tbe Ga. bar at the age of 18, he 

ro|;uing of tlio general court in comequence attained ft high reputation as a iavryer. He 

of iu rvfuaal to make proviiion for the aup- wa» solicitor of Ihe eastern district of Ga. in 

pun of tbe British iroofM in Bolton. He vna 1609 ; judge from 1810 to ISSl ; Statescnator 

■ friuml of literature, and gave a pari of hii in lBaa-3 ; U. S. senator, 1825-9 and 1840- 

lihrary to Hnrv. Coll. The collection printed 52 ; attomej.gBn. of the U. S. 1829-31 ; judge 

HI Camhridtio in 1761, " Pittia H GnUulatii," of the Supreme Coart of Ga. 1845. Ue waa 

critiiint several elegiac piccoa by him in Greek one of tbe most gifted orators and able states- 

-iii'l Liiiiii. In ITai, he pub, ilie Latin Odes of men in the U. S. senate. Few cont«mpot«ry 

Atllliony Altop. Hia sclectlolterson iholrads statesmen left a fame so (Vee from reproach. 

■ml giivi. of America, written in Beaton in 1763- During tbe War of 1812, he com. a regt. ofvol. 

B,wi'rcpuh.Lond.,17T4. Uisotberlctlers.wTit- cav. He was one of the board of regents of 

■on home In confldence, were pub. in 1766-9. the Stnithsonian lost. 

Bernttrdi Jotiw, actor, b. Ponsmonth, Berry, Hibax Geoboz, m^j.-gen, vols., 

Kiik;., 1756 ; d. London, Nov. 29, 18S9. His b. ThomaEiou, Me., Aug. 27, 1824 ; killed in 

tln>t appearance was at Bristol in 1774, He tbebaitleofChaucellorsville, Va.,MaT3,I8S3. 

win a popular comedian nl the CoTcntGiirden He worked eome years as a carpenter, was 

Thiraira, where be flr>i app. a> Arcbor in tbe afierward succcsafuriy engaged in naiigaiion, 

" llcniix' SlratagetD " in 1TS7, and snccceded served in the State legisl., and was major of 

Edivin In man^of hisparts. After lieingnctor Rockland. Col. 4th Me. vols. June 4, 1861, 

and manager in various theatres, ha embarked he was in the battle of Bull Run, and took part 

for America, where he made bis iftliul as Gold- in Ihe siege of Yorktown. Made brt;:.-gcn. 

fliich in "Road to Ruin " nt the Greenwich st. Mar. 17, 1862, he took ihaijw of the 3d brigade, 

Tlicairc. N.Y., Jane 4, 1797; was manager 3di».,ofIIciniieitann's(ad)armycorpa, taking 

and Icaiicp of the Boston Theatre in 1806, and pan in the battles of Williamabnrg, Fair Oaks, 

ri'malnml in the U. S., as actor, and manager andlbepeninsnlarcampuign, jDnD25 tojniy 1, 

of rari una theatres, about SO years. He look 1863. Under Kearney, be participated in'ihe 

flnal leave of the stage at Boston in 1820, in second Bull Run bottle, and in that of Cban- 

bis favorite character" Lord Oijlcby," returned till/, where Kearney waa killed Sept. 1. At 

to Kng. with his family, and died there in the battle of Fivdericksburg, Dec. 13, 1863. 

iMjverty. In his later joars, he prepared hi* Borty's brigade especially disting. itself, and 

'' Relroapccliona of (he Stage," an Bmasing was complimented by Gen. Birncy- Made maj.- 

liriHluclioO pub. in 1830, in which he wasaidcd Ron, Mar. 9, 1863, dminK from Nov. 29, 1862, 

lir hia son William Baylo Bi'rnard, a disting. he wna pinrvd in com. of the 2d division of the 

dramaiiii. h. Boston. Jan. I, 1808. 3d (Kicklcs'a) army corps, at tbe bend of which 

BemiWdt Gem. Simon, engineer, b. Dole, he fell in the jntllant repulse of tbe army of 

Friincc. Apr. 28. l7T9i d. Paris, Nov. 5, 1839. Gen. Lee near Chanccllorsville. 

Kiliicaicil at the Poklwhnie School under La Berthier (l>Or'-ie'-tt'J,Louia ALEzanDBB, 

Tlacc. Ilntty, and oitiei-s, he became one of the prince of Ncnicbutel, and one of Napoleon's 

moat ilinlillV- engineers and aide.'^e-camp of marshal.'', b. Versailles, Nor. SO, 1753 ; killed 

NuiHileon. When a col, he «'as employed in Junel, l8l5.atBaiDbcrg,Bavaria. Hecntercd 

Kin iiyintt Antwerp, and had his leg shattered the army in 17GG; was a capt. of dragoons in 

in iIh< rt'lrratof iho gmud orniy from l^ipsic. 1777, and, widi bis broilier Ccesar, served iu 

Licut.-gvu. of enainn'rr' uuder'Naiiolcon, and Amcriciioii Roi-hanil>eau'sstaffinlT80-S3. He 

w««a«sisi. en«.,ninfcof brig.'Ucn.V.S.A.. from IjM-amem'n. of division in 1795, waa chief of 

Nov. 16. 1816, until he resigned, Anir. 10, 18.11. Bonaparie'ssuffinllaK-andin Egypt; became 

111 I8M, lie was made chief eng. of ibe army, tniniilerofwarin 17U9,' marshal In IS04, prince 

Among llio many admirable works exccuied of Keufchiltel in 180$, andof Wagram in IS09, 

by liLm in this ooiimrv is Fortress Monroe al maj.-irvn. of the grand army in the Rossia i 

\\w month of James lliTcr, Vn. Rclnming to ram|>nign in 18IS, of Sanony in 1813. and of 

KnitHv.helHTameaiile toLouisPhilippcMcut.. Kraocein ISI4. At ^le iv^mmion of Loub 

pMi. "I i-uirineers, and was minister of war 18tb. he was made a peer of France, hat. on 

\xi ISl», and 1836-T. the return of Napolfoo, withdrew to Bam bcrs, 

. Berri(m,Wit.LiAll.n.n.|rol.roll.l»->el. whcrehcwas killed by 6 men in masks who 

rivtoi' of Trinitv Church. X.V. Citv, i8,li»- thtvw him out of one of ibfi window! of his 

i;i>: d, : Nov. 1>6S. C.d. Cull, 180*. tinl. falher-iu-law's palare. 

.liMVOn, ISUI : b><«nie ■>sist. min. of Trinitv Bothisy (l* -ufi^), JcLXS Jacqces Elb- 

Vt'WU in 1811. EU|.h1>. "Trarels in Frnnre okube. Vicuktedi. a French geo, b. 1747; 

«n.l llalv i" I817-IS, Sro, 1890 ; " Devotions d. Paris, in consequence of his wonnds, al the 

>..r Ihc SifkR.wm," " Knier thy d.-sci," clow of ISIS, ilc cnhred tbe navv in 1764; 

'•Kamili and Ihivate IVarcr*." "On tbe pa.<^F«liniiiiheretn. of /u^rn^'.lmr^nv.in which 

C.immiini ■n."'" Saiior'f M;itiii^i!."- Historinil be htvarae 2d rul . and frrved with ihi; eorpa 

Sk.:ch of I'finiiv C 'un>i. N.V ." 8ii>, l!i4: ; ibroi.-h the Amcriran campaiinis of 1TT9-82. 

- l!,\s. in-foi* of I>,-;>snrtl Fri.nd.,' l*mo. He w.is nnJ,r DEMainc at Savannah, where 

l*,%i r.,i-!ni. •lihmem.'ir. " Worksuf Bi:^bop be nveived 5 severe woundis and. while rttora- 

II ..iri." 3 ruts., Sro. IS>j. iu^ home, roceired i luore in a aea-iijzhl. Ha 



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BBTT 87 BH} 

nnigraicd dnrinf; the French Rerol. ; maile all tS65; d. Frnnee, 162E. He nraa a Jesait nilt- 

the campaigns of the armj of Cond^, and wu (ionaiy, was fur a timeal Pori Rojal, and snli- 

creaied lieut.-gen. Jan. 1, 1S14. leqaently at Ml. DBHrt,Me., vbero hiaprojeci- 

Sathanei Oeobob WASmNaTOn, D.D., ed minionarj colonj was craahcd bj Aqinl, 
dergjnian and natbor, oon of DiTie. b. N.T. nniviiiten"ItelaliondelayoaeelUFraiice."SK. 
Ciljr, Mar. 1805; d. Florence, IlaJy, April S8, (Lrone, 16l6),an accODQl of hia labor*, and of 
less. Dick. Coll. 18S3; Princeton Tbeol. the Englisb onlrase which left one of his CO 
Scm. \$2i. Bnlcring tha Preab. ministry in workers dead on tne island, and bore himnelf 
1836. in I8ST he paased to thai of the Dntch and another olT as prisoners. This is the first 
Ref. He settled first at Rhinebeck on the of the VKluabte lenes of " Jeauil liclaliuns," 
Hudson, then in Utica.in Phila. in 1834. and, of which there are 41 vols. {poh. iinniiallf 
in 1849-^9, over a ]arg« and influential congre- 163S-TS). He came to Port Royal in Jnne, 
gntioB in Brooklyn, S.Y. In 185»-eo, ho 1611. In 1613, he ascended the Kennebec, and 
|ir>«i'hcda while in the Aracr. Chapel atKome, was well received by the Indians, from whom 
then bccamaaaso.paatorofa church in N.Y.,bnt the name of the riTcrwas denrcd. In 1G13, he 
iTBi forced by ill health to return to Italy. Ha visited the settlement of St. SauTour, on ihi- 
is the authorof "Fmit of the Spirit," "Early Penobscot. — iteiyctiiint. 
Lu-t,""Eflrly Sa»ed.""Hi«toryofaPonitont, Bibftud (bo'-bo'), Michel, a Canadian 
a vol. of " Lays of Love nnd Fatih, and other author, b. at the Cot£ des Nci^, near Montre- 
Piwms," 1847 ; •' The British Female I'oela," al, Jan. 20, 1783 ; d. there Aiij;. 3, 1857. He 
8vii. 1848 ; " CommemarT on the l.tOth studicil at ihc Coll. of St. Raphael, and, enter- 
Psalm," 12mo. 1847 ; " A frord to the Afflict- ing upon the c-.irccr of literature, labored hard 
ed ; " " Expository Lectures on the Hcidel- in dtfcncc of Canadian nationality and for the 
hers Catechism." 1SG4, and of a collection of conserraiion of theFrench language. Besides 
orations, dieconrricB, and Dermons, 8iro, 184^. eontiibuiinc in turn to the 'Muror? <£« Caiia- 
He was a wit, ns well as a scholar, and edited, dat." the '' BiUlothigue Canaditnae," the ".Va- 
in 1847, "Walton's Complete Angler." being gtiaindu Bas Canada,"" Obtercateur Canadieo," 
himself an enthusiastic fisherman. He was a and the " Enryctopfdit Canadienne, he has 
•uund and learned divine, an eloquent preach- written vcrscl Of much merit, the first French 
er, and nn orator of excellent f.incy and pleas- Hist, of Canada since the conquest, on " Aritli- 
ant bumor. A Memoir, by A. R. Van Nest, ma'-qm EUinentaire," and edited the "Vog- 
D 1)., was pnh. 1867. a^it ifc Fmadih-r," and many other valnahle 

Betta, SisDEi. RossiTEB. LL.D., jurist, little works. A few months Ware his death, 
b. Richmond. Ms., June 8, 1 787 ; d. M. Haven, ho was engaged in translating the reports of 
Ct., Not. a, 1868. Williams Coll. I80«. Ha the geol. commission. His son, F. M. U. M. 
studied law, and b^sn ptnclice in Sullivan Bibaud, LL.D., also an author, b Monireal, 
Co.. N.Y. ; was jadge-advocato in (he army Not. 1634; law prof, at the Jesuiu' Cull., 
during the War of 1813 ; H.C. in 1815-17 ; Montreal. Among his many publications re- 
some years dist.-aity. of Oranjn Co., and from laiing to Canada are," D'lKoart Hiaonqiu tar 
1823 lu 18B7 was jndgeof theU.S.Diat. Coart. let tiatrt Sanragei dc i'Ai«€fiq«t S^t'tOrio- 
To him belongs ibe high honor of having naU" 1846, "£t Saifamoi llliatra de I'Aia^ 
shaped and settled in a great depvc the mnri- rioue Sept." 1848, " Didloiinaire Htnlorlque dct 
time laws of the CS. He ranks among the liomma lUartrti du Canada (t de l'Am^v/ne," 
ablest of Amer. jurists. Anthor of "Admiral- 1857, " Tableau llitlariq«e <lei Progrit Mul^ri- ' 
Ij Practice in the Conrta of the U.S. for the f!> « laCelUctiifls da Caaal-i," 18S8, " PaiaJi6>ii 
Southeni l>is(. of N.Y.," 8vo, 1838. a-nadien," 1858, Ac. — Morgan. 

Betts, Thaddbds, a disting. lawyer, at One Bibb, Gbobqe M., jurist and senator, b. 

time licat-poT. of Ct., and a U.S. senator at Va., 1772; d. Georgetown, D.O., Apr. 14, 

ihelimeof hisd. atWaahmi>ton, U.C., 7 Apr. 1859. N.J. Coll. 1792. He studied law, and 

1840, b. Norwalk, Ct. Y. C. 1807. settled in Ky. ; sert-ed in the Stale Icgisl. ; was 

BflTeridse, Jobh, poet, h. Scotland. He three times elected chtel-justice of the Stale : 

bar) been a sctioolmaster in Edinburgh, having was in the Suie senate two years ; chanrelloi 

among his pnpils the blind poet Biackloek. of the Chancery Court of Li^oiaville, and ace. 

Ii> 1*52, ho ouneto N.E., whciv he remained 5 of the U.S. treasury nndcr Ptea. Tyler in 

>CBrs. and became intimate with Dr. Mayhew 1844; U.S. senator. 1811-14 and 1829-^5. 

and other leading men. In 1758, he was app. Altar leaving the treasury dept., he pmctisc<l 

pruf. of languages in the coll. and acad. of lanr at Washington, and was an assist, in the 

Pliiht. Alex. Oraydon, one of bis scholar), atly.-genoral's office. Anthor of " Reports of 

notices him in his memoirs, and shows him to Coaea at Common Law and in Chancery in 

have been a poor disciplinarian. In 17G5. he the Ky. Court of Appeal*, in 1808-17 ; " 4 

iinb. a collection of Latin poems. " E/iuiUa vol'., 8to, Frankfbrl, Kv,, 1815-17. 
Familiara el Alia Qaadaa Mitcellanea." — Bibb, William WrAlT, terr. gov, of Al.i., 

iMitctinct. lSlJ-19, first gov. of the State, 1819-20, b. 

BeTerley, Robebt, historian, b. Va. ; d. Va., 1 Oct. 1780 ; d. near Ft. Jackson, 9 Juir, 

there 1716. His father, Maj. Robert, clerk of 1620. M.D. of U. of Pa. 1801. Son of<'npt. 

the council of Va., d. 1687. Beverley's " Hist. Wm. Bihli, Ho serveii in both branches of tlie 

of Virginia" was first nub. in 17(1S; another Go. ICfi.l., was M.C. from that Slate in 1806- 

eilltion, with Gri)ic1ins s cuta, in 1723, and 13, and US. senator, 1813-14. Thos. Bibii 

one with an Introduction by C. Campbell, in sncccedcd him as gov. in 1830-21. 
'85:>. Biddle, Chableb Jouk, b. Phila., isin. 

Biardfhe'-ii'), I'steb, b. Gninoble,France, N.J. Cotl. 1837. Son of Nicholas. Adm. to 



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where he wan the brev, of ma). ; vrute " The but escaped, and tiarch 33, oft the Lilsad of ' 

Case of Mflj. Andr^ " in "Memoirs of the Pa. Tristan d'Acnnhs, captured the British bri^ 

Hist Soc., vol. vi. Cot. in the Pa. roserre " Fen^in," afMr n sharp action, in which he 

corps, ISGI, and M. C. ISGS. received a iroand in the neck. April 37, he 

Biddle, CLEHENT.eol. in thcRevoI. armi, displaced hia •camnnship in eacaping Trom 

b. PhiU.. Mny 10, 1740; d. there Jnly H, 1814. " The Comwallis," 74, after a chase of 4 dava, 

DiAicf nded from one of the Quaker settlers and during wbirh he threw overboard his guns nnd 

]>ropri<.-tors of Western N. J,, he coniinocd in equipments lo lighten his ship. For bis action 

rhcir siiciely until Ihc commencement of the with " The Pen<;nin." Congress voted CnpL 

" ' ' ■" """' 'n forming Biddle • gold medal ; Philo. presented him n 



[!io "Quaker" company of vols, raised in Phila. seryicoofplatc;andoiher honor 

in 1775, cf which he was made an officer. In npoD him. Capt. Feb. SB, I81S. He afterward 

•airly life, he whs engaged in commercinl pur- held special unit important commands nt vart- 

suiis. Ue look nn active part, as did his bro. ons times, in ihe Ficitle, upon the coast of S. 

Owen, in the early political movenienta of the America, and in the W. Indies, and the Medi- 

IKitriou of the Stale ; Owen having been one terraneon squadron from 1830 to 1633, during 

lit' tlioframers of the State Constitution in 1776. which poritra be was a commisuoner lo nego- 

July B. 177G, he was app, by Congress deputy tiate a treaty with the Oltoomn Govt. In 1 S^i, 

ijimnermasler- pen. of the militia of Pa. and be ratified a treaty with China as a U. S. com- 

SJ., and participated in the battles of Tr«i ion, missioner; visited Japan in "Tlie Columbus," 

I'rinceton, Brandy wine, GenoBnlown, and 74 ; and auhsequenllj com. the squadron cruis- 

Monmonlh. As commissary-geti. of forage ing on the W. coast of Mexico daring <be war. 

under Gen. Greene, he rendered important ser- From lS3g to IS43.he had charge ofiha naval 

vices to the army at several critical periods, asylum on tlie Schuylkill. 

pariieularly at Vallev Forge, and was actively Siddle. Nicaous, a gallant nnval officer, 

engaged until Sepc 1780. App. II Sep^ 1781, bro. of Judj.'c Chnrles Biddle, b. Phila., Sept. 

qnnrtermasier-gcn. of the Stale. After the 10, ITSO; kilk-d Mar. 7, 1778. Han lifting a 

Federal Govt, was organized in 1787, Col. Bid- pariiality for the sea, he had, before the age of 

die was app, U. S. marshal of Pa. by Wash- 14, made a vojago to Quebec. In a voyage 

inaton, his friend and correspondent, — Life to the West Indies in 1765, he was cost away, 

ofPrea. llenl, vol, ii., p.465. and for two months lived on an uninhabited 

Biddle, Edwaud, son of Wm.,aQd bro. of island. In 1770, he went to London, and en- 

Toiii. Nicholas, b. 1739; d. Baltimore, 5 Sept leied the British navy. While a midshipman, 

1779. Ho was an officer in the Fttuch war of he absconded from his own vessel, and entered 

1 7S6-63 ; l)ecflme eminent as a lawyer in Read- on board " The Careoss," before tbe mast, io 

in^r Fa. ; was a member and speaker of the Aa- the eiuloring eiped. of Capt. Phinps, in which 

si'mlitv, and was a delegate lo Ibe first Con- Horalio Nelson alao served, ncluming lo 

:;ii'<t in 1774-5, Ho was one of the foremost Phila. after the commencement of the Kevol , 

udvoc;i!L-s of Independence, he was app, to com, the brig "Andivn Dona," 

Biddle, Houacb P , lawyer and poet, b. and sailel andcr Cum. Hopkins in the encci^is- 

Fnirticlil Co,. O., ab. 1818. The son of an fnl exped. against New Providence, After re- 

iarlv Ohio pioneer, he studied law, was adm. Glling at New London, he Cruised off Xow- 

' ' ' ' 'n Apr. 1639, and set- foondland, and in 1776 enpiored, among other 

E~ ■ ■ -■ - - riies, two ships from Scotland, wiih 400 High- 
ind troops. App. lo com. ih? frigate " Ran- 

1B50. ElecLcd sup. judge in 18&7, but nolcom- dolph," of 33 guns, he sailed from Phila. in 

missioned. He has made some excellent Feb. 1777, and soon cnrried into Charieslon 4 

translations from French and German poets ; valuablo prizes. A email Sect was now fitted 

became a conirib. to the Soaili, IaI- Mtaenqer out under his com., wiib whieh lie cruised in 

in 1843, and has since contrib. lo the Laiiia' the West Indies. Mar. 7, 1778, in nn aclion 

lit/xis.. and other periodicals. Collections of with the British ship " Yarmouth" of 64 guns, 

his poems have been pnb. in 1B50, 'S3, and '58, Biddle was woand»l ; an<l a few minuter alter- 

at Cincinnati. — Poels and Poetry of OaWal. wards, while he was under the hunds ot the sur- 

Biddle, Jaueb. capt. U. S. navy. b. Phila., geon. " The Randolph " blew up. and of Ihc en- 

Fcb. 18, 1783; d. there Oct. 1,1848. Son of Ure crew, consisting of .115 men, but 4 escaped. 

Charles, and uepbew of Cora. Nieholaa. he was Biildle, Niciions, LL.D., fimincier, b. 

educated at the U. of Pa,; entered tbe navy as Phila,, Jan. 8, I TBS; d. there Feb 37. 1844. 

a midshipman, Feb. 13, 1800, Of 7 bros,,John N, J, Cull, 1801, His ancestors came over wiih 

and Thomas served in the regnlar nrmv in tbe Wm. Penn, His father, Charles, vice-pres of 

War of 1813, Richard and Wm, L. served ac- Pa.,d. Apr. 4, 1821, a. 76. He »ss named for 

tiiclv in the militia, and Nicholas in the Sinte his uncle the commodore. In 1804, he irent lo 

lepisl. Janici was wrecked in the frigate " Phi- Paris as tec to Armstrong ihc American min- 

ladcl|>hia " off Tripoli in Get. 1803, and was a isier. and afterward filled a similar post with 

Eriwincr 19 month*; lient.Feb. II, 1807. Aslsl Monroe in London. After iravclling in Eu- 

lUt. of "The Wa^p." he leil the boarders in rope, he relumed to Phila. in 1307, and prac- 

thebrillinnt action with " The Frolic," Oct, 18, liseil law. He edited the T^ortiWi'o. compiled a 

1813 Captureil by " The Poictiers," 74, and commercial digest, and prepared the narrative 

taken to Bermuda, he was excliangol. Mnr. h. of l-ewis and Clarke's exiwd. lo the Piicitic. 

1913; made moslcr com., andgivena flotilla of He was in the State l^sl. in 1810-11, dbting. 



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biauclf bj his effort* to MUbli*h ■ graenl ayt- id I53S ; wrow * " Belacam de la Itia de U 

una or tiliiMUoa, Wid wu ■ acDMor ■□ 1814, Florida," printed, in I83T, in ilie CoUtceuM 

*and aa ardent supporter of the war vith Eng. de ViirtM Docamtitto* para la Histaria de la 

Hit report of a commltno! of the senate reBpoce- Florida." London, folio, pp. SOS, with nolM 

ing ibe Uaitford Convention was an able State by Juan Baptiatti Munoi. — Dugciiiick, 

paper. A director of Che TJ. S. Bank in ISIS, BienvUle (bein'-Tel), Jean B«pti«ti 

and prea.frotnisas to tS36,hi9 edminiitratioa Lemoihb, bibuk dx, coloDial sot, of La., b. 

of its affaire demon itniled bi^h ability. Li Montreal, Feb. 33, IGSO; d. France, 1758. 

I83&-9, he <*■« pm. of the U. S. Bank of Pa. Son of Cbarle«, he entered Ibe French naval 

Ue was a ualoo* promoter of pnblic improve- scrrice, with his bra. Iberville, serving nnder 

Dieot« and beneficent insiiiuiioni. Daring the him in 7 voyases. He was severely wounded 

lU'pension of the payment of itllerest on the in a conflict off the coast of N. E., between the 

debt of Pa., bo pub. asericsof ess^s with .lug- French ship " Pelican," 4S, Capt. Iberville, and 

gcslions for its liquidation, somoof which were three English men-of-war, in which " The Feli- 

aai>|>tud bv the legisl. He was pre*, of the can " was victorious. When Iberville in 1698 

A.-ric. nod Bort. ^>deiies, and of the truatce* foanded a colony at the month of the Mpi., he 

ofiheU.ofPo. andorGiratdColl. TheBank took with him his two brothers, Sanrolle and 

uf the U. S. and Girard Coll., Pbila.,evince his Bienville. The latter explored tlie countr; 

taste in archiieclnre. A polished and cficctive around the first settlement at Biloxi. Dec. 1, 

speaker, be delivered an enlogium on Jefiersoa 1699. Sanvolle was made t^v. of La.; and 

bl'lore the Pbilo*. Society, and an addres*on Jan. 17, 1700, Bienville aaaiiied in conilmcting 

tbc Unties of the American, before the alumni a fort M miles above the month of the river, 

of Princeton Coll. Hs was a model man of wbeie be afterwardacom. On San voile's death, 

basincu, a vigorous writer, and an accom- July SS,1701,Bieovilletookthedirectii)noflhe 

pliihed scholar. — See hlenmr, by R. T. Con- colony, whose principal seat was now tratl*- 

tad.iaAmer. Part. GaJlerg. ferreif to Mobile. May 17, 1T13, Bienville wai 

Siddle, RiCHABD, lawrerandaaAor, bra. superseded b* Lamotle Cudillac ; and Bienville 
of Nicholas, b. Phila.. 39 Mai. 1790 ; d. Pitta- wai made liout.-gov. Da I'Epioay super- 
burg, Pa., 6 July, 1847. During the War of aedcd Cadillac, Mnr. 9, 1717; and BienviUe 
1813, ho served for the protection of Fhila. received the Crossof St. Louis. Hcsucceeded 
He became a leader of the FitCsbnrg bar; De I'Epionv as cov. March 9. 1718, planted 
visited Eng. in 1827-30; occupied in historical the city uf>j. Orleans, and. May 14, took Fen- 
invest igstio as ; leiumcd practice oil his relnrn, tacola from the Spaniards, placing his brother 
and wa> M. C. in 1837-41. While in Ens., Cbateauguay in eommand. In 17£3,helran*- 
he pub, an expoti of Capt. Basil HalT'l ferred the seat of government to N. O. Jan. 
"Travels in America." Hi*" Lifeof Sebastian 16, 1784, he was ordered to France to answer 
Cabot " (1831) brouKhc to bgfat new and icu- charges that had been brought against him, 
pottant ficta in the discovery of America. and wai removed from office, 9 Aug. 1726. 

Blddl6i Maj. Thomas, U. S. A., son of Before leaving the colony, in March, he pab. 

Charles, b. Phila., Nov. SI, 1790; d. St. Louis, bis Blaek Code, relatinectiiefly to slaves, which 

Aug. 29, 1831. App, capt. of art. Jnly 6, remained in forcBlillBftertbe transferof La. to 

1812; disting. at Fort George and M Stony the U. S. In 1733, Bienville was rc-app. gov.. 

Creek ; com. tbe art at the reduction of Fort and raised to the rank of lieut.ijen. In 17.S6, 

Erie; was severely wounded in the subsequent and again in 1739, he led expedi, against the 

defence of that place, and brev. maj. Aug. 15, Ctaickauws. Bienville vras soon after supei^ 

1814 ; com. a light battery at the battle of eeded, and May 10, 1743, departed for France, 

Kiagara, July 2}, 1814, particularly disting. where he paasod the rest of his life, 

himself by bnoging off the field the only piece BieTStadt, A lbbst, landscape-painter, b. 

of the enemy's artillery rouined by the Amer- Dosseldoif, 1 829. In 1831, hi* parents brought 

ivans as a trophy of that bard-fought battle, him to Now Bedford, where be received bis 

and ag.iiu wounded. Aide-de-camp to Gen. school edocation, and first developed bis artistio 

liard. Dec. 1814. and pavmaater, 1S20. He power* by clever akctcbes in crayon, [n 1853- 

wii killed ina duel with Spencer Pettis, the ', he visited Europe, where he painted his 

didianre, io consequence of the defective eye- "Sunshine and Shadow," which brnucht him 

si:;hi of Maj. Biddle, being S (bet; aud both into notice, AccampaiiTing Get). Lander's 

were mortally wounded at the first fire. exploring exped. in 18^8, ne produced his great 

Bidvell,DA<nBLD.,brig,-een. U.S. vols., pictures, "The Rocky Mountains, Lander'a 

h. Bnffiilo, N.Y., ah. 1816; killed at Cedar Peak," "Storm in the Rocky Mauntaios," 

Creek, Va.. Oct. 19, 1S64. He resigned tbe "The Domes of the Yosemite," "IiaiHmie 

nfficeof policojustice in Buffalo to enter the Peak," "Valley of the Yosemite," " Emi- 

e.^lh regc as a private, and, in Sept, 1861, be- pvnls crossinf; the Plains," Ac He visited 

eill>ecol,49tfar^t.ana,duringtheSeTen-DayB' Europe again in Jnne, 1867, to make etndiea 

battles, com. a brigade, but, after the bottle of for a picture of the discovery of the Nonh 

Antielam, resumed com. of his rcgl. Ue nn* River, on wboss banks, Dear the Tappnn Zee 

at Fredericksburg ond Chancel lor^ville ; com. and tbe Folisades, he bai a tpadoDt sindio. — 

a brignde at Gettysburg ; and in alllhebaltles Tvckinnan. 

near Peiernburg and in ihc Shenundoah Val- Bigelow, Ebastu* BBiaQAM, LL.D. 

\tj. and was made bri^.-gcn. in Julv, 1864. (Amh. 1867), inventor, b. W. Boylston, Ms., 

Bledmft (bc-ad'-mft). Lcifl HEaNA)il>EZ Apr. 1814. His father was a cotton manufac- 

OB. a Spanish officer in the army of Heme n do lurer. The son, before he was 18, had invented 

Je Soto in tbe expod. for the conquest of Fla. a band-loom for weaving sospendcr- webbing 



t.Google 



a machine for making piping-cord, and liad 
pub. a book on Btenognipliy- Ha obuined a 

fialeacfor an automaiic loom in 1838 for weav- 
ng counterpane*, which he improved in 1S40. 
He alao inrenled a loom for weaving coach- 
Ittce, and soon after turned his attention to 
carpet-weaving. In 1839, ho produced bUflnl 
power-loom forweavin^ !-plj ingrain cnrpeu. 
This he Bubsequentl? improved, and it is ex- 
tensirelj used. In the spring of IS6S, Ur. 
Bigelow proposed a scheme of unifonn taxation 
throughout the U. 8. bv means or iitamps, and 
the i^ame year pab. " The Tariff Question con- 
sidered in Regard to tlie Policr of Eng. and 
the Interests of the U.S." He 'is the fonnder 
of the manalactaring town of Clinton, Mb. 

Bigelow, Gbobob Ttler, LL.D., jurist, 
[i. Watenown, Ma., Oct. S, 1810. H. U. 1829. 
App. ajudge oftho Ms. Supreme Court, Nov. 
21, 1850; chief-jasliee, Sqit. 7, 1861 ; resigned, 
1868 ; Slal« senator, IS47-f!, 

Bigelov. Jacod, M.D., LL.D., phvsician 
■nd writer, b.Sndbur7, Ms, Feb. 37,1787. H. 
U. 1B06, and comaeitced practice in Boston in 
IBIO. A Ekilful botanist, ho pub. in 18U the 
" Florala Doslomaaii," enlar|rccl in 1840; also, 
in 1820, " American Medical Bolanv," 3 vols., 
8vo, plutea. He was many yenrs a disting. 
practitioner in Boston; 3Q jiciirs physician of 
the Ms. General Hospital, and held (1815-55) 
the office of prof, of materia medica and of 
clinical medicme in U. U. In 1816-27, he de- 
livered lectures on the application of science to 
the useful arts at Cambridj^e, as Rnmford Prof., 
and pub., in 1 829, " Elements of Technology." 
One of the committra, in 1BS0, to form the 
"American Pharmacopmia," the nomenclature 
of the materia medica afterwards adopted by 
tbe Bi'itish colleges Is due to him. He bas 
pub. numerous medical essays and discoaraes ; 
some of I bent in n vol., entitled "Nature in 
Disease," 1854; "A Discourse on Self-limited 
Diseases." delivered before the Ms. Med. Soci- 
ety in 1835; in 1098, a " Brief Exposition of 
Rational Medicine, to ohlch is prefixed the 
Paradise of Doctors, a Fable ; " " The Dsefiil 
Arts," 2 vols., 1840; "Treatise on Materia 
Medica," 1823; "History of Mt. Auburn," 
1860. He waa tbe fonnder of Ml Auburn Cem- 
etery, the first of tbe kind in the U. S. He 
has occasionally contrib. to tbe literary period- 
icala and reviews. A vol. of poema, entitled 
" Eolopoesis," has been attribaied to him. He 
was many year* pre*, of the Ms. Med. Society 
and of the Amor. Acad, of Arts and Bcionees. — 

Bigelow, John, editor and author, b. Mai- 
den, N. Y.,Nov.2B, 1817. Un.Coll.lB35. He 
practiaed law in N. T. City about lOvears. In 
IB40, ha was literary editor of the PUbeian, in 
1843-5 was a frequent contrib. to tbe Dano- 
crallc Rtriew, for which he wrote " Consti- 
tutional Reform," " Executive Patronage," 
" The Reciprocal Inflncncei of Civil Liberty 
and the Physical Sciences," " Pascal," &c. Ho 
alw edited Gregg's " Coramcrce of the Prai- 
ries," and other popular books of trnve!. An 
inspector of Sing-Sing Prison in 1845-8, he 
originatiil useful reforms in its discipline. In 
Nov, IBJO, he became a partner of Bryant in 
the fceflii^ Post. His "Jamaicain lB50"gave 



an accurate picture of the social and politiuA 
condition of that island. He again visited the 
West Indies in 1854, collecting materials for 
a work on Hayti. He pub, a, " Life of Fre- 
mont " in 1856; Corresp, from Abroad with 
the Post in feS4-60; became consul at Paris 
in 1861, and succeeded Mr. Dayton a<> minister 
in 1864-8. He pnh. in Paris " />j £iats Unit 
(tAmiriqaeen 1863," giving to the French valu- 
able information of the statistics 



Bigelow, Lswia, lawyer, b. Worcester, 
Ms., eb. 1785; d. Peoria, 111., Oct. 3, 1838. 
Wms. Coll. 1803. He studied and practised 
law in Ms; was M. C. in 1821-3; and was the 
author of the Digest of the 5rst 17 vola. of 
tbe Ms. Reports ; also of a Digest of Pickering's 
Reiwrts, vols. 2-7, Sd ed., 8vo, Boston, 1825. 
He subaequently removed to III., wlicrc he pur- 
sued hisprorcsaiL>u,and u< the lime of his death 
was clerk of the court of Peoria Co, 

Bigelow, Col. TiMOiar, b. Worcester, 
Aug. 12. 1739; d. there March 31, 1790. He 
was a blacksmith and a leading patriot ; mem- 
ber of the Prov. Congress, 1774-5 ; marched at 
the head of a company of minute-men to Cam- 
bridge on bearinj; of the battle of Lexington ; 
was a maj. in Ward's Worcester rcgt. May 23, 
1775, and in Arnold's cx|)cd., and was cap- 
tured in the attack on Quebec, remaining a 
prisoner until the summer oriT76. Made col. 
Feb. 8, 1777; at the beadof the ISthMs. rcgt., 
he assisted in the capture of Burgoyne; was 
at K. I„ Volley Forgo, and West Point. Af- 
ter tbe war, he had charge of tbe arsenal at 
SpringSeld. He was an ori(;inat grantor of 
MonLpelier, and a benefactor of Leicester 
Acad. His son Timotht, lawyer (H. U. 
1786), many years in tbe Ml ' ' ■ -- ■ 
1767; d. 18 May, 1831. Hi 
m, Hon. Abbott Lawrence. 

Bigger. Sam OBL, Whig gov. of Indiana in 
lS40-3rb. Warrau Co., Ohio,ab. 1800; d. Fort 
Wuyne, 1845. Athens U. He studied law at 
Lebanon, and commenced practice in Ind., at- 
taining eminence in the profession. He was a 
representative in 1834 and 1835, and after- 
wards judge of the Circuit Court. By his 
idation, the Indiana Hospital for tbe 

Bigler, William, Democ. politician, b. 
Shermansburg, Cumberland Co., Pa., Dec. 
1814. Receiring a moderate school education, 
and becoming a printer, be established, and for 
several years carried on, the Ckarfitld Dtuio- 
crat. In 1841, he was elected to the State 
convention, and was a member of the State 
senate, part of the time speaker, up to 1847 ; in 
1852-5, he was gov. of Pa. ; subsequcnilj be- 
came prea. of ihe Pbila.and Erie Railroad Co, 
and in 1855-61 was IT. 8. sennior. Delegate 
to tbe Chicago convention in 1864, and to the 
Phila. convention of 1866 

BigioW, William, poet and schoolmaster, 
b. Nalick, TtU., Sept. 23.1773; d. Boston, Jan. 
12, 1844 U. U. 1794. Ho taught wbool in 
Salem, and then took charge of the Latin 
School in Boston, preaching occasionflily. and 
writing for periodicids. Becoming {nti.uiperaie 
be WM obliged to ra[ire to hi* home in Natick 



Insa 



,v Google 



H« afWrwards latight a vJllags ichool in Maine, 
and was ultimnlelj' proof-reader in the Univer- 
ailr priQ line-office, Cambridge. Hii " Chear- 
fiuPareon,' and otbenofhis songs, were Terj 
popnliir. iln 1830, he pnb. ■ history of Nalick, 
and one of Sherburne, Mi>.; "Ttio Youth'* 
LibrniT," 1808; "Introd. to the Msking of 
Latin, 1809; " EduFSition, Mpoein,"dGlirered 
at Cambridge, 18 Jalj, 1T99. Uii beic writ- 
iun were in the Villai/e J/eucn^of Amherst, 
NJl., which he edited in 1796, the Ftderal 
Onrni. and Hi. Ha^aiint, 

Bulings, Elkakiu, F.R.G.S,, Caaadian 
geologist, X. Gloucester, Canada, May i, 1820. 
Uta father, a DatiTe of Ms., settled, after the 
ReTol., neorBrockville. Uewasadm. to the 
bar in 1645, and practised in Ottawa, bat, since 
1856, hu been paleontologist of the geological 
surrey of Canada. Besides contributions to 
papers and scientific jonmals, ho has pub. Tal- 
uaule memoirs of the third and fourth decades 
of the geul. survey of Canada, and in 1856 
edilod the Canadian Naturaliil, to which he 
lui^ r.inc% contrtb. — . Mot-tfan, 

BUlingS, JosKPB, un English navigator in 
■he Kuuian service. He accompanied Cook in 
hi> last voyii)^, and look charge of the astro- 
numii^l department. In ITBA, ho entered ths 
service oF Cnlharine II., who sent him on a 
Torsgc of discoTer]' " to complete the knowi- 
cdiK of the scus situated between Siberia and 
the continent of Amor." He set out overland 
in Ocu 1785, pat to sea from Kulyma in 1787, 
Tiaiiedand eiumined many islands of the N.W. 
coHsi ; in July. 1790, penetrated Prince Wm.'s 
Sound, where Cook had been in 1778 ; and re- 
lani«l loKamiHiliatkaiii 1791. Anacconntof 
bis vuvBue was pub. in London in 1802. 

Billings, Willi AM, the first Amer. musiral 
composer, b. Boston, Oct. 7, 1746; d. there 
Scpi. 26, IHUO. Bjf trade a tanner. Alovoof 
muelc led him, while still young, to become a 
teacher of sinijing and a composer of psalm- 
tunes, which became highlj; popular; among 
thtro that called " Jordan " is well known. He 
pub. 6 mlleclions, which, with a few pxceptions, 
were of his oirn composition. They were 
founded ujnn the new style of charch-music, 
and cansed ■ rerolotion in musical taste in 
K.E. Billinsi''s patriotic pongs were in vogue 
among the N.E. troops of the kcvol. army. He 
was the Srst teacher of singing in this country, 
introdnced the Hrat musical concerts, the first 



-the b 






nimenl, funned the first choirs to unite in sing- 
in- in churches, and kept the first mnsic-storo 
in Boiton. His'Tsalm-singers' Amusements" 
became rery popnlor. 

BiDKbOm, Caleb, teacher and bookseller, 
h .Silislwry, Ct., 1757; d. Boston, Apr. £7, 
D. C. 1783. Ho waa preceptor of 



Comhill. Boston, and was for several years a 
director of the Slate Prison, in which capacity 
be encrtrd himself for the UKnial improve. 
nient of the younger criminals. He pub. " The 
Uunien," "Young Lady's Accidence," 1789, 
■■ Episiulnrv Corresnondenoe," " Historical 
Gniniiuar,'' 1803, '"The Columbian Orator," 
' Amer. I'rcccplor," "Child's Compaoioii," 



and the " Oeographical Catechism." Of the 
Amer, Preceptor, 6* editions, or 640,000, wore 
■old. 

Bingham, JOBH A., hkwyorand politician, 
b. Pa., ISIS; spent two years in Fraaklio Coll., 
O. ; adm. to the Ohio bar in ISIO ; Stale attv. 
for Tuscarawas Co., 184S-9; M.C. 1855-63 
and 1865-71 ; judge-adTocate of llio army 
1864; solicitor Court of Claims, Aug. 1864; 
assist. JDdge-advocaie in the trial of the con- 
spirators tor the marder of Pres. Lincoln in 
May, 1865 ; delegate to the Phila. conven- 
tion of 1866, and one of the managers of the 
Impeach men t-trial of Pres, Johnson in 1868. 

Bingham, KikBlet S., stalcsman, b. 
Cainillul, Onondago Co., N.Y., Dec. 16, 1808 ; 
d. Green Oak, Livingston Co., Mich,, Oct. 5, 
1861. Be received an academic education, be- 
came a clerk in a lawyer's office, emigrated to 
Mich, in 1833, and settled upon a (aim; was a 
member of the legisl. in 1 835-12 ; three years 
its speaker; M,C. rromlS49 to IS&I ; waa gov. 
of Mich, from 1B5S to 1859, and U,S, senator 
fmia 1859 till his decease. He bad also held 
the offices of postmaster, supervisor, prosec.- 
atty., judge of probate, ana brig.-gen. of 

Bingham, William., statesman, b. ^ila., 
17SI ; d. Bath, Eng., Feb. 7, 1604. Phila. Coll. 
1768. In 1 771, he was consul at St. Pierre, W.I. 
Daring the Revol., he was Amer. agent at Mar- 
tinique; was delegate to Congress in 1787-8, 
and O.S. senator from 1795 to 1801. In 1780, 
ha m. Anne Willing of Phila., a lady of great 
beauty and accomplishments, and the centre of 
bshionahle society in Phila. She d. May 11, 
IBOI, a. 37. A dau, m. a son of Sir Francis 
Baring, Bingham was a man of great wealth 
and aristocratic hauUur. He pub., in 1 7S4, " A 
Letter from an American On the Subject of the 
Ki^training Proclamation," "Description of 
Certain Tracts a( Land in the Disc, of Maine," 
179.T 

Binne7, Amos, naturalist, b. Boston, 18 
Oct. 1803; d. Rome, Italy, 18 Feb. 1847. 
Brown U. 1831 . M.D. I82G. He was a success- 
ful merchant, bat, devoting his leisure lo natu- 
ral science, waa a founderof the Boston Society 
of Natural History,and ita pres. in l&43-7,aad 
was active in eslabliitiing the Amer. Asso. of 
Geologiau and Naturatisls. As a nicml>er of 
the legisl. of Ms., he was instrumental in pro- 
curing loological and botanical commissions, 
which resulted in ibo important volumes of 
Harris, Emerson, Storcr, and Gould. He gavo 
many years' study to the mollusks of the U.S., 
and fitted out several expeds. to Florida, Texas, 
and other places, to collect materials. Hi* 
"Terrestrial Mollusks of the U.S." wa^ pub, 
1851-7, iu 3 vols., 8vo. Many of his p:i|ien 
are pub. in the " Proceedings of the Soc. of 
Mat. Hist. 

Binner, Rt. Rbt. Hibbbbt, Prot.-Epis, 

bishop of Nova Scotia, consec, 4th bishop, 1851, 
b.NovaScotia, 1819; educated at Kind's Coll., 
London, and at Oxford, where he erad. 1 



Son of Dr. Barnabas, surgeon Rcvol. army. 
Adm. to the bar In ISOO, he attuned high dis- 
tinction in the uMwioQ- Member of th< 




Google 



Pb. legisl. in 1806-7; m oppoaent of ihs od- aotuioaaUflnbialsuerTein,'— once at Stmt 

ministTaiioD of Jaduos, ana a leading member toti, when be wBi moie thaa IW jean old 

of Congress in 1S33-5, andan earljandactive At hia death, he left SOS deMendanls. — 

nntistaverr man. Man; faan a director in Spmgue. 

the U.S. Bank, and one of the traiieea id irind- Blrkbeok, Mobbis, traveller aod antbor, 

ing up iu aSain. One of hii most snccesslal b. Eng. ; drowned in retnming trom a Tiiit to 

eHortB at tbo bar was hia defence of the city of Bobert Onsn at Haimcmy in IBIS. BavinK 

Phila. ngainsi the heirs of Stephen Oirard. parcbased 18,000 acres of land in III., be 

Auihorof " Heporta of Sop. Ct. of Fa., 1799- loan ded the Wwn of New Albion, and resided 

iei4," S vols., IS09-15; EnloKinms on Chitf- there. When the State was Di^nUed in 

JiiGiicea Titehman and Mariball, 1827 and 1818, he opppoaed the intiDdiiclion of alaTery 

isae ; d. PhiU. Au{[. la, IS7S. into it. Author of "Notes on a Jonnie}' 

Sinus, John, joarnalist, b. Dnblin, Ire- through France," Sto, ISIS, and "Noiea on 

land, Dec. 33, 1773 ; d. Phila., June 16, 1660. a Joamey in America," Su>. 1818 (in which 

Hd rocniTcd a good edocation, but, becoming he gsTc Battering acconnts of Itlinoii), and 

involved in the rarol. movementa in Ireland, " Letters fVom lUinoia," ISIS. 
was arrested, and for two yean imprlBoned, for Bimay, D.ivid Bbll, maj.-gen. toIs., b. 

hia alleged political offences. Soon afier bia Hnntsville, Ala., May 39, 18SS ; d. Phila., Oct. 

release in 1301, be came to Baltimore with IB, 1 864. In youth, he removed to Cincinnati 

hii brother BetijamiQ, and commenced at with bia fkther, J. O. Bim^, and stndied law, 

Northumberland, Pa., in March, 180!, tiifi bnt, before beginning practice, waa engaged 

HepMcan Argiu, ^bich gave Mm great in- in boaineas in Michigan. In IS48,be rsmoved 

fluence with the Democ. party. From 1807 to Phila., where he practiaed law. He raiaed 

until t^OT. 1829, he condacted, at Phila., the the Sad Pa. Vola. in May, ISBl ; was made 

DKNiocraficPreM.theleading paper in the Stale, bdg.-gen. Feb. 3, 186!; was disting. at Tork- 

nntil, in 1824, it opposed the election of Jack- town, Williamsbnrg. and the battles before 

son. He was for 20 years an ^derman of Rictunand, and esfiecialty in the second battle 

Phila. In 1B54, he pnh. an Autobiography, of Bull Ean, Aus. 39, 1^3. also at FTede^ 

emitted " liecollectioni oF the Life of John icksborg and at Ctianeolloraville, and aided in 

Binna ; 39 Yeara in Sorope. and 53 in the chedcing theadvanceof Jackaon'a troopsaftet 

U.S.," "Binna's Magistrate's Manual," Bto, the panic in the llih cort«. After the death 

1B50. of Berry, he took com. ol^ his division (mnj.- 

Birch. Thomas, artist, b. Ijondon ah. gen. May 33, 1863}, led it at Gettysburi; ; and 

1779; d. Phila., Jan. M, 1851. He emigrated com. the corpi after Oen. Sickles was wonnd- 

to the U.S. in 1793, eatabliahed himself in ed. In all the operations of Gen. Grant in Va. 

Fbila. about 1800, and commenced the paint- in 1864, bis bravery and skill wereconapicuons. 

ing of proQles. A visit to the capes o^ Del. July 33, 1864, he received com. of the tOtb 



7 turned bis attention to marine views, corps. He died of malarious fever, contracted 

in the delineation of which he acquired a high In the service. 

repuuiton. During the War of 18IS, he ex- Bime?) Jaheb 0. aniislaverv politician, 
ecuted a series of historical paintinga, repre- b. Danville, Ky., 4 Feb. IT92 ; d. tlaijleswood, 
senting the naval victories of the U.S. He NJ., 34 Nov. 1857. N. J. Coll. 1812. He 
also pntutedmany landscapes, which are highly stodiodlawiD the office of A.J. Dallas. Phila.; 
prized, particularly tboae lepresenting snow- began practice in Ky. in 1814. and at 23 wtu a 
scenes. — Biake. member of the logial. In 133S. be became a 
Bird, RoBEBT MonroOKEBT, M.D., planter in Ala., served in the legisl., and prao- 
novelist, b. Newcastle, DeL, 1803; d. Phils., tiaadlawat Huntsville. Removing to Kj., he. 
Jan. 33, 1854. He was educated in Pbila. for in 1834, emancipated his slaves, and, buing na- 
the medical profession, but early turned bis able to find there a printer for an nnlistavery 
attention to literature ; coutrib. to the JUoatAlf paper, established one in Ohio at great perranal 
jl/a7ai("n*ofl'hila.,andwroletbreetragedies,— risk. About I83B, bo went to New York at 
"The Gladiator," "Oralooaa," and "The Bro- aecretary of the Amer. Anfislavory Society, 
kerof Bogota; " all of which have been popular and labored to bailda political party upon ibat 
on the stage, etpecially the former, the princi- aole iaaaa. In 1840, he look part in the anti- 
pal character of which is one of the favorite slavery movementa in "Sag. In 1844, he was 
peraonationaof EdwinForTsst. His fiiat novel, the candidate of the U^ny mrlj, for Pres., 
'' Calavar," appeared in 1834. and was sue- one remit of which was the defeat of Henry 
" ' 1835 ; " The Hawits Clay, the candidate of the Whig party. Fa- 
k of the Woods," tber of Gen. D. B. Bimey. 
lose of tbeRavol.) ; BiscoaoiAntl, Cuzx (Obtiuxlu), b. 
.nd " Bobin Day." Boaion, 18S5, a distinguished vocalist. Louia 
by pictoresquenesi Ostinelli, hor lather, leader of the orchestra ia 
lated narration. In the principal cities, and a talented musician, 
s native village, bnt, m. in Apr. 1822, the dan. of Mr. Ueweit. a 
lo his death, edited celebrated maucalcomposcrof Boston. Eliia 
Pbila., of which be went to Italy in 1843, studied under the best 
mastcra, waa m. to Signer Biscoccinnii. also a 
remnrkabic (or Ion- isu^cian, and in May, 1847, mnde her tir!>t 
Aug.l7l4 ;d. Jane appearance at Milan, with comptetu success, 
was settled pastorat She made her dtbiil in America al the Asior 
1758, and preached Place .Opara House, in Feb. 1848, and in 



t.Google 



I>hila., Mar. 1, 184g, M the CbMtnat^t. thea- 
tre, u " Lacui." Sung in ibc principal cities 
(ritb fsnat applame, and bmame an especial 
bvoriie in California. 

Biflbop, Abraham, a political writer, b. 
New Haven, ITSa ; d, there Apr. SB, IBM. 
Y. C. 1778. He «aa an acti« p«itici«h, and 
for mote than 20 yean was collector of the 
port of Maw Haven. . He pub. aralioni, and 
■■ Proofs of a Con upi racy," 180S. 

BfBhop, Masaitb Ausa; hA Reriire, a 
cete'iraied «in}^r, b. Lorxloii. 1816; edpcalcd 
at ihe itural Acad, of Music, London ; made 
her cMiHl at a. concert gJTen bj M. Bochsa, 
July 5, 1839, and won a ttiomphant succen. 
SUi tantf in mon of the principal citiea of En- 
rupc aiiil (he D. 8., where she made her dfbui 
■1 the Walnut-iL theatre, Phila., Nov. 93, IS4T, 
»i " Xonna." Ainbor of " Travela in Hes' 
i/-ii in IS49,"PbilN., IBtS. Her husband, H. 
Biihop. d. Apr. 30, ISSa. Apr. 30, I8S8, she 
m. Martin Shalit. 

Bishop, Gbosoe, a Qntker writor, joined 
the sect iu 1654, and, between 1600 and 1668, 
pub. several worluon tboir doctrines. He pub., 
in 16GI, " Now England judged, being ■ Brief 
RelHiion of the Sufferings of the Quakers ia 
that pan of Amcr. from the Beginnin); of the 
9lh Month, IGSS, to the End of the lOthMonth, 
l£Ul."&c. A sei-ond port appeared in 1667; and 
bothwem reprinted in 1703, with" An Answer 
lo Cotton MBiher'»Abit»ea,"bj' John Whiting, 
with an Appendix. 

Bisliop, JoBL Pbertisb, b. Volney, Oswe- 
go Co., N. Y., leu, aothor of " Commenta- 
rieaon the Law of Marriage attd Dirorce," S 
,]8J6; "Criminal La»,"2Tol«.,8TO, 
, 1859; "Tbouehta for the Times," 
'■ SecesBion and Slavery," 1864 ; " Com- 
rics on Criminal Procedure," 3 vols., 
1866; •• First Boot of the Law," 1868. 

Bishop, RoBKKT Hahiltow, D.D. |N. J. 
Coll. I S-2b}, Presb. divine aod scholar, b. near 
E.lioburgh, Scotland, 96 July, 1777; d. College 
Hill, a., 29 Apr. 185S. U. of Edinb. 1797. 
He came in 1801, at the solicitation of Dr. Ma- 
son, to N.Y. ; preached Ibeiv a while ; was on). 
a mi'sionarrto the north-west terrriorv, and ar- 
rived at Chillicothe in 1802. Prof, in Transylv. 
Unir. 1804-24 ; pre*, of Miami Coll. 1825-41 ; 
prof, hii-1. and pollt. science until IB44, and 
subMqiientl* prof, of hist, and polit. economy 
In Ihe Farnicr^s CM- t)enr Cincinnati, 0. He 
was a wnrm triend of Henry Clay. Author 
of " Sermon)," IJflS; " Memoirs of David 
Bice," IS34; " BM>ents of Lot^c," 1833; 
" Philosophy of the Bible," 1833 ; " Science of 
Govemaieni,"1889; ' Western Peacemaker," 
1 *l9,lie-iiiej sermons, add ?oaBC3,&c — ^mgiit. 

BiSSell, Clabk, LL.D. (Y. C. 1847), ja- 
riii and statesman, b. Lebanon, Ct., liBS; d. 
Sorwatk, Ci., Sept. 15, 1857, Yale Coll. 
1S06. Ho was a lawyer, and, daring most of 
hi< life, resided at Norwalk. Judj^of the Su- 
preme Coon of Ct. in 1839-39, gov. of CL 
In IS4T-9, and was Kent Prof, of law in Y.C. 






Aug. IB, 1808; r«l. Sth Inf. Aug;. 19, 1812; 
brig.-gen. Mar. 9, 1814 ; com. in sncressful af- 
fair at LvonsCTeek.U.C, Oct. 19,1814; May, 
181 &, cot. Isclnf. wiriibrev. of hrie.-gen.; col. 
3d Art. Jan. 16, 1 826. — Gai-dn^, 

Bisseil, Sixon B., commo. U.S.N., b. Vt., 
Oct. SB, 1808. Midshipm. Nov. 6, 1 824 ; lieut. 
Dec. 9, I83T ; commander, Sept. 14, 1855 ; 
capl. Jnly 16, lB6i ; commodoro, Oct, 19, 
1866. Attached to tbesloop" Albany," during 
the war with Mexico; piescntat tli'e sic(,'e ot 
Vera Crnz, and slalLoncd ni the naval Imlrery ; 
com. sloop " Cyane," Pacllic squad., 1861-2 ; 
nBvy-ynrd, Man Island, Cal,, 186^-4 ; sloop of 
war " Mononguhelft," N. A. squad., 1866-7. — 
Hamer$lg, 

Bissell, William H., statesman, b. Coop- 
erstown, N.Y., Apr.as, 1811 ; d. Mar. 18, 1860. 
Phila. Med. Coll. 1B35. He was self-educaiod, 
attending school in sammer, and teaching in 



Co., 111. Chosen to the 111. legisl. in 1840, he 

disting. himself as a forcible and ready debat- 
er; studied law, and practised success fu Hy io 
Belleville, St. Clair Co, ; became proaec.-Btlv. 
in 1844 ; col. of the 2d 111. Vols, in the Mexi- 
can war, and distiflg. at fiuena Vista ; M. C. 
in 1819-55, and g^v. of III. in 1857-60. He 
separated from the Deraoc. party upon the pas- 
sago of the Kansas-Scbraska Bill, and was 

BlKob, JsBBHiAH 8., lawyer, b. in the 
Glades, Somerset Co., Pa., JnnelO, 1810. Adm. 
to the bar in 1830, he was, tn Apr. 1843, npp, 
pres. jadge of the judicial district in which he 
liTed; was in 1891 elected to the bench of the 
Supreme Court, and made chief-justice; whs 
re-elected in 1854, and. Mar. S, 1B5T, received 
from Pres, Buchanan the app, of atly.-gen. 
Appearing in behalf of government in a dis- 
puted land-claim IVom California, lie achieved 
a great success, at once establishing his repu- 
tation as a Jurist. U.S. sec. of State from 

Dec. 1860, to Mar. 1861. 
Blackburn, Gideos, D.D. (Gen. Coll. 

Tman, b. Au- 
. Cariinville, 



Hoquent Fresb. clergyman, I 
guslaCo., Va., 27 Aug. 1772; d. Cariii 
III., Aug. S3, 1838. educated at Martin Acad., 



Washington Co.. Tenn. Licensed to preach by 
Abingdon presbytery, 1795, and settled many 
years at MarySTilIe,Tenn. Minister of Frank- 
lin, Tenn., 1811-23, and of Louisville, Ky., 
1823-T. He passed the last 40 years of his 
life in the Western States, laboring watously 
in pTeachinfr, organizing churches, and during 
apart of each year, from 1803 to 1B09, in his 
mission to Ibe Cherokees, establishing a school 
at Hvwassee. He set np a school in Tenn, 
in 1806. Pre*, of Centre Coll., Ky., 1827-30. 

BlfLCkfbrdi Isaac NitWTo:*, jorist, b. 
Bound Bn>ok, K J„ Nov. 6, 1 786 ; d. Wash- 
ington, D.C., Dec. 31, 1859, H. J. Coll. 1806. 
Completinjr his legal atadiea under Gabriel 
Ford of Morristown, N. J., he in 1813 re- 
raeved lo Ind,, and settled in Vincenncs ; he- 
camo clerk of tlie territorial logisl,, in 1813 ; 
judge of the Irst judicial circuit, 1814-15; 
speaker of the first State legisl. 1816 ; judgs 
of the Supreme Court of lQd.,iei9-35; aud • 



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JadgeoftbeU.S.CoDrtofClaims.fKiniMtr. of clinical Knd; inBlockley HoBpital, Philk. 

1S5S antil liia death. Hie mporw. oF which AfUr S moa. Btudj and practice of miilKifcT? 

there are 6 vola,, Kave great credit la the State in the Malemilf at Pana, ihe was adm. ai a 

abroad. — N. E. a. i- G. Rey. xTii. 171. phyaician.to walk the Hoapitul of Si. Banhol- 

Blaok HftVk (Ma-ka-tae-miah-kia-kiak), omev in Iiondon, where she could not hnre 

m noted chief of the Sac and Fox trihei of been a itudent. After passing a year there, 

Indiana, though b/ binh a Polawalomie, b. she ratorntd to N.Y. Citj, where she baa sinco 

Kaskaakia, lit., 1767 ; d. al hia camp on the praclii«d berproresaion wiih sacceaa. In t B59, 

Rirer Dea Moinca, Oct. 3, 1838. At 15, ho waa ihe again viaitcd Europe, and gme a coarpie of 

ranked with the braves, and became a auccesa- medical lectures in London. In 1854, with her 

ful leader in expediliona aftainat the Oaage aiater Emily, ahe opened the New-Tork InRrm- 

and Cherokee tribes. About 1788, he eucceeded ary for Women and Children. She pnb. "The 

as head chief of the Bacs, his father, who bad Lawa of Life," ISmo, 1852. Her sitter An^a 

been killed by a Cherokee. Moved by Iheexboi^ ia a poeleaa of merit; and ^m>lt, another 

ta lion a of the Shawnee Prophet (brother of T&- lister, bas nlao obtained a medical diploma, 
cumaeh) and by the prcaentiof British agenu, BlBiue, Jaheb Gillebpie, speaker 41^1 

Black Hawk, with the title of een., joined the and 42d Congressea, b. Washington Co., Pn., 

British, with 500 warriora, dunng the War of 31 Jan. 1830. Wash. Coll. 1847. Hia grand- 

1813. A repulae in a battle near Detroit, and father. Col. Eph. Blaine, com mia. -gen of the 

an unsucceasfal attack on a fort, surprised and middle dcpt. in the Revol. War; d. Carlisle. Pa., 

disgusted the red nKD, who aoon tired of the in Mar. 1804, a. 63. He was a teacher in the 

aervice. Bja trealj^madeatPrairiedaChien, Sooth; settled in Maine about 1851 ; CDt:ai;ed 

Jalj 15, 1830, and signed by chicfa of rarious in journalism ; edited the Kennebec Joariial in 

— among them Koukuk,chieforft party IS5!-R, and the Portland Daiig Aduertiaer in 



Blair, Abstin, gov. of Mich., 1861-5, b. 

pcllcd them to depart ; and, after a brief conflict Caroline, To mpkina Co., N.T., 8 Feb. 1918. 

in the following spring, the Indians were com- Union Coll. 1839. Studied law ; removed to 

pletely defeated at the River Bad Axe, Aug. 3, Mich. ; was county clerk of Enlon Co. ; proscc- 

by Gen. Atkinson, and the sarrender of Black atty. of Jackson Co.; member of the Icgial.and 

llawk took place on the 2Tlh. Black Hawk, of the State senate, and, as gov. of the State, 

with his two sons and »e«en other head war- look an acliye part in putting down the Rcbel- 

riors, were detained as hostages; were taken lion. M.C. 1866-72. Rcsidea at Juckson. 

through tliB principni enatem ciiiea ; and wore Blair, Fkancib Prestos, journalist and 

confined in FortrcasMonr[>euntil June 5, 1833, politician, b. Abingdon, Va., Apr. IS, 1791. 

when they were released, and returned to their James Blair, hia father, removed to Ky. about 

tribe. An account of bti life, taken from his 1800, and became atty..gen. The son grad. at 

own lips, was pnb. bv J. B. FalteiBOn, 1834. Tranayl. U. ; studied law, but, from ill health and 

Blaokhoof, acmefof the Shawaneee tribe lack of voice,neverengagcdin practice. Early 

of Indiana; d. Wapagh Konnetta, Oct. 1, 1831, a politician, he aupported his friend, Mr. Clay, 

aged t I4yeara. Hewaaal St.Clair'a, Harmar'a, for the Presidency m 1824, but Ijecame politi- 

and Crawford'a defeats, and wai. perhapa, the cally eatmnged from him during the adrainistra- 

lAKt survivor of those who wet« concerned in lion of J. Q. Adams. An article in a Kj. 

Braddock's deftot. newspaper, against the nullittcation movement, 

BlaokatOnOt Witi.lA>i, the first white procured him an invitation from Gen. Jackson 

aetller of Boston ; d. Rehoboth, May 26, 1675. to remove to Waaliinitton, and edit a Deinoc. 

Ho ia suppoaed to have been a graduate of journal to be established there. The CMit 

EmanuelColl., Cambridge, in 1617, A.M., 1631, was commenced in 1830, powerfully anatnining 

and to have been a clergyman of the Church of the policy of the administration, cspeciallv in 

Eng. Ho settled at Shawmut, the Indian name rclalmn to the U, S. Bank and nulliHcation ; 

ofBoalon,ab.l623; notliktngbiaParitHaneigb- and the intimate relations which then sprung 

bors, he sold oat to them in April. 1633, and up between Mr. Blair and the proa, eub^isled 

removed to Itehoboth, R.I. A small round till the letter's death. Mr. Blair retained ihfe 

eminence west of his house there ia called control of the Gfoit until Ihe nrccsalon of Pulk 

Study Hill, from its being hia place of retire- in 1B45. He afterward successfully engaged in 

nient for study. In 1659. he m. Mary, widow agricultural pursuits at Silver Spring, Mon|. 

of John Stevenson of Boston. — Sit Mau. gomeij Co., Md. He withdrew from the 

Hill. Call. 2d. scr., vol. It. Ilemoe. party in 1848 : look a prominent pnrr 

BlaokWell, Eueabetb, the Arst woman in theorganization of the Repabliean party after 

who received the degree of M.D. in the U.S., Ihe repeal of ihe Mo. Compromiac, and m the 

b. Briaiul, Eng., 1821 ; came to N.Y. with her attempt, in 1856, to elect Col. Fremont to the 

father in 1831 ; emigrated to Cincinnati in 1837, Pretldency. Was master of an easy and vigor- 

and taught school there aeveral years. She ona style; d.SilverSprings,Md.,C>cl, 18,1676. 

studied medicine at Charleston. S.C, while Blair, Francis Pbeston, Jan., aoldier and 

•caching music 1 at Pbila.; and flnullv took the politician, aon of the preceding, b. Lexington, 

degree of M.I), at the Medical iJ-'hool of Ky., 19 Feb. 1821. N. J. Coll. 1811. Set- 

UcncvH, N Y., in Jan. 1849. after making ap- tied aa a lawyer in St. Louis, In T84S, he 

elicaiioii unsuccessfully al the achoolsof Phila., made n journey lo the Rocky Mountains for hia 

I. T.,ari Boston, ^he alio pursued a course health; aerred as a private in the Mexicni) 



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BXiA. VO BI^A. 

war, am'., in tS47, mamod practice nt Sc Blair, Montoomert, BtatcBman, b. Frank' 

Loaii. IIq Kupporteil iho Frcesoil part; in lin Co., Ky., May 10, 1813. Weal I'oint, 1 S3S. 

IftlS ; iTdj elected to tbe iegisl. in 1852, nnd Son of Francis 'P. Enterinj; tlie 2d Arc, he 

was a member of Coninvw in I85e-fi0, propos- served in tbe Florida war ; resigned Mav 20, 

in;; in a -pevcli in 1S57 to colonize ibe bUcki 1836 ; studied law, and beinn pnciice in St. 

oTibe U.S. in Central America. He was atone IjOuis in 1S3T. lie wusU.S. di9t..attT. FbrMo 

lime editor or the Miuoari Democna. Col. of in lB39-t3, and was judge of ihe O.C.P. in 

Toli. in 1861, brig.-gen. T Anj;. 1863, and maj.- 1813-19. In 1812, bo wai also mayor of St. 



een. 29 Nor, 1362. He com. a division in the Louii. In 185i, he removed to Mil., and, from 
Vicksljurg campaign, and the 17th corps in Mar. 1861 to 23 Sept. 1964, wns U.S. post- 
ibe army of the Tcnnessno in Shcrmnn'a cam- roasler-gcn. Before the repeal of the Mo. Com- 



, _ II from ChattMnoogft to Atlanta in 1861, promise, he had l)een a Dcmoc., hut afterward 

sitd in S. and N. Carolina in Mar. 1865 ; elect- altachod himself to the Rcpub. parir, and wns 

cd to the 3Sth Congress, ho resigned to take his rcmoveil lir Prcs. Buchanan l^om the offiiv of 

paiition in the srmv ; app. collector of customs holicitor to the Court of Claims, lu which be 

in St. Louis in 1866. and commissioner for the had been app. bv Prcs. Pierce, and in 1860 be 

Pacific Bnilrond. U.S. senator from Miasonii, presided over clie Bopah. State cc 



Nephe 



1870-73; d. St. Louis, July 9, 1S7S. Md. In the famous bred Scott case, he was 

Blair, Jamis, divine and scholar, b. Scot- counsel for the plaintiff. Brother of F.' P. 

land, about 1660 ; d. Williamsburg, Va,, Ang. Blair, joD. Coansellor at law, Monigom. Co. 

1, 1743. Not succeeding as a Pr.-Ep. clergr- Md., amce 1863. 

man in Scotland, he went to London, and, in Blair, S.411DBL, Presb. minister and edu- 

leSS, was sent a* a miesioaar/ to Va. His cator, b. Ulster, Ireland, June 14, 1712; d. 

leal and ability procnredbini, in 1689, the high July 5, 1751. F " " "^ ' 

office of commissary. Having raised by sob' was educated al 

seriplioQ X2,500, and proearedapatent lor the min; ; settled a ,. . . 

erection of William and Marv Coll. in 1693, N.J., In May, 1734, and, in 1740, established an 

he was its first prea., and held the oflke SO acad. at Fo;;i;'s Manor, Chester Co., Pa., and 
years. >Ie was rector of Williamsburg from ' took pastoral charge of the churcli nt thai 

1711. He wasabopiei. of the council of Va. place. He pub., in ITn, "A Nairalive of a 

In 1727,lieaMisied in compiling "The Slate of Revival of Religion in Several Farts of Pa." 

His Majcsu's Colony in Va.," \>j Harlwclt, A vol. of his writings, pub. in Phila., 1754. 

Bh^, and Chilton ; "^rmonssnd Discourses," contains an elegy by Samuel Davies, one of 

4 vols.. Bro.. Lon<l., 1742. He lell Ills library bis scholars. JoH^t, his bro.. prof of divinity 

and £500 to the coll. at 14. J. Coll. 1767-9, d. Dec. 8,1771. He pub. 

Blair, Johh, staleaman and jndge, b, Wil- a few sermons, 

lianuburg, Va., 16B9; d. there Nov. i, 1771. Blsir, Samdel, D.D. (U. of I'a. 1790), 

^'iphew of Fres. Blair. Member of the house son of ^le preceding, b. Fogg's Manor, Pa., 

burgesses as early as 1736. Byhisefficient 1741; d. Genoantown, Fa., Sept. 24, 1813. 

Kfvicei, he quHlifled himself for the position of N.J. Coll. 1760. Tutor at Princeton, I T6I-4; 

pres. of the council of Va.. and of acting gov. settled as colleague of Dr. Sew^l oi-er the Old 

of Va. in 17&7-8 and 1768. In a tetter to the South Church, Boston, Nov. 26, 1766, having 

Btly. of Spoltaylvania, while acting gov., he been ordained as a Presb. in 1761. Chosen 

inaDifcsted a spirit of toleration as rare at that pres. of N J. Coll. 1 767. declined. Dismissed 

dar as it was creditable. ^om Uld South, Oct. 10, 1769. 00 account of 

Blair, Jonic, jurist, b. Williamsburg, 1732; ill health and tlieol. diSt:rences. Returned 

d. there Aug. 31, 1800. Wm. and Mary Coll. to Fhila. in consequence of loss of voice and 

He studied law at tbe Temple, London ; soon impaired health, resulting from shipwreck be- 

roia to the first rank as alawyer; was a mem- tween Boston and Phila, He was the principal 

bcr of Ihe Icgisl. aa early as 1765, and, on tbe founder of the Eng. Presb, Churcli, German- 

dltioluiion of the house in 1769, he, with town; was often a member of the Pa. As- 

Washinuton and other patriots, met at tlie sembly ; was2ycarachap)ain to the Coniinen. 

Raleigh Tavern, and drafted ihe nou-importA- tat Congress, and m., in 1769, a dau. of Dr. 

linn agreement. He was oneof the committee, Sbippen of Fhila. He pub. an oration on the 

nhich in June. 1776, drew up the plan for the death of George II., I7G1. 

govt, of the State; was elected to the council, Blake, Georoe A. H., brev. hrig.-i,-en. 

an'l, wi iJie establishment of the judiciary in U.S.A.. b. Pa.; 1st lieut. 2d Dragoons, June II, 

1'77, was elected a judge of tbe Court of Ap- 1836 ; in actions with the Seminoli^s at Fort 

peals; ilicn chiefjustice, and. In 1780, a jndge Mcllen and Jupiter Inlet in 1811 ; capt. Dec. 

oft'ic ni;;h Court of Chancery. A delegate to 1839; engaged al Cerro Gordo, Puebln. Con- 

tbe PhiU. convention to rcrtse the articles of treras, Molino del Rcy, Chapultepec. and City 

con (ill '■ration, ho supported the " Virginia of Mexico, in the Mexican war, 1846-7 ; lirev. 

Flan," and with Washington and Madison maj. for gallant and meritorious conduct at St. 

alone, of all the Va. delegates, voted for the Augustine, Mex. ; maJ. 1st Drags., July, 1850, 

■dopiion of the Federal Constitution, and also and served against the Apacbeand Navajo In- 

fbr Its raliGi-alian in the State convention. In dians; lieui.-col. Isi U.S.cav. May, 1861 ; col. 

Sept. 1789, Waahinitton app. him a judge of Feb. 15, 1862 ; slightly woundeil at Gnincs's 

ihaUS. Supreme Co 'irt. He was dining, for Mill, Jan. 1862 ; present attheaciionsaiAldio, 

bis nrivBic virtue* no lew than for bis public Middletown. Uuporrille, and at Ucttyaliurg, 

strrie-s. Ho reiigned bis Mat on Ihe supreme fur which bniv. brig..sen. 

bench in 17M. Slake, Geohob SMtTa, oommo. U S.N., 



t.Google 



fc. Woitaster, Ms., 1903 ; d. Longwood, Ma,, S4 waa incomnarnhle. Anthor of " Nero," " The 

June, 1871. Son of Francis BIbIic, a dialing. Turned Hen.l," bo adnptslion of " Nonnnn 

Itwjerof Worcciter. Midshipm. Jan. 1, 1818 ; Leslie,'' aid " The Bu^git," a barlesqne. Hs 

1ient.Uiir.3l,lB27 ; crfli9ediii"TbeGnmpiia" m. Mrs. Waring, a liiter of Uenrj and Tom 

on ihe W. I. station for the Buppreuion of Placide. 

piracy ; was employed in 183a on a special Blokelfly, Joqueto:!, capC. U.S N., b. 

(Drrer of Narragansett Bay ; from 18.19 to 8«aford, Co. Down, Ireland, Oct. 1T8I ; loital 

IB16,'on (be coast larre;, and in 1846, wben sea in 18U. U. of N.C. 1800. His bther 

the Mexicun war bruke oal, com. the lOfnn enii|tnitedio Wilmington, N.C. The members 

brig "FcrT7." Whiie crnisiag off Cnba, he of bia family dying one by one, he was left 

encoaniered ihe great harricsne of that year, alone in the world, and had also the misforlnne 

" The Ptrrj " waa wrecked on the coast of to lose the tiltlc remnant of their properly. A 

Fla,, but wal got off, and taken to Pbiia. under friend (;avo him an education, and procarcil fui 

juty-mnsts. Ha was made commander, Feb. bim a midnhipman'l warrant, Feb. 5, IBOU. 

27, 1847, and aUached to the bureau of con- Made lieut. Feb. 10, 1807 i master com. Jnlr 

Itraclion and eqaipment. Howasemplojedon !4, 1813; capt. Not, 24, 1814. In 1813, he 

epeeial doty connected with the Stevens Bat- com, the hrrg "Enterprise," and did good 

Icry. Sept. 14, 1855, he was made capt.. and, sen ice in protecting on r coasting trade. In Aug. 

in lB57-6a, was aupt. of the U. 8. naval Bcsd. he was app. to " The Wasp," in which, June 

Soon after Ihe civil war broke ont, the acad. 28, 1814, he captured, after an action of 19 

WHS remuTcd to Newport. On the re-organisa- minaies, in latitude 48° 36' Dortb, H. B. M. 

tion of I no navy, July 1 6i 1863, Capt. Blake ibip "Reindeer," which he was obliged to 

n-na [jromored to be commodore. Ijght-house bam, Tbie severe aciioo showed the manifest 

inspector, 1 866-<9. anpariority of Amcr. gunnery. "The Rein- 

Blab6i John Laiirjs, D.D., author, b. deer" made 3 attempts to board, in the last 

Northwuod, N.H., Dec 21, 1788; d. Orange, of which her gallant com. waa stain. For this 

N J., July G, 1897. B, U. IB12. Mnnilb»ting exploit. Congress voted him a gold medal ivirh 

a tarsic for mechanics, he WHS apprenticed to a sniiahlu devicra. Sept. I, 1B14, in a revere 

CBbi net-maker { then studied at I'hillipa Kxeier - action with the brig " Avon," he compelled her 

Acad.; was eorneyeati a tonchor; was ord. n to strike; hnl the approach of another enemy 

Prol.-Epis. clei^man in 1815 ; orgn'uicd the prerentcd liis taking poiuession of her. " The 

parish of tjL Puul's at Fatrtucket, H.I,, where Wasp " was afterward spoken off the Wi-st- 

nei,'ontinucd9ycnrs; estnbiishedayoungladv's ern liles, and, on Sept, 31. captured the brig 

sem. at CoocoVd, N,H,, in 1820, which he Ve- " Atalnnta," which arrived wifblyin Savannah, 

moved to Boston in 1*23, and continued, with and branght the last direct iniclligcnce cfer 

high repumtion, until 1830 ; pastor of St. Mat- roceivcd from "Th« Wasp." Being henvily 

thew'e Church, Boston, from 1834 to 1832, and armed anil sparred, and very deep waistcd, she 

edited the Literart/ Advertiser and the Gotiiet probniily funndereil in a gale. Ilia only cliild, 

Ailvocale, lie was a prolific writer, having a dau.. was educated at the expense of iho 

written or eompilcd nearly 50 v<ds., mostly text- Stale uf N.C. 

books for schools. His first book, "Text- Blsno (blOn), Astboitt, D. D., first 

BookofOcogrnphyandChronologT," appeared arc hbijbop of N. Orleans, b. Lyons, France; 

in 1814. He is the author of a Biographicnl d. N. O., June 30, ISGO. He came here quite 

Diciionory, a new edition of which was puh. yonn;;, was consecrated bishop, Not. 33, 1835, 

in 1856; a " Family Encyclopedia," roy. 8to; and archbishop in 1351. 
" Farmer'^ Every Day Book," Svo, 1833; Blanc, Vikckht le, author and traveller, 

"Modem Fanner." 12ma, 1853; "History b. Fmiice, 1554; d. 1640. He travelled in 

of ihe Amcr. Revol.," 18mo, N.Y. Asia, Africa, and America, from the age of 19 

Blake, Joseph, gov. of S.C. in 1694, and to 60, and in Ui" Vo^gei Famea^' 1648, 

from 1696 tu bis death in 1700. He was ■ pro- gives an account of Conflda. ~- CAar/eiwi. 

S-ictary, and a nephew of the famous Admiral Bhmcliard, Cou JasBFH, soldier and 

liiki^, judge, b. Dunsiable, near Noahoa, N.H., Feb. 

Blake, William HirifB, Canadian jurist; tl, 1704; d. Apr. 7, 1758. He was a mandi- 

d. Toronto, Nov. 19, 1970. Chancellor fh>m mns conncillor from 1740 to 1758; jadse of 

1849 to 18113. Many years prof, of law in the tlic Sup. Court of N.H. (rara 1749 to 1758; 

U. of Toronto. com. a N.H. regt. in 1755, and was engaged ai 

Blake, William Rnrus, comedian, b. Crown Point. He was a great speculator In 

Hnlifux, N.S.. 1809 ; d. Boston, 32 Apr, 1B63. lands, and in conjunction with Rev. Samuel 

He was intended for the medical profession, Langdon, D.D., produced a map of N.H,, pnh, 

but at 17 wentonthestageat Halifax, and first 1761, 

ai'peared at the Old Chatham Theatre, N.Y., Blanohard, Thoimb, mechanic and in- 
in IBiS, as Frederick in " The Poor Gentle- ventor, [,. Sutton, Ms., S4 June, 1788 ; d. Bos- 
man," and in Ellision's favorite character in ton, 16 Apr. 1864. While engaged with his 
the " Three Singles." He viaiied Eng. in 1 839. bro. in the mannfecture of lacks by hand, he 
He bad been stage-manager of the Tremont invented a machine which made 500 per min- 
Thcfllre, Boston, joint manager of the Walnnt- nte, and sold the patent for S5,000. He ti'.so 
St, Theatre, Phila., and stnue-mnnagcr of the invented "a Inihe to turn the whole of it miis- 
Droadwny Theatre, N Y. He excelled in the ket-barrel Irom end to end, by the coml>inRtiun 
delineation of old men and eccentricities, at- of one siiislo self-directing operniion." :hc 
taincd die head of his profiission. and as "Jessie lathe for tnrnin» irre!!id:ir fnrmp. now in usci i 
Barol " iu "Old Heads and Young Hearts" all armories, tor making muskat-stoi k'<. iilso 



,,Google 



BiuL 97 BLii: 

applied to bmu, ahoe-laid, handles, ipokei, and soon after pub. a tcries of bitterlj indi^' 

tbt; and a machins for bending timb^, called nont lellera aguinai the gov. nndor the iiigna- 

tbe " Compoacd Bend." He was also engaged tore of Caalat. Made capl. of tbe 1 >t troop 

in the coDitmction of railroads and locomo- of Va. cavslnr, he joined the main armv in 

diet, and in boats so contriTed as to ascend 1TT7 as lieut.-col.; became col,, and aignalited 

the rapids of the Connecticut and the weslerQ himself upon manj orcasions as ari^ilant and 

riven. Be had ukeaoai94 patent* tbrdiSer- eoergetic. officer, particalarly at Bmndvwine. 

«it iOTentioiu; and, ibongb GesirnKgled loag la 1779, he com. tbecanTenuon iruope at Albe- 

againtl discouragements and diScultiei, he nl- marie Barracks, Va ; was a member of the Old 

timaiel]' acqnirod wealth. — Bithcp'i Amtriean Congress, 1780-3, and, ■ubsequrnilT, of the 

J/aaii/octiinrt. Stale legisl. He opposed the adoption oF the 

BlEtDOhelODde (blSnsh'-Utnd'l, Patu- U.S. Constitatioa in the conTenlion, but repre- 

BkBT FsAsgoia Bodmbl di, French ^n., b. senled his State in the first Congress held nnder 

Dijon, 1735 ; d. Apr. 11, 1793. Entering tbe it, and spoke in faror of the assumption of the 

army at the age of IS, his courage and good Stile debu, though opposed hj ail his col- 

condoct ohiaioed for bim rapid promotion, and leagaes. "TheBland Papeii,"pub. in 1840 

ia 1779 he was sent to America with the regt. andlS43, bTCharies Campbell, contain valna- 

d'AuzoToii, of which he was m^or, and, soon ble memoHals of our Revol. hiiitory. Col. 

after its arrival at Martinique, lient.-col. He Bland was apocl, as well as a patriot, and was 

successfully defended the ule of St. Vincent highlr esteemed iKit only for his inti-gritj, and 

against the Eogliah, which serrke procured devotion to principle, bnt also for hia social 

him the rank of brigadier i assisted at the tak- accomplishments, which set off an elegant and 

ing of Tobago, of which he was made gov. in imnocing person. 

1781, bat which he soon excban^ for^iat of BlOnd, Tbbodobio, jurist, S! years chan- 

Dominica, which he retained until his retam to cellor of Md., b. 1777; d. Annapolis, Md., 

Fraoce at the epoch of tlie Revol. He was sent Nov. 10, 1846. He began his judicial career in 

to St, Domingo as gov. of the French part of Baliimore, as judge of the Coaniy Court, firom 

the inland; but evincing openly a diaposition wbichslatian lie waa raiied lo the bench of tbe 

to re-eiubliab the old onler of things, in oppo- U. S. Dial. Court for Md. He pub. " Rcporu 

■ition to tbe decreet of the National Assemlily, of Cssesdecided in the High Courcof Chancery, 

Eiving the blacks eqnal rights, he was Uken to Md.." Bait., 1S3S-41. 

France, brought before the Bevol. tribunal, Blaquiere, I'etsk BorLa de, Canadian 

condemned, and executed. Hia son soon after politician, b: Dublin, Apr. S7, 1 7S4 ; d. York- 

thared hia fate. Tille, near Toronto, Oct. I860. Son of John, 

Bland, Hicbasd, an able political writer, Lord de B. of Ardkill. Hewes a mid«bipman 

b. Va., 1708; d. Williamsborg, Va., Oct. 28, at the battle of Csmperfown, but left the navy, 

<776. Wm. and Uary Coil, and U, of Ediu- and emignited to Canada in 1B37. Member 

tiui^h. He wasaflneclauicol scholar, familiar of the legislative council fh)ra 1838 to 1860; 

with Britjah and Va. history, and wax ihe ora- some lime chancellor of the U. of Toronto, 

cle of his time on all qaeaiiona touching tbe Bledsoe, Albrbt T., teacher and author, 

rigbiaand privilegesoftheColony. Adisting. b. Ky. Weat Point, 1830. Lieut. 7th Inf.; 

tuemberof the house of bargesaes from 174}, resigned 31 An;. 1833; instr. of math, and 

be opposed the Stamp Act in 1764, with great French in Kenron Coll., IB33-4; prof, of 

ceal, and was one of tbe committee to memo- math., Miami v., IS39-8 ; lawyer in Spriug- 

rialise the king, lords, and commons, but field, HI. 1840-8; prof. math, and astron., 

opposed the fiimoaa reaolutiona of Patrick C. of Mpi., 1848-.53, and in U. of Va., 

Henry in 1765. In 1768, be was one of the le53-«[,anerward taking part in the Rebellion 

committee to remonstnUe with pertiament on against the U.S. Author of " Emm. of Ed- 

ibe subject of taxaibn. In 1769, when the wards on the' Will," 1846; "A Theodicy or 

bouae waa diasolved, and its memlKrs met at Vindication of Divine Glory," 1B5S; "Esaaj 

tbe Raleigh Tavern, he was among the first to on Liberty and Slaver;," ISS6. Contrib, to 

agn the non-importation agreement there pro- many literary, scient. and theol. reviews ;d. 

poeed. He was one of the committee of cor- Alexandria, Va. Dec 8, 1877, 

reap, in 1773;of u^ty in 1775-6; wiaproml- BledflOS, JsM'. a distingnfahed advocate 



. Jl theconmitteetof tbeconrentionsof and juriit of Ev. ; U.S. aenator fVom 1813 tc 

that period; was ■ delegate to Congreas in 1815; prof, of lawin theU.of Transylv., and 
l'7t, and waaagaincboaen, Ang. 13,1775, bnt chief-justice of the Supreme Court of Kr.; 
declined. Ha pnb. " A Letter to tbe Clergy on d. Nacogdoches, Texas, June 30, 1837. Tie'ld- 
tbe Twopenny Act," in 1760; "An Inquiry ing to habits of intemperance, he became a 
into tbe Right! of tlie Briiiib Coloniea"in miserable oatcast and wanderer. 
1766, the first and aUeat tract writtea on that Bleeoker, Ahm EtAtx, poetess, b. New 
•nUfCt. Tork, Oct. 1753; d. Tomhanick, above Alba- 
Bland, Col. THaODOuo, M.D., staiea- ny, Nov. 33, 1?S3. Tonngest dan. of Bmndl 
man and soldier, h. Prince Osorge Co., Va., Schuyler, she in 1769 m. John J. BIcecker, 
1743; d. New York, June 1, 1790. Throneh lived with him oneyearatPoughkeepsie; then 
his grandmother, Jane Bolfe, be was fourth in removed to Tomhanick, whence she was 
descent from Pocahontas. John Randolph driven by the news of the approach of Bur- 
was a nephew. He received bi* doctor's degree goyne's army. After much sufferini;, they e» 
at Edinburgh ; returned home ab. 1764, and caped to Altany, and tlience to Rcil Hook, re- 
oraciised medicine, but diatinguiahcd himself turning home after Bargoyne'sanrrcnder. Her 
asB leaderorvol*. in oppo* ing Lord Dnnmore, plecM are to be found in the citly nnmbera 
1 



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oF the Ntv-York Maijaant ; and 8 collerlion 

or her alories and " jioetica " in fi vol. wiis pub. 

ill 1 "93 by her dati., Margarotta V, FnuKero"- 

Bleecker, Herhanub, ll. d., m. c. 

1911-13; diargid'a faint at ihe Hague, 1839. 
B. Albnn^, 1779; d. Ihera July 19, 1849. He 
ivas a lawjer bv profession, And opposed, in 
Concrcsa, [lie War of 18ia. Begont of the 
S. V. U. 1822. 

BLenker, Lewis, brinr.-gen. toIs., b. 
Worma, Hoase Darmstadt, 1812; d. nt hie re»- 
idcncB in N. J., Oct. 31, 1863. Brou);hi up hj 
ills (nlhor, a jcstelior, he Hi BO cnliaicd in lbs 
Bavarian Legion, which wai raised to ac™m- 

Siny ihu newl;-e1ec[«l King Otho to Greece, 
e ihun studied medicine at Municb ; eni.'Hged 
in the wine-trade at Wonna; and in IS49 be- 
came a leader of ibe reTolutionists of that chj, 
being burgomaster, and rom, o( the national 
euard. He fought in one or two sncceasTal en- 
(tagenienla with the rruaaians; bnt the rerol. 
«■»» Kion complatelj crashed, and he fled to 
Switzerland. Ordered, in Sept. 1849, lo leave 
that countrj, he came to the U. S., and settled 
in N. Y. City, where he was engaged in busi- 
nesi until 1861. He then rused the 8th N. Y. 
Vols., and, esHy in JoIt, was put at the head 
ofahri^eoftheSthilivigioii, Col. Miles. At 
the Rrst bnute uf Bull Itun, be <»Tcre'l the re- 
treat with threat steadiness, and for this aervice 
wua made a brig.-geD. vols., Aug. 9, 1S61. He 
com. a division of the Armv of the Puiomac 
until the commencenient of the Yorktown cam- 
paign ; when he was ordered (o Western Vs., 
participating in the battle of Croia Keys, June 
6, 1BS2. Gen. Fremont, after entering the vnl- 
l«7 of Va. in Jul;, 1862, relieved biia from 
duty ; and he was diecharged from lierrice, Mar. 
31, 1863. 

Blennerhassett, H^tiMAit, noted for his 

nnlortunnte connection with Aamn Burr, b. 
Hampshire, Eufc., Oct. 8, IT6S ; d in the Is of 
Guernsey, Feb. 1.1831. U.ofDublin. Hcww 
of Irish descent; pnutisfd law in I>nblin,and, 
being a republican in prineipte, emiL-rat^d to 
Amer., alter marrying Adeline, icrand-dan. of 
G«n. Acnew, in 17*96. He settled on an inland 
in the Ohio, below Parkersbar^.wbere be bod an 
elegant residence, furnished with taste and lux- 
arjr, Burrnrasliisgiiestin l80S,andsnci?cedeiI 
in involving him in his treasonable schemes, in 
which his credulity, as well as his embarrosicd 
: :. — : — (iigpo»ed him to engage. 



designs, 
lanened ; 

property 

■charged. 



C 



i BIX} 

U.S.A.. h. in Northern N. T., Aug- 1815; d. E 
I'ascrt'oula, Mpi., 5 Ang. I8,'53, West Point, 
1833. Soil of Capt. John of the Rerol. army. 
Assiat. prnf. of math, at W. Point in 1835-40; 
brev. capt. and isiiist. a^.-gen. in Taylor's army 
in Fla. in IWO ; brev. ra^. and lienl,^M)l, for 
Palo Alto and Buena Visla, Mexico, and also re- 
ceived a gold medal and a sword from bis nativs 
State, He m. Fres. Taylor's voun^st dan. 

Bliasett, Fbahcib, comedian, \ London, 
ab. 1773; d. Gnerosey. Eng,, 1848. He wa» 
the son of an eminent comic actor of Bath; 
came with Wignell's company to Phila. in 
1793, from which he witlxlrvw in 1821, having, 
by bis father's death, come into poasession of ■ 
competency, and retired lo the Isle of Guern- 
sey. Though a famous comedian, be was a 
confirmeit hvpochondiiac. — IFooifi Recollec- 
limit of ike ^laye. 

Blodget, Sai>ui:l, remarkable for enier- 
pri^, iT^Voburn. Ms., Apr. 1, 1724; d. Ha- 
verhill, Ms., Sept. 1, 1807. He was engaged 
in tbc exped. a"ainst Loaisbnrg in 174J. and 
WHS before iha Hevot. a judge of C. C. P. for 
Hillsborough. Having in 1783, by a machine 
of his own invention, rai^d a valnable cnrgo 
from a ship sunk near Flfmonth, he went ti> 
Europe to nndertake similar enterprises, but 
met with discouragements in SpMn and in Eng- 
land, wliere he proposed to raise " I'lie Boval 
GcoT^." On hia return in 1791, he co'm- 
mcnccil the munnfnclure of duck, and In 1793 
removed to N. H., and began the construclion 
of the canni, which beats his name, around 
Amoskea^ Falls. 

Blondin, M., Exilr Gratslbt (his true 
name}, was b. France, ab. 1830. In 1655, he 
was engaged by Wm. Nihlo to perform with 
the Ravel troupe in New York, and was snbse- 
qnentlv part proprietor of a circus, June 30, 
1S59. he accomplished the wonderfnl leal of 
crossing the Niagara River on a light-rope, 
and has since performed teats still more as- 

Bloodworth, TmoTHT, statesman, d. 

near Washington, N.C., Aug. 34, 1814, a. 78. 
He was 30 years a member of tbe N. C. tcaisl; 
meniberof the Coniin.nial Congress in 1786-7; 
M. C. 1790 and 1791; D. S. senator, 179S- 
IBOI,Bnd afterward collector of the port of 
Wilmington. He was brought np in poverty ; 
was, by turns, farmer, smith, preacher, doctor, 
wheelwright, and politician, and was one of the 
kindest and most charitable of men. 

Bloomfleld, Joseph, statesman and sol- 
dier, b. Wuodbridge. N.J. ; d. Burlington, 
NJ., Oct. 3, 1823. He studied law until tbe 
breaking-ont of the War of Independence ; wm 
made a capt. in Dayton's regt. |3d NJ.) in 
1776, and served through the war. attaining 
Ibe rank of major. He was subsequently aity.- 
tren. of the State ; was eov. in 1901-12; was 
brig.-gen. during the War of 18I2-1S ; M.C. 



Iftl7-S 



n Rcvol. T 



mofa 



850, and 
Smith, 



1. pensions. He was a lirm Kcpnb. 
in politics, a bravo soldier, and a sound IcgU- 

BLoant, Tnoii,iB. soldier and statesman of 



cial AsMmblic* of 177$-$, from Newberoj 



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BLo y 

brolber tf Wm. and Willie. He TolunCeered 
in tbe RgtoI. anny at 16 ; became d«p. pajm.- 
gen. in 1730, and, with the nutk of maj,. com. 
a bait, of N.C. mililia at ibe battle of Eutaw 
Spriagt. Be became a naj.-gen. of militia; 
and «aa M. C. in IT93-9, ISOB-s, and <d 
1811-13. 

BlOimt, William, staieBman, b. N. C, 
IT44i d. KnoiTille, Tenn., March 31, 1800. 
He was a ddcgate from N.C. to the Old CoD- 
greuinlTB!, 3, 6,and7 ; memberof tlieaaaem- 
bly from Newbern id 1780 and t"S4; asigner 
of the Federal Constitaiiua in 1787, and, in 
1790, WM app. gov. of tlio Territory of Ohio. 
Cdukgii prei.of the convention tot'unn iheSiHie 
of Tana, in 179S, he nas its repreaenuilive in 
Congress, but was s.'Lpellcd in Jnty, 1797, for 
having instigated the Creeks and Ctverokees to 
asiiil tbe British in conquering the Spanish 
iGrriioi7 in La. The pniceedin);^ a^'ninat him 
increased fais popularit? in Tenn., and he was 
elected to the State senate, and cliuacn pro*. 
of that body. 

Bloont, W11.LIE, Got. of Tenn. from 1809 
to 181S; d. near Clarksvilic. Tenn., Sept. 10, 
183S, a. 68. He was sec. 10 his bro. William 
while territorial gov. of Ohio ; afterwards re- 
moved to Montgomery Co., Tenn. ; was soon 
returned to the legist., and in 1834 was in the 
amveation that revised Ihs Stale constitution. 

Blovrers, Sampboh Salter, jurist, b. 
Boston, Mar. 33, 1743 ; d. Hnlifnx, N.S., Oct. 
25, 1843. H. U. 1763. Grandson of Rev. 
Thomas B., minister of Bcverlj [IT01-S9). 
1]« stndied law under Got. Hutchinson. 
With Adams and Quiney, he was engaged as 
innior council in 1770 in the defence of the 
BriiFah soldiers concerned in the " Boston Mas- 
aacn." Being a loyalist, he went to England 
in 1774, but returned in the spring of 1778 to 
his naiivednr, and, aflera short imprisonment, 
went to Halifax, where he successfully parsiied 
faij profession nnlil raised to the bench iti 
1795. In 1783 was app. attr.-gen., and speak- 
er of the house of ossemiilr; and in 1797 
chief-jnsiice of the Sapreme Canrt, baring had 
for some jcBTS a seat in the conncil. In 1801, 
be becnice presiding jadge, which oSice he re- 
■llined in IS33. — Saliiiu. 

Blunt, Gdmund, engineer, son of R. M., 
b. NenljiiTXport, Ms,, 23 Nov. 1799; d. Brook- 
Ijn, N.Y., a Sept. 1866. At 17, he surveyed 
y.Y. harbor; until 1B33, be was engaged in 
sorrevs of the W. Indies, Gaatcmala. and the 
mast of the O.S., on his own account. From 
183! to his death, he was 1st assisL on the U.S. 
roast Burrcy. He introduced into the U.S. the 
Fresnel light, and inTcnted the dividing engine. 
In 1 6J5-6, he furnished the poinu to determine 
till' exi«rior line of N.T. harbor. 

Blunt, Ei>iin:(i> Mabcr. nantieal writer, 
h. Fortsmoath, M.H., 30 June, 1770 ; d. Sing 
Sing. N'.Y., a Jan., 1863. He was a book-sell- 
er, and pnh. the Newbnirport Herald. In 
i. he pub. his first " Coast Pilot," 1 ' ' 



of age, he was a sailor. Removing to 0., hs 
grad. at the Sterling Medical Coll., Columbus, 
1849; practised in Darke Co., O., until 1866; 
and then settled in Anderson Co., Kan., as a 
physician and farmer. He was a prominent 
leader iq tbe tree Slate party in 1856-7, and a 
member of the convention which formed the 
preaent constitution of tbe State. In July, 1S61, 
he was made licnt.H^I. 3d Kan. vols. He com, 
the cavalry of Gen. Lane's brigade, and, Apr. 



Hill V 



!, and which has been tr 



al<a pub. "Stranger's Guide 

1817. nndnnmeroiis nautical books ai 

Blunt, Jameb G., mnj.-ccn. vols., 

ton. Me., SOjuly, 18!G. From U tc 



iislBted 
He 



8, 1863, was app. brig.-gen., and assigned to (he 
department of Kan. Oct. 32, 1863, he cnKnpcd 
a Confederate force al MaysTille, near the K.W. 
corner of Arkansas, and totally routed it. Nov. 
38, 1862, he aiiackcd and drove Marmnduke'H 
forces at Cane Hill, Ark. ; with Gen. Ilerron, 
defeated. Hindman at Prairie Grove, Dec. 7, 
and on the S7lh and S8lh defeated a body of 
rebels, and captured Van Burcn, a fort on' itie 
Ark. River. In June, 1863, he vran relievrJ 
(rom com. of the Kan. dep't, and took tiie licld 
with the arniT of tbe frontier. Juty 16, 1H63, 
he defeated 6en. Cooper at Honey Springs, 
near the Ark. RiTcr; maj.-gen. Nov. 39, 186^ 
Rcsideii in Leavenworth, Kan. 

Blunt, Joseph, lawyer and politician, son 
of Edmund M., b. Newburvport, Ms., Feb. 
1792; d. N.T. City, Jane 16, 1860. Ho was 
first brought to notice by writing on the Mo. 
Question in 1820. Soon after, he wrote for the 
N. A. RrvietB an article on the Laybach Cir- 
cular, which brou|:ht him into acquaintance 
with leading notional men. He was long a - 
leading Whig and protectionist, and was one 
of the first memlHTS of the Repnb. partv. and 
drew op the original resolutions of the liepub. 
State convention at Saratov in 1854. Mr. 
Blunt declined the commissionership to China 
offered him by Pres. Fillmore. He wbs district 
atty. not long before his death. He edited 
the Amfrlcnn Annaat Hfjisler, 1837-35. H« 
pub. "Historicnl Sketch of the Formation of 
the American Confederacy," N.Y., 8vo, 1825; 
" Speeches, Reviews, and lleports," 8vo, 1843 ; 
" Merchants' and Sbipmastera' Assistant," 8vo, 
N. Y., 1839 and 1S48. 

Boardmoa, Gbobok Dama, Baptist mis- 
Kionarv, b. Livei-more, Me.. Feb. 8, 1801 ; d. 
Burmah, Feb. 11,1831. Water. Coll. 1S23, 
His father was a clergyman. He studied at 
the And. Tlieol. Scm. ; was ord. at West Yar- 
mouth, Me., Feb. 16, 1825; m. Miss Sarah 
Hall, July 4, and on the 16th sailed for Cal- 
cutta, where he arrived Dec. 2. Acquiring the 
Burman languuge, he entered upon liis lulmn 
at Maulmiiin in the latter part of May, I82T, 
and planted a mission which became the cenlnil 
point of all the Baptist missions in Burmnh, 
In Apr. leaS, he established amission at Tavoy, 
where he soon afterwards baptized Ko-mnh-bvn, 
a Karen convert, whose labors were very siic- 
cessfol among his countrymen. In Feb. 182^, 
ho made a lour among the Karen villager f'>ih 
such success that he determined on a systemniic 
course of itinerary labor. His exertions oc- 
casioned the Io<s of his health ; and ho n-:n 
carried off by consumption. 

Boardman, Hexrt Acq., D.D., clorav. 
man and authur, b. Tror, N.Y„ 9 Jan. ISuS, 
Y. C. I82B. Since 1833, pastor 10th Presb. 
Church, Phila. Chosen in 1853 to fill ■hediair 



iv\^ioo«^le 



of putorsl tb«oli%f at Prince[on,he declinetl it. 
He bus pub. " The Scripniral Doctrine of Ori- 
sioal Sin," IS39; "Letterato BiBhop Doane 
an ihe Oxford Tnicu,"lB4l ;"Tbe PreUtical 
Doctrina of the Apostolical Succession Ex- 
amined," 18M; "The Bible in the Familj," 
1851 ; " The Bible io the Coanting-Hoase," 
IB53 ; wme sermons, and a eolagium on 
Daniel Webster. — Duyotoici. 

Boemstein, Henbt, joumaliit, b. Ham- 
burg, Ucrmanj, 4 Nov. ISOS. His parents re- 
moTcil in IB13 to Lemberg, where he received 
nr (he U. a medicul cilacniion. After seTTJng in 
tlie Aasician anny , be was some jears con- 
noctrd with thestsj^in Vienna; b^meinan- 
n^nr of the Gennan Opera a[ Paris in 1S42, 
and a playwright, and came to the U. S.in Dec- 
isis. In Mar. 1850, he became pah. editor 
and proprielor of the Antfii/er da IVatent at 
St. Louis, one of (be most influential Gentian 
papers of the west. — £d,a2<<fi Great IVfit. 

Bogardufi, Jihkb. inventor, b. Catakill, 
N.Y., 14 Mar. 1800; apprenticed to a watch- 
maliiT, 1814; inrenu^ the Ring Flyer for 
cot ton -spinning, 1828; a dij gas-meter. 
1833; an engraving machine, 1636; a 
machine for pressing glaaa ab. 1840. and many 
Other mechanical impi-ovemenla. Hia factory 
in S.Y., constmeteJ, in I84T. entirely of iron, 



Va., disiing. himself at the baule of 
Cross Ki^'s, June 8, and was specially com- 
mended for his services in the Shenandoah 
Valley ander Gen. Sigd. He eovered the re- 
treat of the armT of Va. across the Rappahan- 
nock, and fell while directing the movemenii 
of bis brigade in a skirmish near that river. 



n-Baden 






BogarduS, Gbn. Kobkbt, near so rears 
a praftitioner at the N.T. bar; d. N.T. City, 
R.'|)t. la, 1841, a. 70. Col. 4lBt Inf. from Jaiy 
3&. 1813, to June, 1815. 

Bogart, EuiiBKiB,poetess,b.N.Y.City; 
conlrib. to the .V.Y. .Mirrw under the nam de 
fjHntf'-Estello." — Sm Spfximmti ia " Gni- 
uoltTt Fimale Foett <f Atarriec." 

Boggs, Ubabi-bs Stuibt, rear-admiral 
U.SXT. Brunswick, N. J., Jan. 28, 1810. 
Nephew of Cnpt. James Iiawrenee, he entered 
the navy, Kov. I, 1836; licut. Sept. 6, 18S7 ; 
was in " The Princeton " of Com. Conner's 
squadron during the Menicnn war; iviis present 
at the siege of Vera Crux ; eom. bimt exped. 
which destroyed "TheTrnxtou " after licr siir- 
rendi^r to the Mexicans ; commander, Sept. 14, 
1855, and assigned by the see. of the navy to 
the U.S. mnil-Bteamer" Illinois," which he com. 
3 years He then became light-hou'w insp. 
for California, Oregon, and Washington Ter- 
ritory. In 186l,hew8*orderedto thcgunboat 
'" Vnrnna " of Farragut's Gulf squadron. In 
the aiiiick on the Mpi. forts, Apr. 18-24, he 
destroyed 6 of the Confederate gnnboats, but 
finally lost bis own vessel after driving his an- 
tni.ijnist ashore in flames. He returned to 
Wiiahinglon as bcnrer of despatches ; was 
ordered to the command of (be new sloop-of- 
wa.' " Janinta ; " was promoted to tbe rank of 
capt.Jnlvie. 1862; commoilore, July 35, 1866; 
com. steamer " Da Soto," N. All, squad. 1867- 
8; rear-adm. July, 1870. 

Bohlen, Gb». Hbhrt, b. Bremen, Oct 23, 
1810; killed in Vs., Aug. 33, 1B62. Hecame 
10 A'ner. young, and scttlcil as a liqaor- 
merchantin Phila. In 1861, he becamo col. 
TSlh Pa. (Germim) vols., and Was attached to 
Gen. Btenker'a cotn. SU('e hrig.^n, of vols. 



father. 

Boker, Geobob Henbt, dramatist and 
poet. b. Phila., 1823. N. J, CoU. 18*2. He 
studied, but never praetised law. After a tour 
in Earope, he returned to Phila., and, in 1847, 
pub. " The Lesson of Life and other Poems." 
He has also written "Cilajnos," a tragedy, 
I84S, successfnllv performed in London ; 
"Anne Boleyn, "Leonor de Guiman," 
"Franeesca da Rimini," "The Betrothal," 
" The Widow's Marriage," a oomedy, and 
some minor poems, " War Lyrics," ■' Alt the 
World a Mask," " Konigsmark and otber 
Poems," and " Plays and Poems," 3 vols. 

BoUvary Ponte (bo-!ce'-v6re pon'-ta), 
Simon, the ■■ liberator" of Colombia, b. Ca- 
racas. July 24, 1783; d. San Pedra, near 
Satita Martha, Dec. 17, 1S30. Of a wealthy 
Creole family, he was educated at Aladrid and 
Paris. He returned from a second visit to 
Europe in 1809, and, in 1810, was sent by the 
Revolutionists on a mission to purchase arms, 
and solicit the protci:iion of the British Govt. 
In Sept. 1811, Miranda, the insnrgent iJiicf, 
gave him the rank of lieut,-col. and the com. 
of Puerto Cabello, tbe strongest fortress of 
Venezuela, In Jan, 1813, be beaded an 
exped. at Carths^na against Veneinela, 
which in a short time left to the Spaniards 
only the fortress of Puerto Cahello. The vic- 
tories of Boves, however, soon changed the 
aspect of afiiiirs. Bolivar, wbo hod been made 
dictator, was defeated by Boves, Aug. 8, 1314 ; 
distrust and dissension ensued amoiig the repub. 
licans ; and Bolivar returned lo New Granada, 
where he was made com. -in-chief ; hut his mili- 
larv opcraiions were nnBueeessful, and on the 
nriival of Morillo with Spanish re-enforce- 
ments, March 25, 1815, Bolivar Bed to Ja- 
maica. In concert with Louis BrioD. be under- 
took an exped. April 16, 1616, against Veue- 
luela, and by July 20. 1817, the Spaniards 
' ■ cd the whole of the provinces. 



ers, flgain turned the scale. He was made prcs. 
of Vcnciucla in Feb, 1819, and in Aug. 
entered Bogota in triumph. In June, 1821, 
ho trained the victory of Carabobo. The Re- 
publics of Venesinela and New Granada bav- 
ins united, under the name of the Republic of 
Culombia, in IBSi. Bolivar was elected prcs. 
In 1823, he went to the assistance of the 
Peruvians, aided them in establishing tbcir' 
independence, and was rewarded with supreme 
authority, which he resigned in Jan, 1825. Id 
1825, he was declared perpetnal protector of 
Bolivia ; fur which Sl^te he framed a constitu- 
tion, giving to tbe pres. for life irrespousihlf. 



i,v-_iooi^le 



poveH. The paticj of hid motivea was called 
IQ qoeatioa ; and he «rai charged wilh aiming 
■t a perpeiaal dictuurship. Paez, ibe Vice- 
Prei. of Venezuela, revolted, secretly iasd- 
gaMd, il ia Mid, by Bolirar, who led iua body- 
goard and l,SOU Peruviana against the relierB. 
When they met, ha coutirmed Tail in bis com,, 
rebuked the trii^nJs <i{ ilia constitution, and 
auumad dictatotiul poweni, Nov. 33, 1B26. 
In Dec 1626, be whs declared pro». Tor lifu of 
Peru, which bod lulopied the Bolivian code 
His aim wu the erection of the whole of S. 
America into one republic, with himself as iia 
dieutur. The Columbian troops in Peru hav- 
ing revolted, Gen. Lamar vas made pres. of 
Peru, and, driving ool the Colombians, waged 
•a aacceaaful war agniniii Columbia; and the 
Congreu of OcnQa, convoked by Bolivai willr 
a view to modify the constitution in favor of 
hia arbitrary power, in Marcii, 182S, came to 
Daaebt. Faci having been placed at the head 
of Veoenucls, and insiurucciuus having broken 
out in (ereral places, Bolivar resigned for the 
Sih time in Jan. 1830, but again accepted the 
preaidancy, and, with 8,000 men, entered Mara- 
caibo; but, being confronted by Fact with a 
»lrongforce, he finally resigned, April 2T, 1830, 
Bolivar is represented aa a coward and an un- 
tkilful general; but his aervicea in securing [ho 
iodcpeadence, and in ably organizing uiree 
great republic*, entitle bim lo distinction 
amous the founders of States. 

BollUl, WiLLiJlM, agent of Ms. in Eng. ; 
d. there in 1TT6. He was bred to the legal 
jj rofessio a ; came to Boston, ab. 1*40, with Gov. 
Shirley, whose dau. be m. in 1743, He was 
conspicuous for talent and integrity. la 1T4S, 
when he had juit received the app. of collector 
of customs for Salem and Marblehead, ho was 
tent lo Eng. aa agent lo solicit a re-imburse- 
ment of the eipenaea incurred in the exped. 
OK^inst Cape Breton, Atler 3 years' labor, he 
at last succeeded in obtaining a full repayment 
of the expenditure, £183,649, He was attain 
lent to Eng. as agent, but was disniiasiid in 
lTG;t. In 1769, he obtained from Aldermsn 
Beckfurd copies of 33 letters, from Govs. Ber- 
nard and Gage, calnmniatinc the inhabitants of 
Boston, which be sent to Us., being then in 
the employ of the council; and this act, for 
which he was denoitacod in parliHinent by Lord 
North, restored his popularity here. In 1775, 
he exerted himself in recommending concilia- 
lory measures lo dM mother-country; and John 
Hancuck declared in the house of representa- 
tivea, thai there waa no man to whom ihe Col- 
onies were more indebted. He pub. " Impor- 
tance and Advantageof Cape Breton truly stat- 
ed," Lond., 1746; " Coloniae Anglicanto EIuB- 
wut»," Lond., 1762 ; " Ancient Rights to the 
Amer. Fiabery examined and stated," Lond,, 
1764; " Freedom of Speech and Wriling upon 
Public A^ira considered," Loud., 1770; "A 
Petition to Ihe King in Council, Jan. 26, 1774, 
intended to promote the Uarmony of Great Bri- 
taiu and her Colonies." This petition he of- 
fered as agent for Ms. 

BoUman, Eaic, M.D , memorable for bit 
tfforti for the escape of Larnvutte from tliu ' 
.\uiiirian prison of Ulmuu, S. Uoya, Hauu- 
rer, 1769; d. Jamaica, Due. 9, IS21. Atier 



aclor id the Itevol,, aiding Count Nurbunne to 
escape to London. In 1794, aided by Col. 
Francis Huger, of S. C, he atiempled the lib- 
eration of Lufayelle. They rescued him fioin 
the guard, Nov. 8, but, losing their way, were 
captured. Fur this altempl, be waa imprisoned 
one your, and then banished. Emigrating to 
Amer., bo applied himself to mercantile and 
scicnlific pursuits, especially chemi;iiry and 
political economy; was implicated in Aaron 
Burr's conspiracy in 1806; remraed to F.urope 
in 1814, nnd attended iho Congress of Vieinia. 
He afterwards visited S. America. He wrole 
"Paragraphs on Banks," 1810; "Improved 
System ol^the Money Concerns of tbe Union," 
1816; " Strictures on Che Theories of M. Ri- 

BoltOn, WlLLAM COMPTOH, CBDt. U.S.N , 

b, Eng.; d. Genoa, 22 Feb. 1B49. Midship- 
man, 20 June, 1806; lieut. 4 Jan. 1813; mus- 
ter com. 28 Mar. 18^0; caut. 21 Feb. 1S3I. 
His original name, Wm. Bolton Finch, was 
changed by act of Congress, 14 Jan. 1833. 
Ho com. "The Vinccnncs " in 1829-30, and 
the Mcdit. squad, in IS4B-9. 

Bomibra, Geoaos, col. of ordnance, U. 
S.A.,b. N. Y., 1780; d. Boston, Mar. 25, 1848. 
West Point. Lieut of engineers, 1805 ; waa 
made capi. 23 Feb. 1808; m^, July 6, 1812; 
inventor of bomb rsniion, cnlled " Columbi. 
ads," used in the War of 1812, afterward in- 
troduced with slight modilk-ntian, in the French 
service, by Gcu. Paixhnu, and called " Pai.t- 
hanGuas;" brer. lieul. -col. Dec.23, 1814, and 
col. of ordnance, May 30, 1832. Ho won dis- 
tinction in the War of 1812. bis skill and in- 
ventive talent being of great use ; he being al- 
most the only one well informed in the manuf, 
of ordnance in the U.S. — Caltain, 

Bomford, 3il*k» v., son of Col. GeoTxe, 
b. N.r. West Point, 1832. Capt, 4 Mar. 
1845; brev. mai. for gallantry in battles of 
Contreros and Chumbusco, Aug. 20, 1347, in 
the siorming-party, and brev, Iieal,-col. for 
Molino del Key, 8 Sept. 1847, and disiing, 
at Chapultepec; maj. 6th Inf. Oct, 17, I860, 
tieot.-col. ISth, Jan. 10, 1862; col. 8th Inf. 
May 18,1864. Chief of staff to Gen. McCook, 
at the battle of Perryville, for which brev. 
col, 8 Oct. 1862. — Callun. 

Bonaparte, Chablbs Lccieh Julks 

LAanKNCb, prince of Canino and Musignano, 
an eminent omilhologist, eldest son of Lucieri, 
bro. of Napoleon Bonaparte, b. Paris, May 
24, 1803 ; d. there July 30, 18S7. A,M, of N J. 
Coll. 1825. Duringtiicrevol. 0fl848, he was 
one of the leaders of the repnb, party at Rome, 
and in 1849 was vii-c-prca. of the consiiiueni 
assembly. During his residence in tbe U.S., 
he pub, a continuation, in 4 vols., of Wilson's 
Omitholtq^. " Observations on the Nomencla- 
ture of Wilson's Ornithology " in the Journal 
of the Acnd. of Phila., "A Synopsis of the 
Birds of the U.S. " for tbe " Annuls of the Ly. 
eeum of JI.T,,"and " A Calalogne of Birds of 
the U.S.," in the Coniribuiioni of the Macln- 
riiin Lyceum of Phila,, besides numerous arti- 
cles on ornithology in the same journals. His 
principal work is " laxuyjrojia iMla Faitiia Ilai 



i,v-_iooi^le 



BOM- 102 

100," S ToU., tbi., Bom«, IS3&-IS. He bai alw 

contrib. to Tuioul Kieniiflc jourDBJi. — Ste 
itemoirio/, mriUen lij hiiuMe!/, S.Y., 1S36. 

BonEpOrte, Jebuke Xapoleqn, eoQ of 
JeroiDO P>spol«an'> bro.) and Eliubclh, dau. 
(il Woi. Paiwnoti, merclunl of Baltimore. 
B. Kng., Julj 7, 1805 ; d. Balliiiiore. June IT, 
IS'U. Il.U. 1826. UJi moiher, who lud m. 
Jurume on his vUit lo Amer. u opt of a fri- 
ifutv. in Due, 1SU3, and who tra* ulianduoed 
liy Jiim on HWMuni of Napoleon'a diupleanucq 
ac lliu malcb, returned to the U.S. durinj; hii 
IxiybiKHl, and he was reared in Ballimure. Uo 
studied, but never praclised, laiv. Eariyio life, 
he m. Susan May, daa. of Benjamin Wil- 
liiiuii of Buxburr. Mi. He leseniblcil Kapo- 
lvi>u, mure than either of Uia own bruibera did, 
■u tbe bhape of the head, re^larity of feature*, 
and tlie dark ejes of peculiar tint which ehar- 
■leierlEetl the cmperoi. He had two aoiis, Je- 
rome and Charles Joseph. 

BoDdf Geosob PBiLLtrs, director of the 
Cmiibtidge Obscrratory. and FhilUps Prof, of 
anronomj, H.U., Irooi 18J9 id hii d. Feb. IT, 
l805,b.Dorcheewr, Ms, Mar 20, 1825. Il.U. 
IS4S. SonofWiD. CrsDchBond. Memberof 
the Acaii. of Aru and Sciences, and an aolran- 
uiner uf the highest rank. He received from 
the Royal Aslron. Soc., London, a gold med- 
al for hii great work on the Donati Comet. 
Author of paper* on the Rings of Saturn, un 
ilic Orbiis of Hyuerion, on the Nebula of An- 
uromHln. on Siullar Photograpiiy, &c. 

Bond, IluNBi, A1.0., physician and 
gcnealo;,'lst, b. Watenown, Ms., March SI, 
I7'J0; d. PhiU., May 4, I85y. Darltu. ColL 
1813. Grandson of Col. Win. Bond of the 
Revol. army, who A. near Ticondcrogn, 31 Aug. 
1778. Ho Bludied medicine, scilled Gr«t in 
Cutirurd, N.H., and in Nov. lAis, in Phila., 
where he resided till his death. He was the 
author of many valuable papers on professional 
subjects, and contrib. largely lo medical and 
olhcr journalB ; was a mcmbcrof nuLiierouahis- 
lurical and other societies, and of religious and 
charilablu associations, and was several years 
i.rw.of the Phils. BourdofUealih. Besidcshis 
lii^h rcpuiiition as a physician, lie obtained that, 
hImi, oI being a sui-cessful and thorough gene- 
uliiljist. In 1855, he pub. hid "Genealogies 
.iihI lli'iUjry of Walcrlown, Ms.," unrivalled 
a>iionL' woris of its kind. — See .V. E. Ilia. 
.i«d Graeul. Reg. xHi, 174. 

Bond, SiiADBACu, gov. of Ul. 1818-sa, 
b. Md. id. Kaskaskio, III., 13 Apr. 1832. An 
eurlv cmig. to III. ; many years a disting. 
loeiiiber of the lerrit. legisl ; delog. to Con- 
|.-i'u'9, 1811-15, and, in 1815, app. receiver of 



BO» 



[ml 



Bond, 



a^'-l'ai 



I Ehbbson, M.D., D.D., 



178;;; d. S.Y., March li, IBSG. Engaged in 
jiraciice in Ballimure, he rapidly rose in the 

Krol^Msian, and was called to a eliair in tite 
Led. Cull, uf Md., which he filled until de- 
clining health obliged him to resign. He 
milled liimseir earl/ with lEio M. E. Church, 
and fillcil, for man; years, ilie olHcv uf a lucal 
preacher. I>urinK what was termed the " Kmt- 
icnl Contrurersy," he edited (lie Iriiiiraiil, de- 
fending nitb tuuch ability the polity of his sect. 



For 13 years, he condncted the Clirutua Adoa- 
cole and Joarnal, its lending official organ, ean>- 
ine the title of " Defender of the Churcli." 

Bond, W1LIJ.1K CsAKCH, osuunumer, b. 
Portland, Me., Sept. 9, 1789; d. Cambridge, 
Ms., Jan. 29, 1859. While an apprentice lu 
his falher, a watchmaker, lie showed a love for 
Bslronomy, and at an early age established a 
private observatory at Dorclicstsr, In 1 615, he 
went 10 Europe, and eicecuied a commission 
froiD MM. for a couiempbted observaioiy. In 
1033. he was app. by the U.S-Govl to conduct 
a series of astronomical and meu.-orolugical 
obeervationa in connection with the exploring 
exped. then fitting out. In 1839. he hus app. 
auperinlendenl of the erection of the observatory 
of H.U., of which he became director. Hp 
ranked among the greatest asironouiere uf his 
lima. He pub. " Result of Astron. Obscrv. in 
1852-3," 4tO,Camb., 1355. In 1842, the lionur- 
ary degree of A.M. was conferred npon him by 
H.U.; and he was a memberof the Acad, of Arts 
and Sciences, of [he Philos. Soc., and of the 
Itovol Astronomical Soc. of London. 

fionham. MiLi^iHiE L. .gen. C.S.A-, b. 

S.C., ab. 18tS. S.C. Coll. 1834. He studied 
law ; wBi adm. to the bar a( Columbia in [837, 
and settled at Edgefield, C.H. Served in Mex- 
ico at the hciid of a butt, of S.C. troops ; was 
solicitor for tbe Southern Circuil, from 1848 to 
1850 : and was M.C. from I85S until the with- 
drawal of the members from S.C, — Dec. 24, 
IB60, after the »eL*e3aion of that Sutc. App. 
maj.-gen. of the S.C- troops, and afterward 
brig.-gen in the Confed. army, and took part 
in the hatiies of Blackburn's Ford and Bull 
Bun. Being elected to iho Confederate Con- 
gress, he wiihdrew from tbe nrm^ ; gov. uf S.C. 
1862-1, and [hen resumed his military position, 
which he held al the lime uf Lee's surrender. 
Bonner, Robkbt, pmortelor of the N.Y. 

Ltdgtr, b. Londonderrv, Ireland, Apr. 28, 1884, 
of Scoiih Presb. ancest. While ■ lad in the 
printing-office of the UuTtfant Cmtmnl, he could 
set up more type in a day than any man in ihe 
State. He went to N.Y. City in 1844; pur- 
c billing I he Ltdgir, an obscure sheet, he 
brought it 10 ihu high position it now occupies, 
bv engiiging Fanny Fern, Edw. Everett, H. W. 
lleucher, nnd other eminent writers, ascoiitrib- 
Ulora. By industry and sagacity, he has ac- 
quired a large fortune,and has madethe Ledyer 
the fiiremoiii weekly paper in the world. 

Bonneville {bon'-vcl'l, C. db, a French 
engineer, b. Ljons,ab. I7lu ; d. ab. 1780. He 
wna a eopt. of engineers, and after serving in 
Prussia, and being imprisoned some time in 
the Fortress of Spandau, was employed in the 
war against the English, terminated by the 
peace uf 1763. While in America, he turned 
bis attention to (ho study of the produciions of 
this part uf the world, as well as tbe manners 
of its inbnbitnniB, and pub., in 1771, •' IH 
C AtHffiqae rl del Am€ricmja," Sx. Bonneville 
was the author of several other works — .Vouc. 
liiai Uaii: Suppl, 

Bonneville, Bbrjahik L. E., brev. btig.- 
gen. US.A„b. FrancB.ab. 1795. WestPoint, 
1315. Lieut, of artillery, Dec. II, 1315; assist. 
commissary of subsist. Oct. 1813; capt. 14 
Oct, 182 J; m^. 6th Inf. July 15, 1845; com. 



hyGoogle 



BON 1 

that regt. in ttii Vallsj of Mexico ; brer, lisat.- 
col. for Contreras and Churubusco, Ang. SO, 
IMT, in which be was noDiided ; licat.-col. 4th 
Inf. Maj 7, 1849; col. 3d Inf. FbI). 3, 1855; 
com. in Ihe Gila cxped. in Jane, 1S57 ; retired 



Boniiyoastle, Chablbb, mathematicisn, 
b. WooUk'L, Kng„ 1792; d. ai Hie U. of Va., 
Out. 1S40. John, hia father, was prof, of maih- 
enaaiics m the Military Acad, of Woolwich, 
and «ai asaiated b; his ion in the pieparalioii 
uf rcviiral elementar)' books on mulbematical 
sulijects, occasiuiiuUy vriliDK arlides for tbe 
encjclO|nediu and for periodicals. App. lint 

Krof. of natural phllosopby in tbu U. of Vs., 
c UTiTed in the U.S. in Feb. 1833, and. in 
IS2', be was, al hia own roqnest, Innisferred to 
th« chair of maihcmatici. Author of a treatise 
un Inductire Gcumetry, and Mjvcral memoirs 
on MJeniilic subjects. 

Bonnroastlei Sis Riobabd Hbrbt, bra. 
of the preceding, b, 1791 ; d. )S4S. Heiervcd 
at Flabhint: in 1809, in Canada in 1812-19 ; 
liecamo cape of royal ongineerB in IS25; was 
cuTQ. eDifineer in Canada West, from 1837 ro 
ltU9; WHS kni){htod lor servicea iu the defence 
of [£ing»lon. Canada, in IS.17 ; was com. en- 
gineer in Newfoundland, and in 1818 was made 
lieut.^ol. lie is the anthor of " The Canadas 
ill ISll," " Canada as it Was, Is, and Majr 
Be." &: , and " Spanish America," Load,, 3 
toIb., 1818. — Morgan. 

BonplUld Ihon'-pIOn'), Amt, a French 
traveller and naiaralisl, b. La Uochelle, Aag. 
32,1773: d. Santa ABa in Umguay, II May, 
16M. While a medical student, he was, for 
a short time, a enrgeon in a raan-of-wHr. At 
Paris, he became the papil of Corvisarc and 
the friend and fetlow-studeni of HumbDldi, 
whom he accomp. in tbe scientific jounioy 
described in Hninboldt's " Voyage to the 
I^ninoctial Ragions of the New World." 
After i years' absence, Bonpland presented his 
collectians to the gDTt.,and was rcwnrdod with 
■ pension. Made inlendant of Malmaiaon, 
he deroled himself to the publication of his 
tnreli, but, on the death of the Empress Jose- 
phine, returned to Amer., reaching Bnenos 
Ayres in 1818. Hating set out on bii travels 
to' the Andes, he visiled the old missions of 
tbe JesuitA in Paraguay, wbere be was arrested 
bv tbe agents of the dictator Prsncia, in 1821. 
who detained him in the country, and forced 
hiiD to support himself by the practice of med- 
icine in an Indian lillage. He was released in 
Feb. 1831, afterward m. an Indian woman, 
and retired to a plantation near Boija in 
Urugnav. His "Nam GoKratt Specien Plaa- 
lr(ni«,"'l2 rols., folio (Paris, 1815-29), with 
TOO colored plates, is one of tbe finest works 
iver printed. Antbor, also, of " Equinoctial 
Plants of Mexico, Cuba," Ac, 2 vols., fol., 140 



, GsoBOB BotBDMAS, brig.-geu. 
\n\i., ti. Sutton, Ms., July 26. 1833 ; killed »i 
Vicli»burg, Mpi.. May 33, 1863. Son of Rct. 
I.iii Burdun Boomer. Setllei] at nn early ago 
at St. Louis, OS a bricl;;> builder. He hiid out 



and partly bniit the town of Castle Rod 
on tbe Osage River. As col. 22rt Mo. Vols., 
he was present at the surrender of Island No. 
10, and, at the battle of luka, was disting,, and 
severely wounded. At the battle of Champion 
Hills, near Vicksburs, he com. the 3d bri- 
gadeof Qainbj'adir.,5lcPberson's corps, with 
such conspicuous gallantry, that he was highly 
rrGommended for promotion. Killed in a 
charge on the tbrtificationa of Vickshurg, 

BoOQa, Daniul, pioneer settler of Ky,, b. 
BucfcaCo., Pa., 11 Feb. 1735; d.Chareilc, Mo., 
36 Sept.. 1830. Uia parents, who were English, 
removed to the YaJIkin Kiver, N, C, wliere 
Boune became a skilful hunter and wooditmnn 
From May, 1769 to Mar. 1771, he was explor- 
ing the wilds of Ky., whither, in Sept. 1773, be 
led a party of settlors. In Jane, 1774, liecou- 
ducicd a party of surveyors to the falls of 
Ohio, and, in the campaign against the Shaw- 
nees, defended against their attacks 3 Irontier 
forts. In April, 1775, he built the fort where 
Booneeborough now stands, and repulsed sev- 
eral attacks made at various times by hostile 
Indians. 7 Feb. 1778, while making salt at 
the Licking River, be was captured, and taken 
to Detroit. Adopted into an Indian family at 
Cliillicoihe, ho escaped, June 16, on learning 
of an intended attack on Booneahoroagb, 
reaching the fort, ISO milea distant', in 4 
days. In 1780, he look part in tbe disastrous 
buttle of tbe Blue Licks, where he lost his 
second son. and aecomp. Gen, Clarke's exped. 
against Viucennes immediately afterward. Id 
179S. having been deprived of the lands he had 
settled, in consequence of an imperfect legal 
title, he indignantly shooldored his rifle, and 
plunged into the forests of Misaouri. Here a 
valuable tract of land in the Femme U<age 
diatHct was given him fur his services, which 
he also lost, because he would nut go to New 
Orleans to complete bis title. He had lelt 
Ky. in debt, but eventually obtained a valuable 
lot of peltrv, turned it into cash, went on fAjt 
to Ky., paid every one whatever was demanded, 
and, returning home with half a dollar, said he 
was ready to die content. Notwithstanding 

lover of peace, and was moral, temperate, and 
chaste. In 1810, ho went lo live with his son- 
in-law, Flanders Calloway. His portrait, by 
Chester Harding, is in the State House of Ky. 
An account of his adventures, by hitnself, was 
pub. in Filson'a Supplement to Imlay's De- , 

scription of the Wcaiem Terr.. 1793. His son 
Nathan L.. col, U.S.A.. serv^ in the War of 
1813; d. Spnnulleld. Mo,. Jan. 1857, a 75. 

Boone, William Jo;ibs. U.I>.. Proi.-Ep. 
missionary, bishop to Shanghai, China, h. S-C, 
July 1.1813; d. Shanghai, July 17, 1864. He 
studied law, then theology, at the sem. at Alex- i 

andria, Va., and, in Jan! 1837, went as a mis- I 

sionary to China. Consecraiadbisbop, 26 Oct. | 

1844, Having a thorouj^h knowledge of Chi- l 

nese language and literature, he irdnslaied the I 

prayer-book in 1846, and was selected to 
review the translation of the Bible, in which j 

he displuycd great ability and learning. 

Booth, Edww F.. actor, son of llie ccle- 
braCL-d J. B. Booth, b. nn his father's farm 
iiearBLiltimore,Mil.,in NOV.IS33. Hewased 

D,n t,z. d hy GoOgJiS**'*'™! 



mganiallpf ^ „ . , , 

pear&nce st the Bosion Miuenm, Sept. to, 1849, render, be was ab 
uTrciuellin"KicturdlII." In I BS I , on occa- BOOth, Junius BauTua, the grealest of 

(ioo of his father's illness, he look his place, American tragedians, b. LondoD, May 1, 1T9S ; 

Elayint; Kicbard at Che Chatham Theatre. N.Y. d. on tbe passage frum N. Orleans (o Cincin- 

llH&S,hewcncu>Cal.,Hndenea;^ror"ulil' nati, Dec 1, 1852. Ilia fatber was an aiir., 

it? " l>aiiQeS9, end in 18S1 visited Australia, his inoiUer a linpnl da>cenilant of John Wilkes, 

mopping ua the way at many of the Pacific After trying variona avocations, he joined a 

islands. Ho returned [o Cal. afler playing a alrolling company, and appeared at Pcckhani, 

succe;sfu1enga)^menlin ihcSandwich Islands, Sept. 13, 1BI3, as Campillo, in " The Uoncr- 

and in J8S7 appeared as Richard at Burton's moon." After pcirurmiUK at Doplfonl, near 

Theairu, N.Y. In Nor. 1B60. wben he piayeil London, and at Briuiels, in I6I4 he made bid 

at (his tbcflire, uniler its new nante of the debut at Corent Garden Theatre, London, as 

" Winter Garden," he achiered that bigb post- Richard III. His personification of tbe cbar- 

tion on the stage which he now holds. He acier was sostriking, that hecompoied succcss- 

mnile a profcssionat visit lo Eng. in tbe snm- fully with the famana Edmund Keiiii. The 

mer of 1861, played at tbe Uayiavket, atudied mana^ra of Drury Lane induced bin to act 

bis an one year on the Continent, and returned there m tbe same plays with Kean ; but when, 

TO its pracuce in N.Y. in Sept. 1663. He baa al^r a few nighta, he was again announced at 

won high distinclioD in the character of Ham- Covenl Garden, his appearance was the sininl 

let. In 1869, he erected on 33d St., S.Y., a for a serious theatrical riot, which resnttcil in 

m^^niflceni ^eacre. His Sr*t wife, Marj drivioj; him, foratime, from tbe Loadonsta^. 

Devlin, a daiaeiae, d. Uorcbester, Ms., Feb. July 13, 1831. be made hia Brst appearance in 

ai , 1863. Juno 7, 1869. be m. Mary McVick- the U.S., at Petersbuig, Va., and, Oct. S, at tbe 

er, hA RuDnion. I'ark Tbeatie, M.Y,, in hia tavoriie chahtcter 

Booth. StMEt C., chemist, b. ISIO. Prof, of Ricbaid. From that time antil tbe close of 

of appli^ chemistry in Franklin Institute; his life, be acted in near!/ every cbeam in the 

meller and refiner in U.S. Mine, Phila. Has U.S., and in apice of bis irrezulor habits, whiib 

pub."Encyclup»diaorChemi8try,"&c., 1850; aometimea intcrftred with t^c peiforniBnco of 

" Recent Improvements in tbe Chemical Arts," his engagements, enjoyed an extraordinarv 

liliJI, in the Smithsonian Reports. In both popularity, lu 1824, he bought a farm in Bel 

wui'ks, he was aasiaied bj Campbell Morflt. Air, 30 miles from Btdtimore, where he lived 

Booth, John Wilkeh, the assassin of in a retired and frugal manner, selliog bis ec;;^ 
President Lincoln, b. Harford Co., Md., 1839; and butter in that city. In 1635, be visited 
d. April 26, 1 865. Third son of tbecelebrat- Enj;,, opened at Drury Lane as Brutus, and 
ed iii'lor. Kis early education was irregular, revisited it in 183S. His last appearance was 
and dclidenl in moral training. In 1856, be at the St. Charles. N. Orleans, Nov. 19, 1853, 
went on ihc stage, where be was Qodceabie for aa Mortimer and John Lump. He bad jnat 
bjauiy, grace, and physical strength, but be- ratamed from a lucrative tour to Cal, when he 
came dissipated in his habits. From tbe out- died. His run^e of characters was conKni'd 
break of tbe Rebellion, he was a violent seces- almost excinaively tu tho^c wbicb he had slud- 
sionist, so much so, that his brother Edwin, tbe ied in the beginning; of his career. In that of 
tragedian, forbade him hia bouse. He with- Richard, after the death of Kean, he had no 
drew from the stage early in 1864, for tbe put- rival. Among his other roost popular person- 
pose, aa ia sDppoi>ed, of plotting tbe crime be ations were lago. Sir Giles Uverreoch. Pescara, 
afterward perpetrated ; failed in an attempt to Lear, Shylock. Hamlet, and Sir Edmund Mor- 
abducl Mr. Lincoln early in 1865, and failed timer. In bis peculiar s]>bere. — the sudden 
aeain in the attempt to murder bim on (bedsy and nervous expression of concenlraied pos- 
ot his inauguration. Enlarging bis scheme to sion, — as also in the more quiet and sablile 
includelhe principal roembera of the cabinet, the passages of his delioeationSi ho exercised a won- 
vico-prea.. and the lieui.-gen,. he trained several deiful sway over hia audience. Hia voice was 
accomplices, who all fail^ : though Mr. Seward singularly flexible and melodious, aiul su^cepii- 
and his son were saved from death almost bj ble of the most exqui;iile pathos. He was, un- 
miracle. On the evening of April 14, after questionably, one of the greatest actors ibnl 
Bring the fatal abot at Mr, Lincoln, ol Ford's ever lived. No animal fo<^ was permitted in 
Theatre, Booth leaped from tbe box to the his family, and ail animnl life was sacred lo 
sta^e ; and. his apor catching ap<iu tbe Sag Um. He reverenced all forms of religion and 
which draped the front of (he President's box, all templea of devotion ; never passing them 
be fell upon tbe stage, and fi-actured one of the without baring his head. Several of bis chil 
bone ■• of tbe leg, but, springing up, befiourishcd drcn inherited a portion of his dramatic talent, 
a knife, and gliouting, " Sic lemptr li/raaais," and one of them, Edwin, has attained an envi 
Bed by a private cnirance, where one of his able poaiiion on tbe American boards, — Sea 
iiccomplices was holding a horse for him. Lift, bg his <laugk(r,N.Y.,i866. 
\V'iih Harold, another accomplice, ha rode Booth, Mbb, Mart H, C. poet. b. Ct, 
near30miles, tothcboujQof Dr, MuddiaVa.. 1831; d. N.Y, City. II Apr,, 1865. Shem. 
wliere hia broken limb was seL Mudd aided an editor, with whom she went to Milwaukee, 
hi lost'epe southward; and be crossed the R.ip- Wis., ab. 1850. She resided a lew vears in 
pnhnnnock nt Swnn Point, making; hij way Zurich for the benefit of her impaired health, 
with ^i;at diHcully to Garrett's Farm, ab. :M corresjionding with some American papers and 



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SOO lOo B08 

jonrnali, uid, in lS64,pBb. m to), of poenu, with KotM; " "Od BotatJoa of Crops," 179*. 

'' W^side BIoamhu." She raturned to N.T. " Eisaya and Notea od Hosbandry mid Runu 

inltut year. Aflkin.with plaWe," I79J-I801 ; and " A View 

Booth, Mait L., Balhor and tnnBlator, b. of the Coun«« of Crops in Eng, and Md.," 

Taphauk, L.I., April 19, 1S31. la 18i5-6, 1784. 

*be Uugtit ID her father's *chool al Williams- Borland, Solox, loldier and statearaao, 

burg, L.t., but relinquished [he puraaii on ac- b. Va. ; d. in Teiaa, Jait.Sl, 1S64. Edticaieil 

coDDt of ill health. She tben became a con- in N.C. Settled as a phyBician in Little Rock, 

irib. 10 VBrioDgJonmals and magazines. She Ark. Served in the Mexican war as maj. in 

hnj translated many works from the FreDch. Yell's caval. ; made prisoner with Maj, Guinea 

In I8S9, shepnb. " AHial. oftbe City of New in Jan, 1S47, and aide^e-camp to Gea. Worth 

Tork" Sheia ac present en);Bged in trnnslat- in thebattleof ElMoIino.and uptoihecaptore 

ing Henri Martin's " History of France." — of the city of Metico, Sept. U, 1847. U. 8. 

fWilwjt. aenator from Ark. froin 1B49 to 1853, and 

Borda, Jbah Chicles, a scientific French was app. by Prea. Pierce minister to Central 

nnvij-aior, b, Dai, 4 May, 1733 ; d. Parla, 20 Amer. He alao receiTed from bim the app, 

Fvb. 1799. He was a teacher of mathematics; of crov- of the Terriierr of Nevr Mexico, bat 

biicame a capt. in the French nary, and by liis declined. Ad Insult o^red himin May, 18M, 

scientific knowledge was of great service to Ibe at San Juan de Nicaragna, was the principal 

Count D'Estaing during the Amer. war, in caiueforthe bombardmentof thelown bvCom- 

which he com. the "Solitaire" ffiib distinction, raander HoUins of the sloop^f-war "Cyane," 

Made a member of the Acad, of Sciences in July 13, 1B54. He reaumea praclice at Little 

I7S6. In 1771, he made a Toya^ to Amer. Rock, noiil the spring of 1861, when, long 

for srienttflc purposes, and again in 1 771, and befora tbe secession of the State, be raised > 

at a later period, of which he pnb. an acconnt body of troops, and, Apr. 34, took possession 

in 1778. He founded the School of Naval ofFortSmiUi. He held Iherankof brig.-gen. 

Architecture in France, invented nautical in- in the rebel army. 

stmmenis, was one of tbe scientific men who Boscaweo, Edwakd, a Brit, admiral, b. 

framed the French metric ayatem, and pnb. Ane. 19, 1711 ; d. Jan. 10, 1761. Capl. R.N. 

•ome treatises on hydraulics. Member of the 12 Mar. 1737. Having particularly discing. 

French Initilate. himself at Portobello and al Carthagena, be 

Borden, Smaos, civil engineer, b. Fall was in 1744 promoted to" The Dreadnought " 

River, Ma., Jan. 39, 1798; d. there Oct. !8, of 60 guns, in which he took " Tbe Media." 

IB56. BroughtupatTiverton,R.I.,hestiidied At the battle off Cape Finisterra in 1747, be 

mathematics and geometry, as applied to me- signalized himself nnder Anson, and, being 

chanical combinations, and made himself one made a rear-admiral, was despatched in 1748, 

of the ableat practical mecbanics of his day. with a squadron, to the East Indies. Failing in 

Becoming a aurveyor, he made hisown survey- an attempt on Pondicherry, he succeeded in 

log compass, took charge of a machine-shop in making himself master of Madras, and, npoa 

Fall River in IB2B, and in 1830 devised and returning to Eng., took his seat at the admi- 

constructed for tbe State of Ms, an apparatDs raltv board in 1751. In 1755, he sailed for 

for measuring the base line of the irigonomet- N. Amer., and, in an action with a French sqnad- 

rical survey of that State, of which be took ron, captured two ships of the line. In 17SB, 

charge in IB34-41. An account of it may be he succeeded in reducing Louisburg and Cape 

fbnnd in " The Amer. Phil. Transactions," vol. Breton in conjunction with Oen, Amherst, who 

ix., p. 34. He traced and marked the boondary com. tbe land forces ; and in I T59, having 

lines between Ms. and R.l. ; also constructed then the com. in the Mediterranean, punned 

several railroads, and pub. in 1851 " Formula the Toolon fleet under De la Clue through the 

for Constructing Railroads." In 1S5I, he sua. Straits of Gibraltar, and, coming up with it in 

Cded a tel^raph-wtre across the Hudson, Lagos Bay, completel/ defealra) it, bnming 

n the Palisades to Fort Washington, upon two ships, and taking three. The thanks of 

mails 220 feet bigb. Member of the Acad, of parliament, and £3,000 a year, with the rank 

Aru and Sciences, the Philos. Society, and of gen. of marines, was the reward of these 

other lertraed bodies. services, M. P. 1743-61. 

Bordley, Jouir Bbau, judge and agric Bostwiok, Datid, Pieab. divine, b. New 

writer, b. Annapolis, Md., Feb. 11, 1737; d. Milfbrd, Ci., Jan. 8, 1731; d. N.T. City, Nov. 

Phila.Jan. 26,1804. A lawyer by profession, 13, 1763. A. M. of N.J. Coll. 1756. John, his 

he was protbonolary of Baltimore Co. in grandfather, came from Cheshire, Eng., to 

1753-66; judge of the Prov. Conn in 1766, Stratford, Ct., ah. 1668. After teachtngin an 

and of the Admiralty Court in 1767-76, and acad. at Newark, N. J., be was pseior of the 

a commissioner to fix the boundary line be- church at Jamaica, L. I., from Oct. 9, 1745, to 

tween Md. and Del. in 1768. He was one of May, 1756, and of the Presb. church in N.Y., 

tbe ftw who held teats in the Prov. councils from 1756 till his death. He was a man of 

of tbe time, who acqniesced in tbe TUttA., and great eloquence. He pnb. a sermon, " Self 

rejoiced in its accomplishment. Removing to disclaimed, and Chnsl exalted," 17.18; a 

I%ita. in 1793, he established there the Drst " Life of President Davies," prefixed to bis 

agric society in the U. S. Fond of husband^, sermon on the " Death of George 11." 1761 ; 

by bis experiments upon bis estate in Wye la- and a" Vindication of Infant Bapriam," repub. 

latid, in Cliesapeake Buy. and by his writings, Lond., 1765. — Sorague. 
tte wa.* instrumental in diffusing a knowledge BOBtwiok, Hblbk Looisb (Babrow), 

of ihvart. Hepub. "Foisytb on Fruit-Trees, poet, b. Cbarlcsiown, M.U., 1826. Uau. of DK 



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tbure in 1844; residea a . „ 

a contrili. to lilerar; joarnali. A toI, or her ceon in the Army of the Alps, 

S>emB has bean pnb, in N.T., entitled "Bndi, Italy, and produced hii firal work, — apian of 

iossorns, and Berries." — Pott$ and Po^ry gori. fur Lombardy. While eiationed iti 1796, 

of the WfSt. in [heVenetian Islandaof ihe Adriatic, he WTOU 

Boasa. F., a Frenrh traveller, b. Bai(^eaz- hta " Historical end U<»Jical Description of the 
le9-jnifii, ab. 172S. Capt. in the navy, he was Island of Corfa." In 1793, he whs npp. ■ mem- 
one of the first travellers who explored La. her of the provisional govt, of PicdmunL, which 
He made three journeys in this country by the Anstro-Russian invasion soon terminated. 
order of his government, and pnb, an account He went to France, and was restored to his 
of bia discoveries, in two works, entitled ranii in the medical staff of the Army uf Italy. 
" NouxeaiaVoyagetaia ImUaOtn'idtRtalei," eK. Aflcr the battlo of Marengo, he was one of the 
Paris, 1768, translated into English by J. B. execntire commission for the govt, of Pied- 
Forster, with the title of " Travels thronehlhat mont, and in that capacity procured the release 
Part of North America formerly called Louiai- from prison of the man who had caused his own 
■na, Lond,, 1771 ; and "^ouceauz Vogaga imprisonment and torture. He al^^o aided in 
dam CAm&ique Stptentrioiwle," Amsterdam, the eetablishmeat of a permanent fund forpnb- 
17T7, Bvo. tic instruction. When, in 1802, Piedmont wsi 

BoKtOUrt, NoBBOMKB Bekkelbt, Bar. re-annexed to France, he became a member of 

on de, one of the last and heal of the royal ibe administrative council,aud in 1803 was the 

Savemors of Va., b. ab, 1734; d, Williams- representative of the dept. in Ibe deputation to 

ur,;, Va., Oct. 19, 1770. Son of JohnSymes Bonaparte. Ho then ^ub. his " Pr&it Hit- 

Bra-keley ; was col. of the N, GIoncosleiBhire torique dt la Maiiou de Savoie et dti Piejaont." 

militia in 1 TGI ; represented that sbiro in par- In 1 S04, he represenud the depl. ofthe Dora in 

liament, and In 1764 was raised to the peer- the Icgis!. bodv,andthencefurlhrcaidcdin Paris, 

age. Having ruined himself by gaming, he In 1808 and 9, bo was vice-prcs. of the Icgisl. 

became, says Junius, "a cringing, bowing, assembly. On the fall of Napoleon, be rctiicd 

fawning, sword.bearing courtier." In July, to private life. In 1815, ho pub. "II Camilla 

ITeS, he was made gov. of Va. Instructed to o vejo comfuittain," an epic poem in 12 cantos. 

assume more dignity than ™bs usual with from 1817 to IS22, he was rector of the acad. 

colonial governors, he paraded the streets of of Rouen. Ria " History of Italy, from 1789 to 

Williamsburg with guards, a coach, and other 1814," appeared in 1B24. In 1830, he pub, his 

insignia of vico-regU pomp. TheVa-Asscm- " History of Italy, from 1532 to 1789." His 

biy, havinp in 1T69 passed resolutions against " History of the American Revo]." was pub. 

parliamentary taxation, and the sending ac- in Paris in I B09, and was translated by G. W. 

cnsed persons to Eng. for trial, was dissolved Otis of Boston. It was long the best work on 

by bim. He was deeply mortified by the wid- that subject. 

«ning of the breach between Eng. and the Botsforil, William, jurist, b. N. Haven, 
Colonles.andaoonaflerd.ofdiseaseaggravated Cl., Apr. 1773; d. Sackville. N.B., 8 Mny, 
by menlHl suRerinj;. In 1 774, a statue was 1864. T.C. 1792. Amos, his father, a loyalist, 
erected lo his memory hy the Assembly. He b. Newtown, Cl., 31 Jan. 1744; d. St. John, 
was B warm friend to William and Mary Coll. 14 Mar. 1812 (Y. C, 1763). He was a law- 
■nd was extremely partial to literary men. ycr, and was two years sjHjaker of the N, S. 
BOtta, AkNe Cll*Bt,c)TTit (LtnCh), poet- assembly. The son was adm. lo the bar in 
eas. b, BenniiiJttoo, Vt. Her father, one of the 1 795 ; was judge of Vite-Admirally of N. B„ 
United Irishmen of '98, wag banished for life, 1802-7; member of the assembly, 1812-17; 
and came lo Amor, Miss Lynch, who was speaker, 1817-23 ; solicitor-gen. 1817-1823,aod 
educated at Albany, began early to contrib. lo was judge of the Supreme Court in 1823-46. 
literary journals; pub. at Providence, in 1841, Botts, John Mihob, Whig poliiicinn, b. 
'• TheK.I. Book,''and soon after removed lo Dumfries, Prince Wm. Co., Va., 16 Sept. 1802; 
N. Y. City. A coll. of her poems, illustrated d, Kichmond, Va., B Jan. 1869. He lo$t hii 
by Dutand, Darley, Huntington, Brown, and parents at the burning of the Kiclimond Thea- 
other artists, has been pub. Her prose contribs. treinI811. Adm. to the bar in 1820. he prac- 
to periodicnls, consistmg of essays, tales, and tiscd 6 years, and then retired lo a farm in Hen- 
criticisms, are numerous. She was m. in 1855 rico Co, Prominent in the legisl. in 1833-9 ; 
lo Vincenio Bona, nephew of the historian of M. C. 1£(39— 43 and 1847-9; a supporter of 
Amerita, formerlv doctor of philosophy and Mr.Clay for ihe Presidency in 1844 ; aflcrwards 
divinity in the Ij. of Turin, member of the attucliod himself to the Amer. party ; opposed 
Sardinian parlinment of 1849, and author of the repeal of the Mo. Compromise, and did hii 



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d. EptODi, 9T Apr. 1804. He eune to Amer. Id 
I'H; wa* a priTBle tator wme time ; >(terwKrd 
an EpU. dern'man ai HaDorer and Sl Uarj't 
Parith. Va., niitil 1779,iTheii, being a tojalut, 
his e*Mie» were conflacated. and ne went to 
Eog., where be wa», nndl hia d., vicar of Ep- 
■om. Uepul>.iD 1797 "A Viewof (he CauuB 
Had CoDNqaencoa of the Amer. Revol.," in 
13 dlscourtea preached in N. A., 1763-7G. He 
subuquentlj prepared a " Giouarj of Prorin- 
dal and Araisological Wardi," purchased of 
his facnil; in 1831 for the propriBtora of Web- 
Iter') Dicrionar;. 

Boucher (boo'-^i&'^,PiBBBi, gov. of Troia 
KiTJira, Canada, pub. in 1664 an account of 
Cdnado, endtled "Hitlart ViritMt tt NatimtU 
da J/ourt tt Prodvetiaa." He was senl to 
Fraace to represent the temporal and tpiritaal 
wanu of the ooloaf, and liTed nearl; a ceo- 

fiooohetta (boo-sbet'), Jobbph, topogrb- 

pbcr, b. Canada, 17T4; d. Montreal, Apr. 9, 
■ Ml. Son of Commo. fi., who was distine. 
in ihe carlv operaiionaof ihewar of the ReToL 
on the nonhem frontier. The son, in 1790, en- 
tered ihe oSce uf his ancle, Maj. Holland, sur- 
rerur-t^n. of Briiish N, A., to which office be 
snccwilolin 1804. He serred meanwhile in tbe 

Sro*. narr on the Lakes, and in the B07. Cana- 
ian Vols , until 1802. Ho was activelf em- 
plored in thecampeit^iof 1813and 1814. In 
Au).'. IS14, he went Co Eng. to pub. his topog. . 
and g«og. descripuOD of Canada, which ap- 
pfarml in 1816. Wbilo there, ha was app. snr- 
Tcror-gen., nnder the treaty of Ghent, for eslab- 
liahiiig the honndary between the British pos- 
MSMons and the TJ. B. This tabor occupied 
bimdarinir thevoan 1817 and 1818. During a 
serond Tisit to t^ne., he pub. " The British Do- 
minions In H. A.," 1831, the result of ISyears' 
labor on the geof^phj, topography, and sta- 
tutici of the countrj ; and " Topog. Diet, of 
Lower Canada," 4to, IS3!. 

BoQOk, WiLUAif C, staieaman, h. Scho- 
harie Co., S,T., 1786 ; d. there Apr. 19, 1859. 
He was earl; elected to town offices ; was app. 
sheriff of the county, 1812; member of the 
Slaie Assembly, 1813, "15, and '17; Stale sen- 
ator, 1830; canal commissioner, 1821-40; goT. 
of the State, 1S43-S ; member of the Const. 
Conv. in 1846; and from 1846 to 1849 was 
asnst treasurer in N. Y, City. The last ten 
jean of his life were deroted to egriculinre. 
Boudinot, Eij*s, LL.D. (Y. C. 1790), 

philanthropist, b. Phila., May a. 1740; d. Bui^ 
lington, N. J., Oct. 34, 1831. Of Huguenot 
descent. He received a classical education, and 
•ludied law nnder Richard Stockton, whose ■!•- 
ter be m., and becameeminent in his profession. 
In 17"7-8, he waa commissary-gen. of prison- 
ers, and in 1778-9, and 1781-3, was a deleftale 
loCoD(p«ss, of which body he was chosen pres. 
m 1789, and in that capacity signed the treaty 
of pean. Resaming the practice of law, he 
wasH. 0.1789-95. and in 1795 aacceeded Rit- 
lenhouM as director of the U. S. mini, which 
nffire he resigned in 1805. Hedevolvt! himself 
eamrstly 10 the atudr of biblical literature, 
and. If inif poasened of an ample fortune, made 
lihiTal iloiintions to Tarioua charitable and theol. 
taaiiiuiiunt. He was the flrsi prcs. of the Bi- 



17 BOX! 

Ue Sodety, which he assisted in creating In 
1816, and to which he gave SIO,000 ; wa9 a 
member of Ihe Board of Commissioi ers (at 
Foreign Missions, to whom he gare £100 atei^ 
ling ; and was a troatee of Princeton Coll., in 
which he founded in 1805 the cabinet of natu- 
ral history, which coat $3,000. He waa dueply 
inierosied in tbe efforts to meliorate the con- 
dition of the Indiana, to inatmct the deaf and 
dumb, 10 educate youth fbr tbe minisiry, nnd 
to relieve tbe wants and miseriea of ibc sick 
or suffering poor; and his home was the seat 
of hospitality and benevolence. By his last 
will, be bequeathed his large eatatc principally 
to charitable lues. Dr. Boudinot pub. "The 
Age of Bevelalion," 1730; an Oration before 
the Societr of the Cindnnali, 1793; "Second 
Advent of the Messiah," 1815 ; "Star in the 
West, or An Attempt to discover the Long-lost 
TribcB of Israel," 8vo, 1816, in which be con- 
cars with Adair in the opinion that the Indi- 
ans are the lost tribes. 

Boagaiiiville(boo'-gfta'-ver), Locis Aa- 
ToiNB, a French navigator, b. Paris, 11 Nov. 
1729; d. Augnst 31, 1811. He studied fbr 
the bar, and was adm, a eonnsellor of the Par- 
liament of Paris. He paid particular attention 
to malhematics, and pab. m 1T53 a work on 
the Ini^ral Calculus. In 1753, he became 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Chcvert. He then went 
to London as sec. of embasay, and was made 
fellow of the Royal Socieiy. He afterwards 
served as aide-de-camp under the Marrinia de 
Montcalm, in Canada, was sent to France in 
1756 to demand re-enforcements, and returned 
to Canada in 1759 a col. and a Knight of St. 



cessfully an Encltah army of I6,000nien. On 
the capture of Quebec, where he diatinguishcd 
himself greatly, bo returned home, and in 1760 
was aide-de-camp of Choiaeul Stainville in Ger- 
many. Peace ensuing, he engaged in the naval 
•emoe. In his voyage ronnd the world in 
1766-9, pub. in 17fl,he enriched geography 
with a great number of discoveries. He com. 
with diijtinciion ships of the line in the Ameri- 
can war, disting. himself in all the engage- 
menia between the fleets of France and Eng. 
He waa made commodore in 1779,BDd in 1T80 
obtained further protnolion. In the memora- 
ble defeat of Be Grasse. " Tbe Augn8tc."com. 
by Bougainville, suffered moat severely, bnt 
maintained iia atution in the line to tbe Iniit 
extremity, and by a judicious movement suc- 
ceeded in rescuing 8 Sail of hb own division, 
which be conducted safely to St. Eustace. He 
endeavored, ineffectually, to allay the disturb- 
ances at Brest in IT90, but at length retired 

navy with creat rcpu- 
than 40 years. In 796, he was 
elcciL-d a member of the geog. aecnon of tbe 
Institute, and afterwarda of the liareau d'i 
Lonqihiiia. He waa made a aenatoron tbe cre- 
ation of that body, and afterwards a count of 
the empire. Commeraan, who accomimiiied 
him in niri voyage round the world, as liolan- 
isc. gave his nanie to a new genus of plants of 
the family of Nyctaginea, or nigh^bloomi;lg 



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BOTT 108 B017 

Bonille {boo'-jt'}, IfoAHOit Ci^udb Gnadalonpe. Col. or«ngineei^ ; arrived with 

Amour, Marqnii de, a French ma., b. Montcalm inCKaado, May, ITS6; directed tha 

Aovergne. Not. 19, 1739; d. London, Nor. U, operadoDs at the wptiireof Forw Oswego aiid 

IBOO. Bb entered earl j opoD & milEtuy career, Oeorge, 14 Ang. HAG, in whicb he was wonnd- 

diadng. himself in tbe aeTen-jsara' war ; was ed ; al the capture of Fort Wm. Eenrj, com. 

Bpp. got, of Oaadaloape in ITGB; and, dnriog the left column, and dii«eling tha gieg«, and 

the Amer, war, conqncred Dominica, Sc Eu- risked his life [o UTe the English from idbsib- 

alalia, Tobago, St. Chriatopher, Nevis, and ere after the capiiuladon; 9 Jnlf, I75T, he 

Monl.scrrat, dialing, himself no less by hii mag- commanded the left of the defencea of Ticon- 

nanimity than by his prowcta. itetnrning to derog* against the asanalt of Geo. Abercrom- 

Puris alter tbe peace of 1783, be was app. a bie, and waa dangeronalj wounded ; promoted 

lieut.-gcn., and after travelling in England, bfig..gen. 19 Feb. 17&9; com. at Ticonderora, 

where be received tokena of admlradon from which he blew up and abandoned in July, 

the merchants, through Holland, and a great I75S; retired to tbe lale Anx Noix; disdng. 

part of Gcrmaoy and the Com., he waa made and again wounded at the battle ofSillery, 28 

chief of tbe province Troit-Svlcha. In the Apr. 1760; returned to France after the con- 

aasembly ornaublea,heBDj)porled theproposed quest of Canada ; 1 Ang. 1762, he adilressed 

reforma of Caleonei and displayed bravery and a memoir on Canada to tbe French Govem- 

sbility in represaine the outbreak of tbe garri- ment, wbich see iu O'Callagfaan'a Paris Doca. 

Bona of Metzand Nancy, but was diatmaiod by x. p. 1139. 

the revolutionists. He concerted the plan for Boume, Bbicjamih, LL.D., jurist, b. Bris- 

tbe escape of Lonia XVI., which donbtlesa tol, B.L, Sept. 9, 175S; d. Sept. IT, IB08. 

would have aucceeded, but for the prohibidon H.TT. 177S. Grand»oa of Ezra (chief-justice 

of bloodshed by the king, and which, even C. C. F, Bamatable Co.), who wasgrandaon of 



Ihcn, came so near aucceeding, as to turn upon Benj. Waa an able lawyer, often a 

the slightest accidents. After enliating under the State l^ial. ; M. C. 1790-6 ; and in tSOl 

the banners of Cond^, and ahariog the dan- was app. judge of the Circuit Court of the U.S. 

gers anil fatiguea of the emigrant nobility, he Bouxne, KtcH&HS, missionary to tbe 

went to Eng. in 1T96. There he wrote bis in- Maishpee Indians, b. Eng. ; d. Sandwich, Ma., 

teresiin? and impartial "Memoirs of tbe in I68S. Acquiring the Indian language, 

Bevol., London, 1797. be began as early as 165S to devote himself to 

BoulbOQ (or RAonBaKT-BouLBOH), Gas- their instruction and welfare, and was ord. 

•con liAODLX, Comte de, a French adventurer, pastor of the Indian Church at Marshpee, 

b. Avignon. IBIT ; d. near Guaymaa. Aug. 12, Aug. 17, 1G70. 

1894. After having squandered hia estate in Boutoil, John Bbll, author, b. Concord, 

Paris and Algiers, he went, in 1852, to Cal., N.H., Mar. 15, 1830. Dartm. Coll. 1849. He 

Induced a number of adventurers to join read law; became in 1851 associate editor of 

him in an exped. to Sooora, and look poa- the Ckveland Plain Dealer; removed to N.Y. 

session of tbe Mexican gold-mines at (bo point City in 1B57, and waa one of the editors of tbe 

of the bayonet. He then raised 500 men, Joumal of Comnierr:!, IS57-6* ; andiacngnged 

aeized Ariape. the capital of Souors, and pro- in commercial, business in that city. He pub. 

claimed a rcpablic. Defeated by tbe Mexicans "Loved and Lost," a series of essays, 1857; 

Jan, 4, 1853, he returned to Cal., from whence " Bound the Block," a novel, 1BS4 ; "Treasury 

he planned a new invasion in April, 1854, but, of Travel and Adventure," IB6S; andconirib. 

again repulsed by the Mexicans Jnly 13, be most of ibe scientific articles to the New Am. 

was captured, and put to death. An account Cyclop, for 1666. — Alumni D. C. 

of him WHS pub. in Faria in 1855. Bouton, Ret. Natuahiel, U.D. (Danm. 

Bouquet, Qen, HEirai, a British officer. Coll. 1851), b. Norwalk, Ct., aettled over a 

b. Kolle, Switzerland, 1719; d.PeaBacola,FlB., Cong, church in Concord, N.H., S3 Mar. 1825. 

Feb. 1766. Entering the Dutch service, he Y-C. 1821; And. Scm. 1824. Author of 

was sftcrwacd in that of Sardinia, and in 1748 "Memoir of Mrs. Elii. McFarlflnd," 1839; 

waa a lieutcol. io the Swiss Guards, in tbe " Hist. Discourse on the aooth Anniv. of the 

service of Holland. He entered the English Settlement of Norwalk, Ct., 9 July, 1851 ;" 

army as lieut.-col. in 1756; Feb. 19, 1762, col. "The Fathers of the N.H. Ministry," a dis- 

60th Foot; brig..gen. 176&. He co-operated course, 22 Au^. 184B; "Hist, of Education in 

actiiely with Gen. Forbes, and Oct. 12, 1798, N.H." a discourse, 12 June, 1833; "History 

repulsed an attack by a large body of French of Concord, N.H." 18S6; "Diaeourse Com- 
and Indians at Loyal I 
lowed by the capture of E 
from Canada by Oeu. An 
Fort Pitt, he was atla< 
1763, by a Urge Indian f 
bravei7 defeated them, a 
with supplies four days 
against the Ohio India: 
compelled the Shawani 
others, to make peace at 
count of thin exped., bvV 
pub. in Phila., 1765, will 

Boorlamarqne (bi 
a French gto. ; d. 1764, | 



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BOIT 109 BOTP 

tkr. ISS3: H. C. 1863-!!; Me. of tbe C S. of the eleraiion, ihe ro;>liM gen. proroiKiI a 

treasury Mar. IMS lo Mar. 1873. Oneofthe failhful and strict obtKrvance of iho trraty. 

ukana^en of the itDpeBchmenl trial of Andrew Batering ihe ciir, Bovea had the repiib, officers 

JohnMD in 1BS3. A to), of hii " Speechea Had a nninber o? soldiers shot. Again a coii' 

and Pdpera " wu pub. in 1867. Author of queror ai AndniaDo, Bolivar withdrew to Bur 

" Manual of U. S. Direct and Excite Tax cclona ; and the Spaniards entered Caracas. 

Syfiem," 1863. Reiidra in Groton, Maas. Aug. 8, tte gained s ne<r incceas, killing or 

BoaTieff Joan, jmist, b. Codognan, wuunding 1.500 of the independents, and titk- 

Prance, 1787 ; d. Fhila., Nor IS, 1891. Of ing four pieces of cannon. Dec. 5, bo saw al 

A Quaker ramiir, whii'hemigTHted lo thisconn- Urica his last triumph, being killed by Itie 

trt in ISOa. Ue was employed in a bookstore Ihmsi of a lance. — Noaa. Uiog. Univ. 
Kline jean, pnb. a newspaper, The American BowdBD, JOHK, D.l>., a Pr.-Ep. divinu, b. 

T,Uiraph. at Brownsville in Wcalern Pa., Ireland, J.in. ITSl ; d. Ballslon, K.T., Jviiy 31, 

|s|4: btu'licd law, and was adm. to I be. bar at 1617. Col. Coll. 1773. The son of a BntUi 

L'nioniowu, Fayette Co., in 1818. Aithisplaee, officer who served during the French war, lie 

hi' pub. Tht Gtniia ^ Libtrlg and Ameneaa followed his father to Amer., and, afier stndy* 

'frlryaph, from Apr. 1818, to July, 1B30. JngH years at N. J. Coll., relamed withhim (o 

UebeuHO pniciice in Phils, in 1833; was Irelanil. He came to Amer. again in 1770, 

recorder of Vhila., Jan. 1336 ; naso. jndge of studied divinity, and returned (o Eng., whcca 

ilrf'CuuriofCrimiDalSe-siunHfroniMar. 1B3B, hewaiord.in 1774. In the lummcr of th:il 

and was learned in the law, as well as in the year, he retnmed (o S.Y., where he became 

literature ofseverallangaagea. He pub, a " Law assistant minister of Trinity Chnrch. He look 

Dictionary," 1833 ; an edition of " Bacon's charge of (be cbnrcb at Norwalk, Cl., from 

Abridgment of (he Law," in 1841, and " In- Dec. 1784, until Oct, 1TBB, when weaknCM of 

siiiatesof American Law," ISil, tbe lungs induced him to take charge of the 

BoTRdiUa (bo-vl^ei'-jii), Doii Fbahc"" church at St. Croix in the West Indies, Com. 

DE, aiiarTogaoiaodincompeienl SpanishgoT, ; peiled, after two years' residence, to give up 

d. Jone !9, 1503. Ue was commander of the preaching, he settled at Stratford, Ct, From 

order of Cttlatrava, and in 1500 was sent lo 1796 to I80S, he had cbarge of the Ep, ocad. in 

Saint Domingo by Ferdinand and Isabella, Cheshire, Ct., and from 1801 to 1B17 wb9 prof, 

charged to examine the conduct of Columbus, of moral philos. anil belles-lettres in Col. Coll. 

and, i( he found him guilty, to deprive him of He pub. a namber of controveriiial letters, 

command, aitdseiie bisperson. Hepeifonned an address (o the members of the Ep. church 

the latter pan of his itiltractiMis regardless of in Stratford, some remarks, &c, ; A Fnll-Ieneih 

the former, seiied npon the authority on his Portrait of Calvinism; Tbe Essentials of Or- 

arrival, pnt Columbus In Irons, and sent him dination, and Observations on tbe Catholic 

home to Spain, with BQ act of accusation flUed Controversv, S. T. D. (CoL Coll. 1797.1 
withcontemptiblediarge*. Bovadilla was soon Bovdlioh, Natkattiel, LL.D, (H. U. 



succeeded by Nicolas dvando; and Columbus 1816), F,R.S., mathematician and astronomer, 
*a4 restored to liberty. TheMrsecnlorof this b. Satem, Har. ae, 1773; d. Boston, Mar. 16, 
great man embarked in the Spanish fleet, (o 183S. Tbe poverty of his parents occn^ioned 



renderanaccounttahiscountryof hisconduct, his withdrawal from school at the ai^e of Ii , 

and perished in a tempest with tbe greater part and, after an apprenticeship in a sbip^h and let's 

of tbe vesaels whieh accompanied him. shop until he was 91, he spent nine ycnrs in a 

BOVW (bo'-vCs),J(MU^ Thohas, aSpan- seafaring lift, attaining liie rank of master. 

ish-Ameikanpanisaii; d, Dec, 5,1814. Ilewaa He was pros, of a Marine-Ins, Co. in Sulem, 

a CastJllall of low origin, a sergeant of marines; from 1804 to 1323, when he became actuary of 

afierwards served in the coaat-goard, but was the Ms, Hospital Lifc-lna, Co. in Boston. By 

punished by imprisonment for allowing him- his exumordinary genius and indnstiy, ho made 

self 10 bo bribed, and, on leaving prison, became great aequisitionii in knowledge, mastered ranny 

a peddler. Becoming a capt. of militia in langnages, and did more for tbe rcputalion of 

1810, the defeat of tbe rayalisl Cagigal, to bis country among men of science abroad, ihnn 

whose corps he was allached, decided him to has been done by any other man. except, ner- 

makowaron his own account. He estal dished haps. Dr. Franklin. He pub. in le<X), while 

bitDself at Calaboto, and with about 500 men, engaged as a supercargo, his wetl'known 

mostly slaves, defeated Marino, dictator of the " Fraciical Navigator," still a standai'd work 

casten) provinces. Thenceforward with bis of great ntilily and value. Among hh ecicn- 

llilla army, ewoUan with vagabonds, escaped ^Belabors were numerous and important com' 

lonvicts (black and white), he commenced a mnnications to the memoirs of tbe Ainer. 

devastating partisan warikre. His atrocities Aced,, of which he wua pres, ; but his fame ns 

ttsve his Eorde Ae well-meriied name of the a man of science will principally rest on big 

" t'lftna! Oidiion;" and the butchery of 1,800 Common ta it on Ihe MAaiiiijiie C^esl.: of La 

prisoners was the commencement of a long Place, of which be made the first entire irans- 

series of similar barbarities on both sides. Feb. lalion, and nbieh he has elucidated in a man- 

IS, 1814, be defuted Bolivar at laaint Mateo, ner that commands tbe admiration of ecienli- 

■ndagain,Junel4 ; Boves then advanced upon fie men. The elucidations and commcnlnries 

Valeticia. raised the siege of Porto Cabello, of Bowditch formed more than half the work, 

driving bock the independents : tbe city ca]>i- They record sulisequent disroveries, and show 

(nlsted. To give to tbe articles of capitulation the sources whence Ln Place derived assistance. 

a more soUmn sanction, mass was celebrated He contrib. many valuable papers to " Ths 

helwecn ibe two inDiet; and, at tbe moment Uemoirs of the Ainer. Acad., and an article 



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BO"W 110 

on Bfoden Ailrooomj to toI. 20 " North Am. ^, _. _,^.. __, , _ , 

Reriew." A( his destb, he was a member of ihon iBlaiid, Ms., Oct. II, 1811, H. D. 1 

the prindpsl acientifie societiei at Europe, He spent Kreral yean trsTelting in Europe, 

He twice had n seat in the ezecntiTs coancil of and one year in the study of Inw at the U. of 

Ms. — 'See Memoir, b>/ hit ton N, I. Boadilc/i, Oxford. Returning to Atner. in 177&, he »nc- 

1640. cesBiTelj tilled the offlcea of represenlniire. 

Bowditoh, Natbahibl Ikobrioll, con- member of the Const. Conv. of IT89, senatoi 

veyancer, and histoHcal writer, b.Salero, Jan. sad conndUor, and in May, I SOS, proceeded 

IT, 1805; d. Brooklioe, Hi., Apr. 16, 1861. to the coart of Mwlrid oa minister-pi en ipo., 

H.V. 189a. Eldestson of the eminent math- retaming home in Apr. 1808. He was a mn- 

cmatician. He was adm. to the SuBblk bar Difioent patron of Bowd. Coll,, to which he 

in 1625, bat a few years afterward relinqniehed made a donation of 6,000 acraa of land, and 

practice, and derotsd himself to basiiiess as ■ tnore than XI, 100. He pub. a transtaiion of 

cnnTeyancer. He was noted for accuracy and Danbenton'a " Ad rice to Shepherds," '^"A. 

thoroughness ; and ■ proof of his industry is aaonymonsty, " Opinions Sespeciing the Com- 

round in the 5S folio toIs. oF land-titles he mercial Inlercoarse between the C.9. and Greni 

haii written, ronluning nearly 30,000 psges, Britain," Ho brousht home with him from 

and also plans and maps. In Apr. 18S5, he m. Paris an eitenaive library, philosophical ap- 

B jlna. of the wealthy Ebenescr Francis, and, paraCas, and a collection of paintings ; all of 

having a large income, devoted much of it to which he left nt his death to Bowd. Coll,, to- 

charitable objects. Under the signatnre of gether with the rerersion of the Island of Xan- 

" Gleaner," he contrib, many articles of histor- shon, which bad been his farorite residence, 
ical interest and value to the Boston Trrm- Boweil, Fbancib, author, b, Charlcstown, 

tcripl. Anthorof" AHiatoryof theMs.Oen- Ms., Sept. 8, 1811, H.U, (with the highest 

era! Hospital," 1651, 3 editions of "Suffolk honors) 1833. From 1835 I0 1839, he was io- 

Samaines^" and " Memoir of N. Bowditch," etructor there in inielleciual philoa. and politi- 

1640. cal economy. Returning from a visit to 

Bowdoin, Jahbb, LL.D, (U, ofEdinb. Europe in 1841, heestablished himself in Cam- 

1765), Btalesman, h, Boston, Aug, 7, 1786; d. bridge, puh, " Viixil," with English notes, 

Nov. 6, 17M, H. D, 17^5. He was of a anda vol. of criiical essars on speculative phi- 

Hngnenot family wbo landed at Falmouth, losophy, in IS4S. He edited the N. A. litt-ieai 

Me., in 1687, and in 1690 removed to Boston, from 1843 to 1854, and deliverol two cour^^es 

On the day sncceeding tbeir removal, the in- of Lowell Lectures in lB4S-9,on the Application 

habitants of Casco Bay were all cut off, and of metaphysical and ethical science to the evi- 

ihe settlement burnt, by the Indians. The dencea of religion, pub. in 1849 and in 1835. 

death of his falhor. Sept, 8, 1747, put bim in In (be winter of 1850, he-delirered ■ course 

possession of an ample fortune, At34|hehad o( lectures on political economy before the 

tbrmed an aequniutance with Frauklin, wbo Lowell Institute, and another, in 1842, on the 

commnnicaied to him his papers on electricity, origin and development of the Eng, and 

and with whom he froqaentiv corresp. He be- Amer. Conatitu lions. In 1853, he succeeded 

came a member of the Gen, Court in 1753, and , Dr. Walker as Atford Prof, of natural religion, 

senator and conncillor in 1756. Pramioent moral phitos,, and dvil polity. In 1854, he 

in opposing the royal gov. before the Revol,, pub. an nhridgment of Smart's Philos., with 

bis writings and other services were eminently noles, sod in the same year compiled and edil- 

useful. Sucb was his prominence, that Gov, ed "Documents of the Constitution of Eng. 

Bernard negatived bim as a councillor in 1 769, and Amer., from Masna Charta to the Federal 

upon which he was at once elected a wpreaen-»< Constitution of 1 789. To Sparks's Biog,, be 

tative. Chosen delegate to Congress in 1774, contrib. lives ofPhipps, Steubeti,Olis, andGen. 

he was prevented by illness from attending. Lincoln, He has written much in defence of 

Member of the committee of corresp,, pres. of the doctrines of Locke and Berkeley, and 

(he council of govt., pres. in 1779 of the con< aipinst those of Kant, Fichte, and Cousin, 

vention for forming a Constitution, and in Since the commencement of 185S, he has deli- 

1785 and 1786 was gov. of Ms.; member of the vered a course of lectures bef. Irfiwoll Inst., on 

convention which adopted the Federal Conati. the Engtiah meiaphysicans and philosophers, 
tnlion in 1768. During his admin iairation, the Bowen, John S.. mai.-gco. C. S, A., h. 

" Shavs'Kebellion "in the western counties oc- Ga.,lS39; d, Raymond, Mpi,, July [3, 1^C3. 

curred ; but it was quickly suppressed by his Weet Point, 1S53. Entering the mounted 

vigorous and decisive measures. His health rifles, he resigned. May I, 1856, and settled in 

was precarious, and his Ills a long consnmp- Sl Louis as an architect. He was ailj, to 

tive disease; but he was always vigorous in Qen. Frost at the time of the cxped. to the 

public aHiiirs. One of the founders, and first border in search of Montgomery, and, when 

of the Acad, of Arts and Sciences, from the Rebellion broke out, took com. of the 2d 

till his death, and bequeathed to it bis rcgl. of Frost's brigade. He was actin; chief 
valunble librarr. lie aided in founding the of the staif to Gen. Froat at the Camp Jackson 
Ms. Humane Society, and was a benefactor of affair. Disrcganling his parole, bo raised at 
Har, Coll., to nhicbbe left ahandaome legacv. Memphis the lal Mo, In f;, which was unsur 
He contrib. 3 pieces to the /'iVfos el GnUMolit, passed in j;altantry, discipline, or drill. He 
on the accession of George III., and was the comd. a brigade in Brecfcett ridge's corps at 
■aihor of a vol. of verses, pub. anonymously Shitoh, April 6, 1862. and was severely wound- 
In Boston in 1759. ed. He com. at the battle near Port Gibson, 

Bowdoln, Jauks, diplomatist, onlywn lnMay,lBe3,BIabbomlyre«is(iiigGcD.QrBnt'* 



K 



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•drance. He was ioall thesnbiequentbaltles OSattshoochie, but mat driven thence b) 

around Vicksbnrg; was prominent in the ne- McGlllirrny. Ha then worn to tCngland : on 

SDiiarinni for ita surrender, and is said to hare his reium, his indaence vritb the Indians, wbo 

led of mortification at that CTcnt. had chosen him com. -in-chief, naa so disastrous 

Bowen, Nathahibl, D.U. (H.U. 1803), to the Spaniards, that Ihej offered &G,000 for 

Pr.-Kp. bishop of S.C., b. Boston, 1779; d. his apprehension. Bowles had astnmfti to nrt 

Aag. as, tai9. S.C. Coll. 1796. He becnma among (he Indinna nnder authority of t 

a tolor in that inatiintion, and, hiving com- British Govt.; t " — ' — '~ "" "' " " " 

pleled bis tbeot. slndiea at Boston, was in minislrj prom _ . .._, ^ 

1800 adm. to ordci^, and beciime, in Oct. 1802, thej bad aCforded him coaatcnnnee, assistance, 
■Bsiit. minister of St. Michael's Church, or protection. For a long time, Bowles did 
Cborleston, S.C. He vas rector of this church all in his power to anuoy Geori;ia, and prevent 
in 1808, and of Grace Church, N.Y., from 1809 the >ellleraont of her difficulties with the In- 
to ISIB, when he nu elected bishop (conso- dians. He irai entrapped in Feh. 1792. sent 
crated, Oct. 8, 1818), and was a second time a prisoner to Madrid, and theneo to Manilla, in 
rector of the pttriih of 8i Miuhsei'sin Charles- 1795. Obtaining leave to go to Europe, be re- 
ton. Two vols, of bis sermons have been paired to the Creeks, and commenced Ms dep- 
pnh. redations anew, but, being again betrayed into 

Bovei!) Oliteb, commcdore, a Revol. the hands of the Spaniards in IS04, be was 

patriot of Angusta, Ga. ; d. Providence, R.I., confined in the Moro Castle, where he died. A 

Aug. 1800, a. »9. July 10, 177S, he seized a memoir of bim was pnb. in London in 1791, 

large quantity of ponder M Tyhee Island, in which he is called "Ambassador of the 

near Suvannah. In Jane, IT7S, he was in the United Nations of Creeks and Cherokees." 
nnsuccessfal esped. against Wilmington. BoWmOD, Samcbl, D.D., usist. Fr.-Ep. 

Member Provincial Congress of 177S, and of bishop of Fa., consec. at Phila., 2S Ang. IBJS ; 

Ibe Council of Saletj. d. 3 Ang, 1861. 

Bowie, BoBEBT, gov. of Md. in 1803-5 Boyo, Jos!! PuuiBB, brig.-cen. U.S.A., 

and 1811-13; d. NottiDsham, Jan. 8, 1 BIS, a. b. Newburjport, Ma., Dec. 21, 1754; d. Bos- 

67. He was a captain in the 2d batt. of the ton, Oct. 4, 1330. He entered the military 

Md. flying camp in 1776. service of the U.S., Oct 20, 17B6. We next 

Bow-Ieo{"BiLLTBoirLBai"),aSeminale find him in India, at the head of 3 battalions, 
chief; d. in the Seminole country, tl Mar. of 900 men each, armed nnd equijiped at his 
I8S9. He was a terror to the settlers of own expense, at the sernce of the lii^^est bid- 
Florida, and one of the greatest Indian warri- dcr, and he atone time com. 10,(>00 cavalry. 
on of this cenltiry, and had been in all the He was in the pay of Holkar, in die Peishwa's 
principal battle* with the whites for over 30 service, and aucrward in that of Xihara All 
yean. Ehan. Arriving in Madras in Jnty, 1789, he 

Bowles, SAiii7EL,jaumBlist,b.Springfield, was glren 'by the Niiam the command of 
Ms..Ftb.9,li<!6. Samuel, hisfniher, established 1,000 men. Having sold oat for want of em- 
ihete the RtpuUiaia, of wbich, since 1844, the ployment, he went to Paris in I80S, and soon 
son has been the sole conductor, and, by per- ratnmed to the U.S. App, col, 4th Inf. Oct. 
severance and industrr, has placed it in the first 7, 1B08, com, a brigade, and was dialing, at the 
rank of Amer jonmals. From 1849 to 1860, twttle of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 1811, He com. 
Dr. J. G, Holland (Timo. Titcomb) was assoc. the detachment of 1.500 men, of Wilkinson's 
editor. He spent the summer of 1862 in army, wbich fought the battleofWillismsburg, 
Europe, and in ISflS Joined Speaker Colfax Nov. 11,1813, and led his brigade at the cap- 
in a tour to the Pacific coast. His letters to uire of Fort George, D. C. ; app. brig.-gen., 
the flepuWtoan, describing this journey, were Aug. 26, 1812; app. naval officer of the port of 
pub. as " Across the Continent," 1B6S. "The Boston, March 4, 1830. He pub, " Doeamentt 
Switierland of America" was pah. 1869. and Facts relative to Military Events during 

Bowled, William Ahodstijs, self-styled the I^le War," 1816. 
''GenerBi"aDd"Indisnagent,"b.FrederickCo,, Boyd, Liini, a statesman of Tenn., b. 

Md., 1763; d, Havana, Dec, 23, 180S. The Na.Oivillo, Mov, 32, 1800; d. Ky , Dec. 18, 

son of an English schoolmaster. At the age 1859. His educational advantage's were limit- 

of 13. ho stole from home, and, joining the Bri- ed. In 1827, he was elected to the legisl, of 

liib army at Phila,, toon obtained a commis- Tenn,, serving 3 sessions, and in IB3I was 

■ion, but at Feniacola was, for some neglect, re-elected, M,C, from 1835 to 1817, from 1339 

dismissed the service. Allcrward entered the to 1347, and from 1847 to 185S ; and was 

service of the Creek Indians, and m. an Indian chairman of the committee on territories in 

woman. lie instigated many of their excesses, theSlst Congress, during his hut termoccopy- 

for which he was rewarded bv the British, ing the chair of speaker. He served one 

May 9, 1781, when Pensacola surrendcmd to term as lieut.-gov. of Ky. 
the Spaniards, Bowles com. the Creek Indians, Boydeu, Sbth, inventor, b, Foiboroogh, 

whom he had brongbt there to assist the Eng- Ms,, 17 Nov. 1738 ; d. Middlevilie, N.J,, 31 

Itsh, For this service, he was reinstated in the Mar. 1 370. He engaged in the leather manuf 

Brili-h army. Alter the war, ho joined a in Newark in 1813, invented a machine for 

company of players at N. Y. ; played at the splitting leather, began the mjnuf of patent 

Bahamas, where he also painted portraits, thus leHihcr in 1819, made the first mnlleitblo iron 

uibibiting the versatility of bis talents. Gov, in 1326, perfected the first locomotive with 

Dsnmoce app, bim trading-ageni for the the driving-rod ontside the wheel, prodnced 

(bracks ; and be esiablislMd a botue upon tbe the first dagn^'rotJ'PB >n America, invented the 



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BOV 112 BRA. 

pioceM of miking spelter, dlNomed the ut nor expentc in obininins; rare plants, animBla, 

of makiag Rusaian iWt-iron, and pAtented a and insects, manv of nhich, then anknonn in 

bat-bod; domiDK-niBGhiae Died in all Ibe bat Europe, bo at different times transmitted to 

manafs. in the U.S. Eng. Upon the re-appearance of tba small- 

Boyef) Jkas Pibrxb, prea, of Hard, b. pox in Boston in 1721, Cotton Maihercalled 

Port an Prince, Feb. S, 177B; d. Parii, Jnl^ 9, the attention of tbe physicians to an account of 

IBSO. His faibcr was a abopkeeper and tailor the prncticeuf inoculation at the East, in a 

in Port Bu Prince, and his mother was a ne- vol. of tlie Trans, of the Philos. Sodelj. Borl- 

gresB, ffhohadbeenaslaTe. In 1793, be joined ston was so imprc^setl nith iis niiliiT, that lie 

therevoltcd blacks, then etrngglinga^aiost the immediately inocolnted his own son and two 

French for tbeir independence. Joining the serrnnts, with complete success. He enlaiiKd 

French commissioaert Sanlhonax and Poire- bis practice, but met with great opposition 

rel, he niibdrcw with tbem, after the arrival from (be pb^icians, wbo were nnanimous in 

of the Englisb, to Jacqaemet, having preri- their opinion egainsc it, from his fellow-cili- 

onsl; disting. himself in the defence of the zens, and tbo selectmen of the town, wbo paused 

fort of Biroton and in other dsngerons enter- an ordinance prohibiting it. He persevered 

prises. Attaching himself while here to Ri- in the practice, however, enconraged and jaati- 

gaud, he set oat with him for France. He Bed bv the clergy ; aod, of 2B6 persons inocn. 

look part, like many other persons of color, in lated in I TSt and 'SS, only 6 died. He enjoyed 

the exped. of Le Clerc against St. Domingo, the satisfaction of seeing inocntation in p:encral 

On ibe death of Le Clerc, he joined Petion's use in N.E, for some time before it became 

party, in whose service he became privslo sec., comiooa in Eng. In 1739, ho visited Eng., 

p;n.'ottheiDTondij»«Bi«nJof Port an Prince, and and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. 

was Hnally named by him his snccessor. Upon In addition to his comraotii cations totbai body, 

the death of Petion, March !9, 181S, Boyer was be pnb. a paper on inocniation, Boston, 1731, 

iminediateiy installed in his office, and assumed and en hist, account of the smallpox inocula- 

tbcfunciions of govt. On the breaking-out of lion in N. Eng. and London, IT26, 
the revolution in the north part of the Uland Boy&ton, Edw^kd C, brev. maj. U.S.A., 

in 1B20, he placed himself at the head of the h. Vc West Point, 1846. Entering the !d 

insurgents ; and, upon Chrislophe's death, the An. ho served in tbe Mexican war, and was 

north and aouth parts of the island were united brcv. capL 30 Aug. 1847, for Contreras and for 

into one govt., under bis administration, by tbo Chumlinsco, where be was severety wounded, 

name of the " Republic of Hayii." He waa Assist, prof, of chem., mineral,, and geol. at 

Tain and weak, and destitnta of ability ; and West Point, 1S48-S5; served against the 

by an absard arrangement with France, to Seminole Indians in I85S-6, and resisned 16 

whom he foolishly agreed to pay an indom- Feb 1856. Prof, of chem., min., and geol., 

nily of 150,000,000 francs in five equal an- U. of Mpi., 1856-61 ; cnpt. 11th U. 8, Inf. B3 

Dual instalments, — in consideration of which Scjit. 1861 ; adj. and quanerm. at West Point 

France merely recogntud the actnal govt, of to 30 Sept. 1865 ; brev. maj. 13 Har, 1865 ; 

Hayli, — the a^iricaltore, commerce, and wealth transf. lu SStb Inf. 21 Sept. 1866, Anlbor 

of H.iyti, which under his govt, had gradually of " Uislorv of West Point and tbe D. S 

declined, became totally prostrated. Finally, Milit, Acad," 1SG3; " Hist. U. S. Navy." — 

in 1843, an insurrection lookfilace; Boyer was Cuilum. 

overthrown, and look tvfnge in Jamaica until BoEDUUl, Joan Lbbdb, lawyer, poet, and 

Feb. 1848, when, with his family, beaelllodio historian, b. Talbot Co., Md.. Aug. 35, 1757 ; 

Paris. d. there Apr. 2-3, 1823. U. of Pa. 1783. His 

Boyle, JoBH, jnriat, b. Botetourt Co., Va., family was among the earliest settlers in thai 

Oct. £8, 1T74; d. Jan. S8, 1834. His father place. He completed his legal studies at the 

emignued to Ey. in 1779. John received a Middle Temple in London. After considerable 

eooa education ; practised law el Lancaster practice, having for several years acted as dep. 

from 1797 to 1803 ; wns M C. 1803-9 ; app. atty.-Ken. of the State, he abandoned the law 

gov, of Illinois ICRiioiT in 1809; judge of for liicratare. Hischief work is "Tbe History 

the Court of Appeals, April, 1809, to April, of Maryland to Ibe Restoration in 1660," pnb. 

1810; chicf.juanca, April, 1810, to Nov. 1826; in 1836 under Ibe nuspires of the GenemI As- 

U.S. district judKe for K;,, Nov. 8, 1836, to sembly of thni Slate. He was a contribnlor 

his death, — CoUuu'i Hlt(. Ki/. to the ParlJUio, and pnh. an "Essav Upon 

Boylston, Niobolas, a benefactor of Colonization in Africa, in 1822. Uewraican 

Han-. Coll. ; d. Boston, Aog, IB, 1771, a. S5. "Historical and Philos. Sketch of the Prime 

He iraa n merchant of singular probity, and Caases of theRevol. War,"inwhichbeprai«ed 

at his decease bequeathed to H. U. £1,500 to Washington, and condemned Franklin ; but it 

found a professorship of rhetoric and oratory, was supprcswd. 

in which John Quincy AduDs was installed as Srace, Cdablbb Lorino, clergyman and 

first prof., June 12, 1805. author, b. Liichlield, Ct., 1836. Y. C. 1846. 

Boylston, Zabdiel, F.RS, a physician. After a few months of school-ieacbing, ha 

eminent as the lirst to inoculate for the s>nall- studied Iheolngv, coinplcling his preparation 

DoxinAmerica.b.Brookline, 1680; d. Boston, for tbe n)l:ii9try at the Union Thcol. Sem. of 

Xlarch I, 1766. After receiving agooil cduca- NT., and has since hecn a preacher without 

tion, he studied medicine under his fiither and any settled chiircre. In 1850, he madeapedes- 

Dr. John Cnller, and in a ftw yean acquired trian journey in Great Hritain and Ireland, also 

a repntation and a fortone. He also acquired visiting the Kbine, Rcl.'inm. and Paris, nn ac- 

diatinctioD as a naluraliat, sparini; no labor count of which, entitled " Watki and Tnlks of 



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BKA. 113 BRA. 

■n Amerido Farmer in EDgland." i*u after- nas a ranipicaous irricer anil speaker, nnd, 

ward pnb. In tBSl, be was tried as a spj in imviofc Btudieil divinity, preached sometime in 

Bnn^rf , bnt was soon set al liberty through that city. RalinqoiBbing the pulp'i for the 

the eabns of C. J. McCardj, eJuoT/g iaffbira. bar, he edii«d lor a time the U. S. Mngavnt 

Retaming' lo the U. S., he became inienisted at Phila. In ITBl, he aettled at Piiisburg, 

in the twneTolent labon of Rev. Mr. PeaM soon rose tothe heador the harof that section; 

among the most deffrsded class in N. Y., and was sent in 1786 to the legisl. to obtain the 

was subseqaently chieSj instmrnental in the establishment of the coent; of Alleghany ; wtt 

fbrmatioii of the Children's Aid Society, of msdeajud^in 1789; and, from 1799 till bis 

which he is sac. and principal ageau In 1852, death, was judge of ibe Stale Supreme Cunrt. 

be pab. " HnDgarr in 1831," " Home Life in The part he took in the " Whiiikey Insurrec- 

Germany, 1853; in 185T, " Norsefolk," a tion made him prominent. He appe.tred to 

devription of the religions, social, and political side with the insnivents in order to keep them 

condiLion of Sweden snd Norway ; " Bacesof within the limits of reason and law, and eren- 

the Old World," 1863; "The New West," tmdly to reconcile them, without bloodshed, to 

1863, and "Short Sermons for Newsboys." tbe govt. He vindicated bis course in hi9"In- 

Bracken, Rl'. John, minister, and prof, cidents of the Insurrection in Western Pa in 

of humaniiiea (1773-1818), and prea. of Wm. 1794," Bvo, Phila., 1795. Bracken rid^^-e de- 

aad Hary Coll. in 1813; d. Wiiliamsborg, Va., serves to be better known through hid writings. 

15 Ju!;, ISIS. He had wit, humor, and sound judgment. Hit 

Brackenridge, Hehbi M., jurist and judicial decisions were celebrated for their in- 

diplomatist, son of Hugh Henry, b. Pittsburg, tegrity and independence. In politics, he was a 

Pa., May II, 1786; d. there 20 Jan. 1871. supporter of Jefferson. He pnb. a potmonthe 

At the age of 20, being adra. ut the bar, be "Rising Glory of America," 1774; " Enlogium 

began practice in Somerset, Pa. He descended of the Brave who fell in the Contest with Great 

the Mpi. in 1811, and soon received thaa'pp.of Britain, delivered at Phila., 4 July, 1779 ; " 

dep. alty.-gen. for the Territory of Orleans, af- " Modem Chivalry, or the Adventures of 

terwards Louisiana. Made diet, judge at 28. Capt. Farrago," 1796, an admirable satire; 

During the War of 1812, he furnished impor- " Oration, Jnly 4, 1793 ; " " Gaiette Pnblica- 

tant informotioa to the govt., and afterwards tions Collected," 1806. 

wrote a history of the war, which was translated BrBCketti Albest G., brev, col. U.S.A., 

into French and ItaUan. He joined with Clay b. N.Y. 1st lieut. 4ih Indiana Vols., June, 

io adrocaiing the acknowledgment of the inde- 1847, and at the battle of Huamattan, sie^of 

pendence of the South Amer. republics. Be- Puebla and Atlixco, in Mexico ; capt. 2d U.S. 

sides oth<^r productions, his pamphlet, under cav.. Mar. 1855 ; disting. in actions witb Ca- 

the sienaiare of an "American," addressed to manche Indians ; com. cavalry at Bull Run, 

Pres. Monroe, was repnb, in Eng. and France, Va. ; col, 9th 111, cav., AuK. 1S6I ; en^ged al 

and, being supposed to express the views of tbe Waddell'sFarmandCach^Bayon, and wound- 

Amer. Govt., was replied to by the Duke of San ed at Stewart's Plantation ; mw. Ist U.S. cav., 

Carlos, the Spanish minister. He was one of July, 18S2 ; com. cav. brijiade w. Tenn, ; en- 

Ihccommissionerstoihe South Amer. republics gaged in the attack on Memphis and Charies- 

in 1817-19, and, on his return, pub. his " Voy- ton R.R, ; asst insp.^n. of cav,, dept, of 

aee lo South Amer," In 1821, he went to Cumberland, 1864 ; engaged at the siege of 

Fla, with Gen. Jackson, aided bini in forming and battles in ftoai of Atlanta, Oa., and battle 

his government ; was made alcalde of Pensa- of Nashville, Tenn. ; lient,-col. Sd U.S. cav., 

cola, and in May was app. jndge of the western June, 1868; brev. maj. for Arkansas campaign; 

district, in which office he remained 10 years, brev, tieut.-col. for Atlanta campaign; brav. 

Removiiig to Pittsburg in 1S33, he became an col. for gallant and merit, services in the war. 

active politician, and in IS41 was named acom- Author of " Gen. Lane'a Brigade in Central 

missioner under the treaty with Mexico. His Mexico," 1348 ; " Hist U-S- Cavalry," 1865. 

political writings were numerous. He pnb. an — Henry. 

account of Louisiana in 1812, and, in 1S34, Sraokgtt, Aitthoht, a soldier, and eaily 
the Grit vol. of his " Recollec lions of Persons settler at C asco, now Portland, Me,; killed by In- 
aud Places in tbe West." In 1847, he pub. a dianB,Sept2l, 16S9. Bonof Anthony of Green- 
series of letters in favor of the Mexican war, land, N,H. He waa at Casco as early aa 166!, 
His enlogy on Jefferson and Adams, delivered and had a farm of 400 acres. Caprared by the 
at Pcnsacola in Aug, 1826, was highly prused Indians, Aug, 11, 1676, he escaped in Nov.. re- 
hr Wirt. In IS59, he pnb. a " Bistoiy of the turned to Casco after (be peace, April 12. 167S; 
ft'cstarn Insunection, in vindication of his received tbe com. of Fort LoTall in 1683, and 
father. Author also of a "Journal of a Voy- in 1688 held the com. of the three forts erected 
■ge up the Uissonri River," Pittsburg, 1814. by Andros. His second wife, m. in 1679, was 
— DuydiiKk. Susannah Drake of Hampton. 

Bracksmidge, Hcoa Hbkbt, author Braakett,EDwiHE., sculptor, b.Vassaib'v 

at)d jndge, b. near Campbeltou, Scotland, rough. Me., Oct, 1, 1B19. Began modelling; in 

174S; d. Carlisle, Pa., June 35, 1816. N. J. 1S3S, and has made manyporlraitbnsts, among 

ColLl771, At the age of 5, he came with his them Harrison, Ailston, R. H. Dana, sen., 

father to Pa., and supported himself, while ac- W. C. Bryant, Longfellow, Choate, Sumner, 

quiring his education, bj fanning and teach- John Brown, Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and 

ing. Tie became a tutor at Princeton; was Oen.Bntler. His group of "Tbe Sbipwn^cked 

master of an acad. in Md., when the Bevol. Mother," is at Mount Anbnm. His brother, 

war broke out; removed to Phila., where be WAI>TaKH.,b. Unity.Me., 14 June, 1B23, has 



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Greenland, N,H., 5 May, , j - . ,.,-. 

H.U. 17S2. He stDdieiltheoIofO', and became 
preacher, liDl afiertvarda siudieu medicine, and 
established himself at Parumoulh, N.U. Ue 
bequealbed tt,&00 towards the protewonhip 
of nnciiral hislorr !□ Harr, Coll. Ho was 
also a founder «nd benefactor of Ihe N.H. Med- 



Wry, d. Apr, 23, 1805, a. 70, bequeflthiiij; alio 
10 llia( Hiciet; S500. Dr. Brackctc wns ii zi:at- 
OU9 patriot, a member of the comiaitlce of 
Kafcty, and, during the Rcrol,, wa^ Hpp. Judge 
oC [lie Maritime Conrt of N.H. — Tnachtr. 

Bradbury, Thsofhilub, jurist, b. Kew- 
bury, Ms,, Not. 13, 1739; d, there Sept. 6. 
1803. H.U. 17o7. A deacendant of Thomas 
ol Salisbury. After keeping ihc grammar 
bchool at Falmouth. Me., he practised Taw there 
from May, 1761, until 1779, and ifterward in 
his native town, with success; flUed sfverst 
local offices; was a rcpresentalWe and senator 
in the Ms. lecisl.; M. C. 1795-7, and wb« 
(I79T-1S03) ■ judue of the Supreme Court of 
Ma. Member of the Amer. Acad, of Arts and 
ScicDces. 

Bradbury, Thomj.s of Sali^burv. d. 
there Mar. 16, I69!>; b. pr. Wicken, Eng.,'l6IO, 
He was in N.E, in 1634; whs made freeman, 
May 13, 1640 ; became first clerk of the wriis at 
Salisbury, Dec. 10,1641 : was elerk of Norfolk 
Co. from Apr. a4, 1649, to Feb. 4, IGSO; several 
years dep. to the Oeu. Court; was frequently 
a commissioner to settle boundary disputes; 
was capl. of a mililarj co., and an asso. jud^re 
for Norfolk Co., 1699 and 1679-7. 

Bradbury, William B., music. teacher 
and composer, b. York, Me., 1SI6 ; d. Mont 
dair, N.J., Jan. 7, 1888. From his piirents, 
both of whom were excellent itini:ei's, lie inher- 
ited his musical taste, and, before he was 14, 
had mastered every instrument that came in 
his way. In 1830, be moved to Buiiton, where 
he was an oncanist, and in 1836 bepin tcnch- 
ing in New York, whore he attained notoriety 
and popularity by bis concerts. lu 1847, he 
went to LeipBic, where he received instrnctton 
from the beat masters. In 1894, he bcj^nn in 
New York the manufacture of pianos, in which 
he was very successful. He was the author of 
"Tbe Golden Chain," "Golden Shower," 
" Golden Censer," and " Fresh Laurels." Ue 
did much lo elevate the standard of musical 
tA8te in the U.S. With the aid of the com- 
poser Hastin|(S, he prodnced " The Shawm," 
" The Jubilee," ■■ The Key Note," and " The 
Temple Cboir," all of which were deservedly 

Broddock, Edward, a British gen., d. 
July 13, 1755. Son of Maj,-Qen. B. He en- 
tered the army as ensign in tbe Coldstream 
Guards, Oct- 11, 1710; fought adoel with Col. 
Waller, with sword ntid pistol, May 26, 1718; 
bei:ame a capt. Feb. 10, 1736, served in Flan- 
ders ; became second major of his regl. in 1743; 
was present at Fontenoy, May II, 1745 ; was 
made lieut.-col. Nov. 21, 174.1, brig..gen. Apr. 
23, 1746 ; served again in Flanders in 1T47-S; 



-4 BRA 

col. 14th Foot, 17S3; maj.i^. March, 1754. 
and, Sept. 24, com.-in.chief of his Majesty's 
forces in America. He sailed from Eng. Dec 
21, 1754. He arrived in Va. in Feb, 1759, and 
conducted in gierson an exped. against Fort Da- 
qiietino, now Pittsburg. The delays occasioned 
by the necessity of opening new roads deter- 
mined him to advance with 1,200 men, leaving 
the heiivy bagirage in the rear. He reached 
the Monontrabela, July 8,and on the following 
morninj;, expecting to invest the fort that day, 
made the necessary dispositions. Despising 
his foes, with whose wily tactics he was wholly 
□nacqusinted, be disregarded tbe counsel of 
Wnsliingtun, his aide upon that occasion, to 
place the provincial companies in front for the 
purpose of scouring tbe woods, and discover- 
ing any ambuscade which might be found for 
him. His van, led by LieUt-'Col. {afterwards 
Gen.) Ga^, was suddenly attacked when ab. 
7 miles from the fort, by an invisible enemy 
concealed in the high grass. Tbe whole aimy 
was thrown into confusion; and Draddock, who 
exerted himself bravelv to re-form liis troops, 
who were constantly falling under the clo^nnd 
murderous fire lo which they mere exposed, 
after having 3 horaea shot under him, received 
a mortal wound. All his mounted officers ex- 
cept Washington, upon whom the duty of 
bringing off the shattered remnant of the army 
devolved, were either killed or wounded ; and 
the troops l^id precipitately to the camp of Col. 
Dunbar, near SO miles distant, where Brad- 
dock, who was bniught off the ground in a 
tumbrel, expired of hil wounds. His private 
character was that of a heartless, brofceo-down 
gambler and speudlhrift. 

Bradford, Alden, LL. D. (Bowd. Coll. 
1803), author, b. Duxbury, Ms., Nov. 19, 1765 ; 
d. Boston, Oct. 36, 1843. H.U. 1786. Son 
of Col. Gamaliel, and a lineal descendant of 
Gov. Wm. Bradford. He was a tutor at Har- 
vard in 1791-3 ; pastor of the Cong. Church 
at Wiscasset, Me., 1793-1801 ; was tor a time 
clerk of the Supreme Court of Ms., and a 
bookseller In Boston, and was sec. of State 
ill 1812-24. Edited the Bralon Gmettt, 1826. 
He pub. a" History of Ms. from 1764 to 1820," 
3 vols.; "EdogyonWashinston."" Oration," 
1804; "on the Doatb of Gen. Knox," 1806; 
"Lifto of C. Strong," 1S20, of "Jonathan 
Mayhew," 1838; a vol. of "N.E. Biography," 
1842; an account of Wiscasset and Duxbury 
in Hist. Colls.; "N.E. Chronology, 1497- 
1800," Bost.. 1843; a number of sermons; 
" History of the Federal Government," 184J, 
and a vol. of Ms. Stale paperB. 

Bradford, Alex. Warfikld, LL.l)., 

jurist, b. Albany, 1816; d, N,Y. City, 5 Nov. 
1867. Columb. Coll. Son of J.M. Bradford, 
D.D. Acquired high reputation for knowledge 
of civil law. Surrogate of N-Y. City and Co., 
1848-51. Hopub. 4 vols, of "Reports of Sur- 
rogate's Cases ;"8ix of" Bradford sRepotts; " 
edited a work on " American Antiquities," 
1841, and, with Dr. Ambon, edited The Pi-ole»- 
anl Chwdinmn. Latterly one of the commis- 
sioners to codify the taws of the Stale. He 
pub. in 1863 a semi-centennial address to the 
Albany Acad., and, in I846,a disconrse before 
the N.Y. Hist. Soc.iul»45. 



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BRA. 115 BRA. 

Brftdftttd, Akdrbw Sowut, printer, b. totBlljextirpncini; the English. He wu anna 

Phila., 1686 ; d. Nov. 23, 1742. Son of Wm. allj rcctosen gov. m long oa he lived, eicept 

Bradford, Ant printer of Phila., ftom whom he iug in ilie jenra I63S, 1634, '6, '8, and 1E44, 

learned the art fa N.Y. He wu ihe only wncn he deciined an election. He vrote a 

printer in Pa. from 171! lo 17S3. He pub, the hietor; of Plrmoulh Colon; from 1603lol61T. 

Amaiean Wtttig Meteuri/, ihe first newgpnper On tlie retreat of the British arim- la 1775, the 

in I^llB., Dec 33, IT19 ; wai Franklin's 6m MS. was carried airav from the library of the 

emplojer on fail arrival there in 1723 ; in 1733 Old South Church. Boston, and, after having 

wai poninaiter ; in 1739 kept a bookstore at been lost SO jear*, was recovered, and «aa 

the lign of the Bible, in Second st,, and in pnb. by the Mt. Hist. Soc. in 18S6. A Irag- 

1 738 retnoved to No. S, South Front St., occu- ment of his Letter Boole, found in ■ grocer's 

pied as a printing-hoaae in ISIO, bj his de- shop at Halifax, has also been printed by the 

•c«ndant, Tbomas Bradford, pub. of the True lame locietj, accompanied b; a descriptive and 

liiwriciu. In 1741, he pnb. a periodical, the historical acs»unt of N.E. in verse. 

Ameriaa Maqaxint. Bradford, Ma,job Williih , seconil son 

Bradford. Oak A LIE L. col. in the Revol. of Uo*. B.,b. June 17, 1624 ; d. Feb. 20 ,1704. 

armj, b. Dnxbary, Ms., Sept. 2, 1 731 ; d. there He resided in what is now Kingston, Ma. ' He 

Jon. 9, 1807. He was a descvntlnnt of Gov. B. com. the Plymouth troopt in King Philiii's 

Oamaliol, hia father, judge of the C.C.P. of War, and was wosnded in the Narrngansi'tt 

PljmoDlh, and a coancillor under Govs. Fort Sght, Dec. 19, 1675, at East Kingston, 

Bernard and Hntchinson, d. Apr. 24, I77S, a. R. I. 

73. He lerved in the French wara» ■ captain Bradford, William, tbe fir«t printer in 

ofmilitia; role to tbe rank of major, and, dar- Ph., b. Leit:ester,Eng., Un/ 20, 1660; d N.Y., 

ingtheBcvol.,com. the 14th Mass. Continental May 23, 1752, Being a Quaker, ha emiCTaCed 

Bwt. After tbe war, be was a representative in 16S2, and landed on the spat where Phila. 

aodajndge. was afterwards bnilt. He learned his trade in 

Bradrard, Taonia, son of Col. Wm., Lotidon. Inl 686, he printed an almnnac In 

printer, editor, and nnblisher, b. Phila., May 4, 1692, ha vru imprisoned for libel ; ihewritingi 

1743,' d. there Hay T, 1838, Leaving the of George Keith, which he printed, having 

Coll. of PhiU. in 1763, he enieivd bis father's cansed n annrrel among the Quakers. On his 

prioting-honse, and was his partner, and associ- trial, Bratifbrd maintained, that " the jurv are 

kte editor of tbe Pentaylainia Journal, which, ind^-es in law, ss well as the matter of fact," 

in IBOI, became the True Aneriean. An active He was not convicted, but, having incurred the 

opponent of the Stamp Act, and other arbitrary displeasure of the dominant party in Phila,, ro- 

meojores of the British Govemmeot, he bo- moved to New York in 1693, In that year, he 

came, in 177S, capt, of a military company in printcil the laws of the ColDnj. Oct. 16, 1723, 

Phila., and subsequently he was commissar; ho began the first newspaper m New York, the 

™n lo the Pa. division, and prinler lo Can- ^,1", Giuftte. In 1728. he established apapcr. 

Oneof thefonndersof tbaPhilos. Soc, mill at Eliiaiolhtown, NJ. For more than 

on Thdhas, LL.D., lawyer and pbilan- 50 rcnrs, he was printer to the govt, of N, Y., 

thropist, b, Phila., Sept. 11, 1781; d. there and, for 30 years, the only one in the province, 

Oct. 35, IB5I. Hi4 son AHDRtiw was a printer in I'hila, 

Bradford, William, adeov. of Plymouth Bradford, William, physician, lawyer. 
Colony, and one of "The Mavflower" Pil- and legislator, b, Piympton, Ms., Nov, 4, 
grims, b. Ansterfietd, Yorkshire, Bng,, in Mar. 1723 ; d. Bristol, R,I,, July 6. 1S08. He was 
1988; d. May9, 1697, Fossessedofagoodpatri- a dcacetidanl of Gov. Bradford, received agood 
monv.be yetearlyin life,connectcd himselfwirh education, and studied medicine under Dr, 
the Dissenters, and, at the age of 17, was one of EECkiel Herscv of Uinghnm. After a few years' 
a company which made an attempt to seek in practice at W'arren, R,I., he removed to Bris- 
Holland that toleration due to its enlightened lol, where be erected an elegant seat on Mount 
commercial policy ; but, being betrayed by the Hope, He afiorward etudied and practised 
master of the vessel, they were thrown into law, attaining high rank in bis profession. He 
prison at Boston, Lincoln snira. After another was a leading member of the coromitlce of 
unsuccessful attempt, be at length joined his corresp,, and took a decided part in the con- 
brethren at Amsterdam, learned the art of silk- troversy with Great Britain. During the enn- 
dyeing, and, coming into possetsion of bis prop- nonade of Bristol, Oct. 7, 1779, Gov. Brad lord 
erty at the age of 31, engaged nnsnccessfully went on board " The Rose," in behalf of the 
in commerce. He entered zealously into the inhabitants, and treated with Capt, Wallncs 
plan of removing lo America the congregation for the cessation of the honibnrdment. He woe 
ofMr. Bobinson a church at Loyden; sailed in a U. S. senator from 1793 to 1797, and waa 
the Arst iblp, and, on its arrival in the harbor dop, gov,, andspcakerof the houseof assembly, 
of Cape Cod, was one of the foremost in His eldest son, Maj. Wm. Bbadfokd, aide to 
selecting a site for the colony, Bvfore this Gon. Charles Lee, of the Revol. army, b, Bri4- 
wasar«omplishcd,his wifij^U inlnlhesea, and lol. Sept. 17, 1752; d. Nov. 1811. H, U. 
woa drowned. Upon the death of Gov, Carver, 1773. 

April 5, 1621, Mr, Brwlford was elected to QII Bradford, Col. William, printer and 

the plHCC, Among tbe Erst of bis acts was the Revol, soldier, b. N,Y,, 1719 ; d. Phila,, Scpi, 



sr«. 



cullivBtion offriendljrelations withlholndian 25. 1791, Grandson of the first printer of 

sachem Massasoil, «mo. in return (or his good Phila., and became a partner of his '~ '~ 

offices, discloned a dangerous couspiracy then drew, who had adopted him; bat the 



sachem Massasoil, «mo. in return (or his good Phila., and became a partner of his uncle . 
offices, discloned a dangerous couspiracy then drew, who had adopted him; bat theconnecl 
farming among tbe Indians for the purpose of was dissolved on account of a lovo-affair. la 



,,Google . 



■BRA. 116 -ERA. 

ITtI, he vidtedEDg., returning the next Tear Dec. II, 18ST). and of the Ohaich of the 

vilh booki and priniing-materiAl, and In bee. Redeemer at Boston, lince Apr. 6, 1864, b. 

1T4S, be pub. the first namber of the Ponual- Boaton, !4 Feb. 1831. B. U. 1B5S. He hat 

vaaia JoiBval, which woe contioned ontil tba pab. aeversl occuional lermoiu, — one on the 

close of (be century ; when Kit son Thomai. death of Prea. Lincoln ; hai conlrib. (o the 

wbo WB9 his basi new-partner, chanf^ its name iV. E, Rial, and Gaaol. RegiKtr, and to Tari- 

to tbc Trut American. Bceidee hit basinets o( ons periodicals and newspapers ; and has been 

Einting, he opened in IT54 the London CoFlee recordinR and corresponding soc. of the N. E. 

onae, and in 1763, in connection witb Mr. Bist. andGen. Soc., and is a member of man^ 

Kvdd, a marine-i nan ranee office. He opposed other hialorical and literary aocietiea. 

(he Stamp Act, and, having long held a com- BradlO?) Stepheh Row, LL.D. (Danm. 

mission in ihE Pa. militia, when the ReTol. Coll. ISOS), statesman, b. Wallingford, C(., 

war bcgnn, served a» a maj. and col, at Tren^ Oc[. 20, 1754 ; d, Walpole, N. H., Dec. 16, 

(on, at Princeton vhere he was wounded, and 1830. T. C. 1T7& He studied law under 

at Fort Mifflin. He left the nrmj with shai- Judge Reeve, and was adm. to practise in May, 

tercd health, and i^ined Ibrtune. Frantlin 1779. Becom. a companycalled the Cheshire 

saidorhim," His writingwasspirited,h>Bpree8 Vols, earlj in (ha Rerol. war, and was the 

cnrrec(, and his aword active." aide of Gen, Wooater when that officer fell at 

Bradford, W(LLIAM, lawvcr, b. Phila., Danbnry. Removing to Vt. in 1T79, he wasa 

Sept. 14, IT»5; d. Ad^. 33, 1795. N.J. Coll. friend of Ethan Allen ; pub. " Vermont's Ap- 

I7T3. Son of Col. Wm. Studied law nnder peal," 1779; was Bctiveinorganiiiiigtbe State, 

Edward Shippen ; adtn. to the bar of the Su- and was its senator in Congress in 1791-5 and 

premeConrt in 1779; app. attv.-gen. of Pa. 1801-13. He was a man of eminent ability, 

m Aug. 1 780 ; made a jndge of (ho Supreme bnt of eccentric habits. 

Conn of Pa., Aug. 22, 1791, and a(tj.-gen. of Bradley, William Czab.LL.D. (Vt. D. 
the D. S., Jan. 28, 1794. In Aug. 1T94, be 1851), lawyer, son of S. R., b. WeatminB[er, 
was one of the commiaaioneis to confer witb Vt., Mar. 23, 1782 ; d. there Mar 3, 1867. 
the inanrgentsof Weatem Pa. He was a maj. Y. C. 1817. Adm. to (he bar in 1802 ; State 
of brigadeundorGen. Robenieaain I776,wa« atty. for Windham Co, ,1804-11; member of 
acapt. in Hampton's rogt., and from Apr. 1777, the legiil. 1806-7 and 1850, and of the conn- 
to Apr. 1779, was dep. maater-maBter.een., cii, 1813; M. C. 1819-15, 1817-32, 1833-7; 
witb the rank of tient.-eol. He was ma(erial- agent of (be U.S. under the treaty of Ghent, 
It assisted in obtaining a valnable practice at and memberof the Slate Const. Conv. in 1857. 
the bar, and in various other wBvs, by his elder Bradley, William B, M. D., poet. b. 
brother Thomaa. In 1793, he' pub. " An In- Hartford, Ct., Jnlj 34, 1802 ; d. Cuba, 1825. 
quiry how far (he Punishment of D«n(h is Ne- Educated a phraician. He pub. " Ginseppino," 
cessacy in Pa.," and BDCcerdod in e£l«ting be- 1822, and many fngitive pieces. Son of Dr. 
neficent modiflcaliona in the penal code of (hat Wm. Bradley, afterward a resident of Phila. 

" '•^- ' ^--.-»-.- ^- ■- Bradstreet, ASNE, poet, b. Northampton, 

Eng., 1612 ; d. Sept. 16, 1673. She was the 

pob. in (ho Philadilphia Afa^iiae. dan. of Gov. Thomas Dudley, and m. Simon 

Bradford, William, b. N. Bedford, Ms.. BradMrcet, afterwards gov. of Ms., with whom 

of Quaker parentage, baa painted innhfully she came (o N, E. in 1630. Her poems, dcdi- 

many of the coast-^eeaes of N.E. Unsiiccess- ca(ed in verae to herfatbcr, and entitled " The 

1^1 ai a merchant in Fairbavcn. Mk., he studied Tenth Mase lately sprang np in Amer,,or Sev- 

tho coast of N. E,, Nova Scotia, nnd Labrador, eral Poems compiled with Great Variety of Wit 

Amorir his beat pictures arc ■' The Coiwt of and Learning, full of Delight," were pub, at 

Labrtiilor," " The Island of Grand Menan," London, 1650, A more complete edition, pnb, 

" Fii^hinE'-DOBts Getting nnder Way." " Sud- at Boston in 1678 (after her dea(b), contains 

den Squall in the Bav of Fundy," " Shipwreck her best piece, entitled " Contemplation a," A 

oft Nantucket," " hoarding tho Sloop," &c. reprint of this appeared in 1 758. Her works, 

— TiiAtnnan, including poetrr and prose, wore pab. at 

Bradisb, LnTSSR, LL.D. (Wuw. Coll. J, Charlestown in 1867. edited by John Harvard 

Blale«man,b.Cummington,Ma.,8ep(,l5,17g3; Ellis, 

d Ni-wpon, B,I., Aug. 30, 1863, Wms, Coll. BrsdBtXOet, John, maj, -Ken., b, 1711 ; d. 

04. Ilcsindied law, made a (onrin Europe, N,Y, Ciiy. 29 Kept. 1774. Initteexped. aRainsi 

■' 1 procuring infor- ' ' ■ ■ ' .. . . . ^ 

ing the commerce , , , . „ , ., . 

of (he Levant prior to establishing diplomutic to its success by his zeal, activity, and judg- 

relation a with the Porte. Heretnmed toN.Y. ment, and by" bis particular knowledge in the 

In 1826, settled in Franklin Co., where ho was cimimHtKnces of this place." Made acapt. in 

a large land-owner; was a memberof iho as- a regnlarregt.. colled Pepperell's, 5 Sept. 1745. 

Bcmblr in 1827-30 and 18^5-6; lieul.-gor. and app., 16 Sept 1746, to tho sinecnrc place 

1839-43: nnd assist U.S. treas. at N.Y., dur- of lieut.-goT. ol St. John's, Newfoundland, 

ing Fillmore's administration. He latterly Ordered by Braddock to Osw^o in 1755, and 

occupied himself with edncaiional, charitable, made ad^.-gen. to Gor. Shirley. In 1756, he 

and reformatory projects, and at his death was was agam ordeiwl to conduct auppliea to 0»- 

pres. of the N.Y. Hiat. Society and the Amer. wego, and on his return, July 3, was attacked 

Bible Society. by a slrong party of (he enemy, which he do- 

Bradlee, Caleb Datib, pae(or of the fcatcd; app, to a company ilt the 60th (I!oy. 

Allon-si., Church, Cambridge (Dec. 11, 1854- Amer.) re^. in Mar. 1757, and, 37 Dec., was 



engaged in procuring infor- Lonishurg in 1745, he waa lieut-col. of Pop. 
ir the govt reipecring the commerce pcrell's (York, Me.) regt., and contrib. largefy 



i,v._ioo'^le 



n>d« Ueat-col. and dqi. Q.M, gen. In ITH, March 7, 1793) and lorvod in Wayne'i Inilian 

be took pan ia the nDincMuful attack on campaign. He left tbe Mffvice, bai re-eaierm 

TiooDdorogia ; waa made Q.M, gen., rank of it in 1808; July 6, I81S, wai app. col. S2d 

a>[., in Amer-, 30 Ang., and, 27 Aug., captured regl. ; col. Sd Inf., 1816 ; brevet bng.-geu. July 

Pl Froalenac An account of this exped. S, 1822; maj.-gen. May30, 184B. He dialing, 

waa pub. in London in 1759. Ho aceomp. himself at Lnndy'a Lane, at Chippewa, and at 

Amhcnt in his eiped. a^ainat Ticonden^ Niagara, and ms wounded in the two latter 

and Crown Point; wa> made col. in Feb. 1762, engagcmems. Bulioned at DeCroii during ihe 

maj.-gen. 29 May, IT73, In 1764, he com. patriot diatnrbancw in Canada, he contrib. 

an exped. against tbe Western Indiana, with greatly to the preservation of peace on (he 

whom be negolialed a peace at Detroit, Sept. m>ntier. 

T He had [WO daaghUia, Martha and Aga- Brsdy, JaMis Topham, an eminent law- 

tha, by bis wife Mury, who had by her Qrtt yer of New York, h. there April 9, ISlfi ; d. 

hiub. (Maj. John Bradatreet), Eliiabeth, who FD'a. 9, 1869. Uis father, Tlioi. S. Bmdy, a 

>KCBme (be wife of Peter livion, and Samuel, lawyer and politician, trained him to the bar, 

naL 40th Fool 10 which he was adm. in 183S, and where be 

BradStreet, Smait, gov. of Ms., b. Hor- early attained reputation. His forte was crimi- 
bling, Linoolnahini, Eng., Uarcb, 1S03; d. nal caaea, in nearly all of which for 30 years 
SaloD, Hs., March 27, 1667. Hii father, ReT. hewasengaged; andhewoneBpecialdi^lineiion 
Simon Bradstreet, was a nonconformist minis- in the celebrated Forrest diiorce case, and by 
tcT, Bred in the leligioas family of the Eall his deface of Daniel E. Sicilies in 18S9. A 
of Lincoln, after ttodying one year at Eraan- Slate-rights man and a Democ. before the Re- 
nd Coll., Cambridge, ho became staward to bellion, when that crisis come, he was a lealous 
the Coaatass of Warwick. Having m. Anne, inpporter of Mr. Lincoln's admiaistration, bat 
dan. of Thomas Dudley, he was persuaded would never take any political office, thoai^h 
to engage in the settlement of Ma., was chosen often urged to do so. During tbe civil war, be 
assiat..JDdge of acourt about to be established made many speeches on national questions. 
there, and arrived in Salem in tbe summeT of Near the close of the war, he was one of a com- 
1630. Ue took part in the proceedings of the misaion to inquire into tbe administration of 
flnt conrt held id Charlestown, Aug. 18; bo- the Dept. of the Gulf, undRr Gens. Butler and 
came agrat and sec. of Ms., and commissioner Banks. He was an amiable and social man, 
of the Dnilcd Coloniee. In 1631, be was of mncb literary culture and taate, and bad 
antong the founders uf Cambridge. He was been a contrib. to the old Knicteriocker iliy- 
amang the first settlers of Amlover, and reaid- aane. One of the best of bin pieces, "A Christ- 
ed alio at Ipswich, Salem, and Boston. In mas Droom," was pnlin a vol. as aaillnatrated 
ie&3, he, with bis eolle^ues, vigoroasly and holiday present. 

snccessfolly opposed making war on the Dutch BragR, Bhaxtoh, gen. C.S.A., b. Warren 
ID N.T., and on the Indians; though it waa Co., N.C..ab. 181B. West Point, 1637. Enter- 
BtroDglv urged by all the commissioners of the ing the 3d Art., he served against tlie Semi- 
other Coloniee. In 1662. he waa sent to Eng. note Indians, 1839-4-?; brev. capt. for gal. 
locongralulale Charles II. on his restoration, conduct in defence of Fort Brown, May 9, 
and 10 act as agent lor the Colony. He was 1846 ; capt. 8 June, 1S46 ; brev. major fur gal- 
aosistaot from 1630 tolS79.; gov. from 1679 laatry at Monterey, Mei., Sept. 2.1, 1846 ; brev. 
to 1686, when the charter was annulled. Ho lieut.-eol. for Buena Vidia, Feb. 23, 1847 ; mnj. 
stiennonaly opposed the arbitrary measures of 1st cav,, March 3, ISaS; resigned Jan. 3, 
Aodro*, and after his overthrow in May, 1689, 1866, and lived on his extensive plantation at 
was again gov. until May, 1692, when, at the Thibodeaux, La., until the civil war. Made a 
a. of Bsrbe became first councillor. Hewuin brig.-gen. in tbe Southern army in March, 1861, 
service in tlie govt. 63 years, except daring tbe and took com. of the forces at Feniarola di's- 
brief administrations of Dudley and Andros. lined to reduce Fort Pickens. To Feb. 1862, 
He was a popular magistrate ; a man of great be was made maj.-geti., and ordered to join the 
inte^ty, luety, and prudence ; was opposed lo army of Iho Mpi. He bore an important part 
the witch delusion in 1692, and lived to be the in the battle of Shiluh, where he com, the 2d 
Nestor of N.B. He advised the surrender of corps. ; was promoted to gen, in place of Gen. 
the charter of Ms. to Charles IL, warily dis- A. S. Johnston, killed in that battle, and in 
Imstiug tbe alHlitT of the Colonists to resist. May succeeded Beannigard in com. of thiil 

Bradstreet) Sinoh, minister of Charlea- dcpl. In Aug., he left Chattanooga, succvns- 

lown, Ms., iTom 36 Oct. 1698 to bis d., 31 fully turned Buell's left Sank, and, pa;i^ill^ 

Dec. 1741 ; b. New London, Ct., 7 Mar. 1671. tbroagh East Tean., enwred Ky. at the boad 

H.D. 1693. Son of Rev. Simon of N. L., of a lai^ army. Baell leaving his posts in 

(1640-831, and grandson of Gov. Simon. He Ala., marching on a much shorter line, reached 

ranked h^h as a praaoher and a scholar. His Louisville before bim, and compelled Brajt^ to 

■on SivDK, minister of the second Cong, retire after the battle of Perrvvilla, Oct. 9, with 

CliuTcb, Marbiehead, and a disling. linguist, the force under Gen. HcCook. He carried 

d, Marbiehead, G Oct. 1771, a. 62. Urd. 4 away a vast amount of supplies and a large 

Jan. 1738. H.D, 1728. number of recruits from Ky. He was removed 

Brad7, itvon, maj.^en, D.8.A., b. North- from hiscom.,and placed under arrest in Rich- 

nmherland Co., Pa., in July, I 7dS ; d. Deiruit, mond, but was soon restored, and look com. 

April IS, 1851. He was a bro. or nephew of of the army opposed to Rosecrans, Nov. 

" " ■ — ■ ■ . .... 'the battle of Murfreasboro', Doc. 31, 

.T a partial nuccess, he was forced 10 retire 



t.Google 



BRA. 118 3Ra. 

Sept. 19, I8G3, beilcfeated Roiacnua at Cbick- 1B3S, entitled " Liicrarj Bemnlna," and a 3d 

amsugti; Nor. S5, 1B63, he naa deciairelj de- ed, (Hartfonl, 1S43J edited hr J. G. Whiltier. 

katd by Geo. Grant al Miuion. Ridfe. Re- Brsinerd, Thomab, D.U., Presb, clergy 

liered from eom. ab. 3 Dec. 1863. He led a man, b. Central N.Y., June IT, 1804 ;d. Scran 

«mallfbreefroinN.C.toOa.iii the antamn of ton, Fa., Aug. 22, ISGG, Ord. Oct. T, 1831. 

IHIU!d.GalTeBCon,Tezaa,Sept.ia76. Descended from Daniel Brainerd tho Funtal). 

" "' He at first studied low, but soon entered ibe 

And. Tbeol. Sem., etudied Bft<:rward under 



Bragg, TnoHAi, politician, b. Warrenlan, 
N.C., Not. 9, IBIO. ChieBv educated at tbe 
Midilletoon, Ct,, Milit. Acad, ; began to prac- 



, . , egan to prac- Dr. Pallerson of Pbila., and removed li 

n !S3I ; member of the N.C. Asaem- cinnati, where bo aseisled Dr, Lrman Beecheri 

blT, 1842 ; gOT. of N.C. 1855-9 ; U.S. senator edited the C/iriitiaa Uerald, Cinciiinali JoiB-aal, 

I8S9 to Jal;, l86l,vrbcD be wai CKpelled, hav- and Youlhi' Magazine, 1633-6, and assisted on 

ing previouiily taken part in the Bebellion. — tbe PreMbi/terian Quarterly Raiac. From 1837 

Bro.ofBraitoo;d.Haleigb,N.C,JBii.2l,lS7S. to hi» death, he bad charge of the Old I'ine- 

BraiueM, Datid, rnk'tionary to the Indi- sir«ct Church, Pbila. Author of " The Life 

ans, b. Haddam, Ct., April 20, 1718; d. North- of John Brainerd." — S« MemotV, ty J/. Drai- 

"in|iton, Oft. 9, 1747. He was remarkable at nerd, 8to, Phils. 

an enrlv age for a serloua turn of mind. He BranGb, Joan, sec. of tbe D. S, N., b. 

entered' Y. Coll. in 1739, and was dialing, for Halifax, N.C., Noy. 4, 178S j d. Edgefield, N.C, 

application and general corrccLneas of con- Jan. 4,1863. U. of N.C. 1801. Besiudiedand 

duct, but waa expelled in 1743 for some iririat practised law ; became ajudge of tbe Superior 

oR'ence. Licensed to preach in JuIt, 1742. Conn; was a member of the State senate from 

His strong desire to preach the goapel among 1811 to 1817 ; goT. of tbe State in 1817-20; 

the heathens was at length gratided by an again a State senator in 1S22 ; a U-S. senator 

app. from Ibe Societj for Propagating Chris- from 1823 to 1829; soc. of tbe mw under 

lian Knowledge, as missionary to the Indians. Pres. Jackson Itom 1829 to 1831 ; M.C. 183)- 

In 1743, he commenced his labors at Kauna- 3; a);ain a State senator in 1834; in 1835, a 

inuk, an Indian Tillage eituaied between Stuck- member of the Sute Const. ConT,; atid, in 

bridge and Albany. On tbe remoTai of the 18M-5, gOT. of Fla, Terr. — Lanmaa. 

Kaunamnks the next year to Stockbridge, he Brsnch, Liwbevcb O'Brien, gen. 

turned bis attention to the Delaware Indians. C.S.A., b. Halifait Co., H.C., in 1820 ; killed 

Ord. in June, 1744, by the presbytery at New- in battle at Aniietam, Sept. 17, 1862. NJ. 

ark, N J., he took up his habitation near tbe Coll. 1836. Sonof the preceding. He stud- 

forks of tbe Delaware, in Pa., where he resided led law, settled at BaEeigh, and wai M C. from 

for a year, and made two visits to the Indians 1855 to 1861, supporting the measures of the 

on the Susquehanna River. His exertions, Democ. parly. After lEe lecessioa of N.C, 

howeTer, werq unattended with much success, May 21, he entered its military serrice, and 

until he went to the Indians at Crosweeksung was made brig.-gen. in Not. 1861. He com. 

in N.J. A complete reformation in (be lives at Newborn whan it was captured by Gen. 

of tho savages look place within a year, and Bumsidc, and subsequently look part in sev- 

nearly 100 were bapliusd. In 1747, be went to eral of the battles in that Slate and on the pe- 

NurtbamploQ, Ms., and passed there, in the uinsula. 

family of tbe celebrated Jonathan Edwards, the Brandt, Josbpb (Ta« 

residue of his days. Brainerd was a man of Mohawk chief, b. ab. 1742 ; o. at nia seat at 

vigorous intellect and quick discernment. Gift- Ibe bead of Lake Ontario, U.C, 24 Nov. 1907. 

ed with a powerful eloquence, a strong memo- He is said to hare taken an active part in the 

rv. and with an intimate knowledge of human Niagara campaign of 1759, under Sir Wm. 

1 eminently qualified for tlio Johnwin, who, in 1761, sent him to Ur. Wboe- 

itmction. Ilia biography was luck's livlian school at HanoTer, where he 

written by Pres. Edwards. A new ediiion, tO' tranalaled portions of the New Tcslamenl 

girther with bis jonmala, " Miraliilia Dei apod into the Mohawk laii^ua^re. In 1763, be was 

Ihdicos," and " Grace Displayed," was pub. in in the war against FontiRC. He was, at the 

t8S9. John, his brother, also a missiD0aiT,b. breaking.out of the Revol. war, sec. to Guy 

lladdam, Ct., S8 Feb. 1720 ; d. Decrfield, Ms., Johnson, superintendent of the Indians, whom 

March 21, 1781. T.C 1746. He sticceeded to he excited to take arms against the Colonists, 

hit brother's mission in 1748 ; resided in New- Returning from a visii to Eng. in 1775-«, he ■ 

ark, N. J., in 1755 ; was some timoetMt. Holly, was employed b; the British m predatory ex- 

and offirialed to churches aronnd Egg Harbor, cursiona against the Colonista in connection 

in 1760-77, but went to Deerfield in 1777. — withlbesavBgeToryrerugee,Col. John Butler; 

^'e Life (f, hu BeB. Thotaas Brainerd, 1865, .served under St. Leger at the inTestmvnt of 

Brainerd, John Gahdinbr Calrids, Fon Stanwix ; was a leader in the severe bottle 

poet, b. New London. Ct., Oct. 21, 1796 ; d. of Oriakany, 6 Aug. 1777, and, though not 

tlicre Sept. 96, 1828. Y.C. 1815. He was ibD preecnt at the Wyoming Maisscre. was in that 

son of Judge Jeremiah G., who d. Jan. 7, at Cherry Valley, and in July, 1779, ted the 

1 8-10, a. 69. EMucaied for tho bar, inadequate band that destroyed Minisink, and defeated the 

success in that vocation led him lo assume in party of Col. Tusten. He held a col's, com- 

1 829 the editorial charge of the Vt. Mirror at mission from the king, and, after the war, pre- 

Uarlfbnl ; but tho ravagea of consumption vniled on the various tribes lo make a perma. 

nliligcd him, about n year before his death, lo neni treaty of peace. In 1786, he again vi.-il- 

return to New Ixindon. A vol. of his poems ed Eng., where he was received with distinc- 

w^t^ pub. in N.Y., 1825 ; an enlarged ed. in tion, and collecied funds for the vrection of 



t.Google 



tbe first church built in npper Canada, nnd was 
afterward empioved bj Qov. CarleloD in the 
public MrricQ. he opposed the confederadoD 
of tbe Indisna, whicu leil 10 tbe enped. of 
Waj-ae in 1793, and did his almost topreMtre 
peace belweeo the Indiana and tbe U.S. He 
tranilaled the Goipel oT Sl. Mark into the 
Mohawk langaaue, and did much for the wel- 
rarc of hU people. Hia Bon Jobs, an officer 
in the British Mrvice in the War of 1S12, d. 
BranifurJ in i3ept. 1B33, a. 36. A dau. m. 
W. J. Kerr of Niagara in 1824. — 6'ee Cifi 
of Branb, bg IV. L. Sloae. 

Brannan, Johh Miltok, brev. niRj.^en. 
L'.S.A., Ii. D.C.sb. 1830. W&il Puini, 1841. 
KnleriDg the In Art., he became 1st lieuc 
Mar. 3, 1817 ; distinj;. hinuelfat Cerro Gordo ; 
won tbe brer, of capt. Tor ^lantrj' at Con- 
iivras and t'burnbujjco ; WM scierely wounded 
at tbe Belen Gale of M«iico, Sept. 13, 1847 ; 
capu IsL Art. No*. 4, ISM; and brit^.-tfCD. 
Vols. SepL 38, 1861, and served in tl^ dcp. 
of (be South, having for a time com. of Soutn- 
eni Florida. Tranaferred to S.C, be com., 
Oct: 33, 1863. a reconDoisaance from Uilion 
Head to tbe Brood Birerand its tribuiuries. und 
had en cngngement with a Conted. furto, which 
he droTc acroiU tbo Poeotaligo River, with 
severe Ion on boih *idcs. Hs com. a division 
in McCuok'a corjis at Chickamaoea, 30 Sept. 
1863; wai chief or art. dept., Cutaborlend, 
1863-9 ; brev. col. (or Chicliamauga; maj. 1st 
Art. Aug. 1, 1803; in tbe battle of Missioo- 
arj Bidge. Not. 33-35, 1863; in the battle* 
and operations ending in tbe capture of Ai- 
Innta, 3 Sept. 1864, for which brer, bri^.-gen. 
U.S.A., 13 Mar. 186i; and brev. m^.-gim. 
D.S.A. for merit, servicee in tbo field during 
the Rebellion. — Cu/Jhu. 

Brannui, Williak Pkhh, artist and 
poet of Cindooati, b. 33 Mar. 1835 ; A. there 
9 Aug. IS66. Author of the " Harp of a 
Tbonaand Strinn ; " wrote ander the psendo- 



Df DM of " Vaiidf ke Brown," and prodaced 

some jMintine* of decidr' '- *- " — 

mdPotlno/At We*. 



t PaeU 



Brfltuei WiLLiui, F.R.S., lawjer, preach- 
er, pbjsiciaa, soblier, and legislator, b. Cam- 
bridge, Ms., ab. 1703; d. Hnlirai, M.S., Oct. 
1776. H.U. 1723. Soo of Wm., minister of 
Cambridge {b. 33 Nov. 1663; d. IS Feb. 171 T. 
H.U. 1680. Ord. 3S Mar. 1696). Author of 
■ cooipendinin of logic The son was long a 
mcuiber of the leKi*'- ^"^ <>f '^^ eonncil ; 
practised phjiie exwnsiTel; ; wm capt. of the 
An. Co., 1733, and a maj.-Ben. of militia ; a 
Iwaebclor of U. IT. ; member of the Sump 
At Congress in 1765; and, being a loyalist, 
lelt Eloiton with the British troops in Mar. 
1776. 

Bravo (bri'vo), Niooiah, a Mexican gen., 
b. ChJlpnniingo, ab. 1799; d. there Apr. 32, 
1854. Leon^o hi> ftther, a patriot, b. near 
Sun Luis Fotosi, 1766 ; d. of prison-fever, in 
tbe hands of the Spaniards in the cit; of 
Heiieo in 1812. Attached la the parir of in- 
dependence from the outset, he placed himself, 
■fler the death of Hidalgo in IBIS, under 
Uordos, and contrih. powerfaltj to the suc- 
rus of the Republican caase bj bit victorf 
over tbe Spanish gen. Mkuitn. In 1B17, he 



9 BBK 

was taken bj the viceroy Apodaea, woo 
spured his life only at ihe urgeni solicilatiot 
of many prominent royalists, lie was released 
at the general amnesty, March, 1830. He op- 
posed Iturbide in 1833 ; and tbe provisional govt, 
which succeeded was coulided in 1623 lo^ra- 
vo. Viitoria, and Nogretle. Feb. S, 1834, Vit- 
toHa obtained tbe presidency, and Bravo the 
vice-presidency; Dec. 33. 1837, bo put him- 
self at the head of a Hevol. movemeni, but was 
ea-^ily ddeated by Gen. Guerrero ; Brnvo ond 
other officers who were taken, after passing 5 
months in prison, being banished to Gualo- 
mala. Recalled in 1829 by the overthrow of 
Guerrero, he was sent against him, ami ob- 
tained bis revenge on that chieftain, whom he 
look with arm* in his bands, and who was 
shot Feb. 14, 1831. At the close of 1833, 
Bravo was again al the head of a small body 
of insurgents, and was beaten in the year fol- 
lowing by Vitloria. Id Jnly, 1839, as pre«. of 
tbe coancil, he was charged with the supreme 
administration of the ^ovt. during an inter- 
im of a week, and again, from Oct. 36, 1843, 
till March, 1843, during Sanu ABa's absence 
as dictator al the h^d of the ajmy, and 
fur the lost time from July 39 to Aug. 4, 1846, 
when he was deposed by 'a Revol. During 
the war with the U.S., be took part in Ihe 
battle of Cerro Gordo. Bravo was one of the 
mo3i upright, honorable, and disting. men 
Mexico has produced. — N. B. G. 

Braxton, Caster, sigQur of the Docla- 
raiiuu of Independence, b. Newinglon, V*., 
Sept. to, 1736; d. Oct. 10, 1797. Wm. and 
Mary Coll. 17&6. His father was a wealthy 
planter, and his mother ibe dan. of Robert 
Carter, at one ume pres. of the coancil. In 
1760, he rotoraed from a residence of some 
jrears in Eng., and In 1765 disting. bimself 
m the Va. H. of bargcsscs, in Bupport of Ful- 
rick Henry's celebrated Stamp Act resolu- 
tions, and in the subsojuept assemblies which 
were dissolved by tbe gov. He was a member 
of the Va. coDven^oD of 1769, and of thai of 
WiUiamsbnrg in 1774; was an active mem- 
ber of the last bouse of burgeosca convened 
under royal aolhori^ in Va., and was a mem- 
ber of the commillee to whom was referred the 
diffiunlty between it and Gov. Dnnmore. In 
1775, he was a member of the convention which 
met at Bicbmond to devise measures for the 
public good, and wns, Dec. 15, app. i 



Va. legisl. till 1781 ; from 1786 to 1791 was a 
member of ll;e Stale council, and also from 
1794 to 179T. He inherited several planta- 
tions ; but the cloio of hia lif^ was imbittered 
by pecnniai^ embarrasameni, and ibe entire 
wreck of bis fortune. He was a man of laleni, 
of sound judgment, and remarkable prudence 
and forelhoughl. In 1776, he pub. at Phila. 
" An Address to the Convention of Va. on tbe 
Subject of Govt." 

Brearly, David, jurist ; d. Trenton, NJ., 
16 Aug. 1790, a. 44. Lieut. -col. in the Revol. 
army, and a cool and brave officer. Member 
of the State and Federal Const. Convi., and 9 
years chief-justice of N.J..apnL in July 1779. 

BreaUlitt, Jubb, gov. Ey., 1832-4, b. ueai 



hyGoogle 



New London, Ta., Sept. 9, ITSSj d. FruDk- 
fun, Kj., Feb. 21, IB34. Hi« &tlier settled in 
Logan Co. in IBOO. John waa > luirejor 
and scbool'leacher, snd, acquiring Bome prop- 
erly, studied lanr ; adm. to the bar in Ftib. 
leiO; wassereraljeanlbereafteriDlhelegial.i 
waa lieutgoT. in 1828-33. He was a warm 
sapporier of Jacksoa fur the Preiidencj. — 

Brebeuf,JBAN DB (1593-1649), was one 
uf tlie earlifliil migtionaries aenl Hi Canada, 
whiihor, in 162S, he accompanied Chainplain, 
Hud eslablished himself among the Uurons. 
Uurin^ a reaidence among them of 3 ^eara, lie 
ucquired ihuir language, guiued their confi- 
de ure. and exercised a paternal influence 
uvi'i ibem. Be fell a Ticiim lo the implacable 
hatred which eii^iied between the Harona and 
Iroquuid. In 1649, in a combat where the 






It him 



B tright- 
is wbich the; uauallr inflict on their 
prisonurs of war. At tlie eodof'^biB " Vojages," 
Cbamplain haa printed the " Vattchame Iradait 
daiis la Lanyae da Huront," b; father Brebeuf. 
Thi« 19 the flrat known specimen of the idiom 
of the savages of Canada, Paris, 16SS. 

Breclc. Daniel, LL.D., jurist, soa of Ber. 
Daniel (1748-1845), b, Topsfield, Ma., Feb. 19, 
ITSS. X>.C. IS12. He studied law. and re- 
moving to Richmond, Ky,, in 1814, commenced 
piuciice there. Judge of a connty court; 
Irum 18^4 lo 1829, he was a member of (he 
titAie leKisI- ; Irom 1S3S tu 1843, he waapres. 
uf tlie brunch bank of Ky, at Richmond ; 
in 1843, ho waa app. jodge of the Supreme 
CuunofKy., and was M.C. from 1849 10 1851. 
LL. D. of Transyl. U. in 1843. — ionmon. 

Breck, Robbbt, minister of Springfield, 
M«.,fru[n Julv S6, 1736,to hisd.,Apr.S3, 1781, 
b. Juiy 25. 1713. H.O. 1730. Son of Robert, 
minisioiurMoriboroagb,. 1704-31. Uis settle- 
mem gave rise lo much controversy as lo bia 
religious views. He waa a man of great learn- 
ing, and a close reasoner. He pub. a century 
sermon on the hnmingoftbe town by the In- 
dians, Oct. 16, Ifilb. — Spragae. 

Breck, Samuel, son of Rev. Daniel, b. 
Boston, 17 Julv. 1771 ; d. Phita., 1 Sept 1882. 
At the Roy. Milit. CoU. of Loreie in 17B3-7. 
Hij family moved lo Pa. in 1793. He was 
manv years in the Pa. legist, and in the Fhila. 
I'ity'govt. ; M.C. 1833-5; member of the Pa. 
Uiai. Sue. He pub. historical sketch of Con- 
lineniHl papcr-moDey, 1813, and *ome histori- 
cal adilresBea. 

Breckinridge, Oen. James, lawyer and 
politician, b. near Fincastie, Botetourt Co., 
Va., March 7. 1763 ; d. there Aug. 1846. W, 
and M. Coil. 1789. He was a Revol. saldiL-r, 
serving in Col. Fresloo's rifle rtgt., under 
Greene, in 1781 ; was adm. lo the bar in 1787, 
and became a Ruccesafui lawyer; apromincnt 
lender uf the old Federal party in the gen. as- 
sembly of ihe State, and M.C. 1809-17. He 
wuH an active and efficient friend of that great 






uf the Chesapeake 
liio, and a zealous co-laborer with 
in founding the I', of Vo. 



:0 bbe: 

BreoklnridKe, John, U.S. «tiy..gea. ia 

1805. author and advocate of the celebrated 
" ResolutiotU of 1798-9 " in the Va. legirl., b. 
Va, 1760; d. Lexington, K;., Dec. 14, 1806. 
Emigrating to Ky., he waa chosen U.S. sen- 
ator in 1301, and introduced, in 1802, a resolu- 
tion for the repeal of the Jadiciary Act of IBOI. 
eiitabiiBliiag several new tribunals. In the de- 
bate which followed, Mr, Breckenridge disiing. 
himself by his eloquent specchea. He also look 
an active pan in the diicusaioo relative to the 
free navigation of the Upi. A vol. of hii 
speeches waa pnb. 

Breokmridge, John, D.D. (Cn. Coll. 
1835), b. CabeU's Dale, Ky., 4 July, 1797 ; d. 
neai Lexington, Ey., 1 Anc, 1811. N.J. Coll. 
181B. Son of tlie preceding. Licensed to 
preach in 1632; cbapluo to Congress inl832- 
3 ; pastor of a Fresh, chorch at Lexington, 1 
Sept. 1823-1826, during which time be estab- 
lished the Watem Lunaniay, a religions news- 
paper. In 1826-31, he was colleague with Dr. 
Glendy at Raltimore; sec. and gen.-ai;ent of 
the Ffcsb. Board of Education at Phila. in 
1831-6; prof, of theology at the Princeton 
8em. in 1836-8; sec and gen.-agent of the 
Board of Foreign Missions, 1838-40, and at 
the time of his d. pres. elect of Ogleifaorpo D., 
Ga. In 1B36~8, he was settled at N. Orleans. 
He was an able controversialist; and his discus- 
sion with Bishop Bughea of N.Y. was pnb. 
with tbe title, " Roman-Catholic Controversy." 
He was an eloquent preacher and an able 
polemic writer. Pres. of tbe African Coloni- 
lation Soc. — Spragut, 

Breckiariage, Joan Cabell, vice.-pres. 
of the U.S., b. near Lexington, Ky., Jan. 21, 
1921. GrandsonofSenator John B. Centre 
Coll., Ky. He studied law at the Transyl. 
Institnle, and was adm. (o the bar at Lexing- 
ton. AiWr residing at Burlington, lo., for a 
time, he returned to Li^xington, where he priic- 
tiaed his profession with success. He avivcil as 
a major during the Hex. war,aDd dialing, him- 
self as the counsel of Gen. Pillow during the 
fomous conrt-martial. On his return, he was 
elected lo the State legtsl, and was H.C. from 
IS51 to 1855. _Tba mission to Spain 

a. Pierce, but was i 

n March, 1857. One of his 
was the delivery 
He entered these ._._ 
of J. J. Crittenden. Can- 
didate of tbe Southern Denioc. for Pres. in 
1860, and defcaicd ; expelled from the senate, 
Dec. 4, 1861 ; made amaj.-gen. C.S.A., 5 Ang. 
1862; he com. the reserve at Shiiob. Apr. 6, 
IS62; com. the Ibrce which attacked Baii^i 
Rouge, !«., Aug. b, 186i, and wa?i repulsed ; 
com. a division in Polk's ro'ps at Murlrecs- 
boro', Dec 31, 1862; at Chickamauca, Nov. 
25. 1863 ; defeated bigel near Kewmarket, Va., 
Muy 13, 1864; then joined Lee's army, and 
was at the battleof Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864 ; 
com. a corps under Early in the Shenandoah 
Valley, when defeated by Gen. Sheridan, Sept. 
1864; defeated Gen. Gillem in E. Tenn., Nov. 
12 ; was in (he buttle nenr Kuahviile, Dec. 15, 
and in Jan.-Apr. 1865, was sec of war at Rich- 
mond ; was in Europe al^ Lee's summdeTi 
1865-8; d. Lexington, Ky., May 17, 1875. 



,v Google 



121 BKHI 

BrantoDt JAHbBBL, DMt-capi. Briiiih Da< 

Presb. dirioe, b. at Cabell's vy.b. Oct. £2,1739; d. Edinborgh, Jao. 1803. 

Dale, Kt., Mar. 8, ISOO. Un. ColU 1S19. He Wm., Che fint Pilgrim, waa gov. of R. I. HU 

practised law frota 1833 to 1831, and waa, son JifiLEBL, Sd, coU. of thecustonu in N.E, 

meanwbile, sereral times in the Kj. l^isl- nnder Wm. III.,d. 1733 ; andhiBSOD Jaslebl, 

From 1B33 to 184S, he was pastor of the First 3d, who Menu to have been a great land- 

Praab. Chorch, Baltimore, and noted fbr his holder (b, Aug. IS, 1691), m. the dau. of Saml. 

doqoence. Pres. of JefT. Coll., Pa., from 1845 Crunslon, gor. of B. I. By Iliis lad* he bod 

to 1847, when he returned to Kj. ; assumed T danghteraandSaoDS, oneof wham, Jablbel, 

the pastorale of the Fint Presb. Charch in 4lli, m. Henrietta Cowley loC the Conlevx of 

Lexingioa, and became anperintendentorpab- Worcestenhiro), who bore him a large bmily. 

lie iuBtraction for the State. He realised In bis youth, he entered the nary, hat had 

these sialioni in 1853, baring been elected altainedonly the rank of lieol., and was tiring 

prof of theoloe)' in the newly-established sem. qaietly on the patrimonial estate in R. I., when 

■1 Danville, k?., an office which he held (ill tlie Rurol. began. Ue was a man of highcbar- 

hLidtatb. While in Baltimore, he edited the acier and retpecMble Ulenis: efforts were 

LitfTartj and Bdigiaut Mayaiine and the Spirit made to enlist biu on the [wtriot aide. He 

u/' tit 19fA Ctntniy; and his discDMiona with was oftered hieh rank in their nair, but i»- 

ihe Catholics erinced great knowledge of fnsed, and at last escaped to a Brilisb c raiser 

charcb-histoij and tbeolo^. Ho islheprinci- off the coast, sacrificing alt hat a small frag- 

tat autborof the common-school system of Ey. ment of a liberal fortune. Ho served withrep- 

» the autistavery discosaions of the day, he aiatioQ, rose to be a poat capt., and brongbt op 

oppDsL-d the eitmoistB of eithur side, and ear- three sons to the some prof. His sun Sir Jas- 

oaitlysDpparted the Union cause during tbe civil lkel, tear-adm. of the Bine, b. R. I., 1170, d. 

■ ~ ■ "sinEi ""■-.- . - ---- " - 



rr. 



S vols, of "Travels in Europe" Elfbrd, Eng., Apr. 3, 1844. He first served 

' " in " The Queen," commanded br his 
His second son, Edv 
il Hislor, 

of Un.CoU. 1839. D. Danville, Ky. Dec. 37, '71. Brenton, Willijih, gor. of R. I., d. New- 
Broese, Sauugl L., rearnidm. D.3.N., b. port, 1674. The family, who were persona of 
NT., 1T94; d. Ml. Airuy, Fcnn., Dec. 17, wealth and consideration in Uammersmtth, 
1870. Midshipm. Sept. 10, 1810 ; licul. Apr. Eng., emig. to Amer. in the reign of Charles I. 
37, 1816; commander, Dec. 23, 1835; capl. He was a representative of Boston fur several 
Sept.S, 1841 ; rearadm. July 16, 1862. lie waa yeiua, dating from 1635; lieut-gov. of R. L 
present at the battle of Lake Champtain, Sept. before 16G0, and in 1663; pres. of B. I. bo- 
ll, 1614; com. frigate "Cumberland," Medit. (wccn 1S60 and 1661, and gov. nnder Che char- 
squad,, 1849 ; was present at the capture of Icr, from 16BB to 1669. 

Tuspsn and Tabasco, Mexico, and at the cap- Brevard, Da. Ephbaih, a Gcvol. patriot 
tare uf Vera Crui, 1847 ; com. Mediierrancan of N.C., author of the Mecklenburg Declsra. 
Beet, 1SA6-B: com. N.Y. nsvy-yard. ie59>6l. tion of Independence; d. at Charloile, N.C., 
Breese, Sidney, senator and jurist, b. near the close of the war. N.J- Coll. 1768. 
Whiiciboto', Oneida Co,, N.Y., July 15, 1800. Ho was one of the " seven sons " of his wid- 
Ud. Coll. 1818. He removed to lit., and in owed mother, who were in tbo army. Studied 
1621 Hosadm. to the bar; became assist, sec. medicine, and settled as a physician in Char- 
ofStaif.andwasStaieaitj. from 1833 to 1837, lotte, N.C. In May, 1775, he was clerk of the 
when he wasapp. U. 8. atty. for III- In 1839, convention beld in Charlotte, Mecklenburg Co., 
he pub, a rol. of Decisions of the Supreme and, as one of the committee to prepare resoln- 
Court, the first octavo rot. pnb. in the State ; tiona, produced ibe famous document by wbicb 
served as a lient.-col. of roU. in the Black ihey anticipated by moro than a rear the Dec- 
Hawk War; in 183S wag elected a circuit laration by Congress, When the British inrad- 
jud^ ; was n. 8. senalor in 1843-9, atid waa ed the Southern States, Dr. Brevaid entered 
chairman of the com. on public lands, and a (he Continental army as a surgeon, and was 
regent of the Smithsonian InsL, during Polk's taken prisoner at Charleston, in Mar, I7S0. 
id mi oLit ration. In 1850, he was speaker of Broken by disease, when set at liberty hfr re- 
the 111. le^'isl. ; was one of the originators of turned lo Charlotte, where he soon after died, 
the 111. Central B.B. ; in 1855, he was again — Lntsing. 

placed npon the Circuit Court bench of which BreveFt l^*>^ JORaTaaX, Revol. officer of 

he <tas made chief judge. — Lanman. Wulthan), Ms., b. Framingham, 3 Feb. 1736; 

Bremer, Fkeukika, a Swedish novelist, d. there 6 Jan. 1784. He had been an officer 

h. near Abo, Finland. 17 Aug. 1801 ; d. Arsut, in the French war, nnd, at Banker's Hill, com. 

near Stockholm, 31 Dec 18G5. She was care- a reut., behaved with spirit, and was wounded, 

fullyedncatcd by herparents. who were wealthy, In May, 1775, he proposed to the Prov. Con- 

and ungbt an acad. at Stockholm. "The gress an exped. to Qaebec by way of Ih« 

Neighbors," her firstwork.npp. in 1834. Her Kennebec and Chaudier«; thanked by the 

riaii lo the n. S. in 1849-51 Ih recorded in Prov. Cong, for giving up his rei;i. to Col. 

her " Hume* in the Now World." She after- Whitcomb, and app. barrack-master, 16 Nor. 

ward pnb, an account of her travels in Swit- 1776. 

seriand. Itatv, and the Holy Land. — See htr Brevei?, CoL. Sakvbi, b. Fmmingham, 

Lifi.LatiriiandPotthamMt Wmla.bghaSit- Ma. ; d. after 1781, Bro. of Col. Jonathan 

itr Clxirtoae, 1868. Brewer ; m.-gea. of iLa troops at Roxhnry, 



vv^ioc^le 



_ , ins of 1775 ; wu dpp. brig.-gen. ot the foraet to be «eal 

woDinliil at Banker's Hill ; aatharized to to Canada, 1 1 Jalj, 1 776 ; com. the ewMrt of 

raiu a rest, for serrice at Ticonderoga in Aag. Ban;of ne'« captive Kildiera from Saratoga to 

1776; eol 12ih Mi. Condnenta] Tttgt. 1777-8; Cambridge, H<., inOcL mT. — Cluut'i But., 

cashiered 1778. HaiKrhOf. 

Brewerton, Hbvbt, LL.D. (Dick Coll. Bridge. Hobatio, b. Anguita, Me,, Apr. 
1B47), brur. brv.-gCD. U.S.A., b.N.T. West 8, 1B06. Boird. Coll. ISSS. Son of Judge 
Point, 1319. Entering the engineer corps, he Jamea. Studied law, and opened an office at 
becamocol. 33 Apr. IBM; hrev. brig.-gen. 13 Aagnsw; cacered the navj as paymasiet ia 
Mar. 1865, retire 7 Mar. 1867; sapl- eagr. 1838; chief of tbe bureau of doihing and pro- 
of the defences of Baltimore barbor, and of Tision, 1845-68. Author of "Journal of an 
Del. River and Bay, 1861-5, and of N.Y. bar- African CroiBer." 
bor defences, 186!^7.— CuJ^um. Bridgnian, Liuba, a blind deaf-mute, b. 

BreVBtor, CaARUts Wxbmxh, editor and Hanover, N.H., Dec. 31, 1839. At the age of 

anlbor, b. Porismoatb, N.U., 13 Se]>t. 1803 ; 2 yean, a severe illneas deprived ber of sight 

d. tliere 3 Aug. 1868. He received a common and bearing, and coosequentlj of speech; while 

ocbool education, was an apprentice in the of' the sense of smell was also destroyed, and that 

lice of the PortnumtA Journal, with which he of taste much impaired. She gniduallv recov- 

was coQtiecled over half a century, and was ered her health ; but none of ber sense* were 

43 years ils jiroprietor. He was in 1846-7 a restored. At the age of 8, she beoame an in- 

member of the State legi^l. and in IBSO a mate of the Perkins Inst, for the Blind, in Bos. 

memberof the last Const. Con». Authorof lOQ.nndorlhocaroof Dr.8.G.Howe,B.heresbe 

" Fiftv Years in a Printing-Offlce," " Ram- was taught the names anil qualities of objects, 

bles abont Porumonlh," 3 series, 1859-1870. and how to write. Subsequcnllv acquired the 

BreVstBTi WiLLUM, a Pilgrim of Ply- rudiments of ariihmolic; took lessons on the 

mouth, elder and only teacher for some years, piano, in which she became quite skilful ; and 

b. Scroobj-, Eng., in 1566; d. Plymouth, Ms., acquired a pructicnl knowledge of needlework 

April 16, 1644. Aflor an education at Cam- and of some household duties. She manifests 

bnd^ U.> he entered the service of William in a remarkable degree that maidenly coyness 

Daviion, ambassador of Queen Eliiabeth, in and reserve which have been so often regonled 

Holland, between whom and bim»elf a strong sis tb& result of education. She is siiU an in- 

attachment subsisted. Through Davison's in- mateof tho Perkins Asylum. —AppUlon'i Ntm 

Buence, he was made postma.ster of Scrooby. Ainer. CyJ. 

Turning his oiiention to relicious subjects, he Bi '" " " 

withdrew from the Established Church, and es- jouri 

lahlisbed with others a separate society. This City early in life, he has since resided there, 

new church met on tbe Lord's Day. at Mr. In 1S45, in conjunction with Edgar A. Poe, ho 

Brewster's house, es long as they could assem- edited the Braadioay Jounud, a weekly ; also 

hie without ialerruption. Endeavoring by edited Putnam' t ilagaant from 1S53 to IS&6, 

6ight to avoid their persecniors, Mr. Brewster, in coonoction with G. W. Curtis and Parke 

and Mr. Bradford and others, were seized Godwin, and has since been one of the editors 

in 1607, just as they were going to Holland, of the Nan-York Tima. He was also connect- 

and imprisoned at Boston in Lincolnshire, cd with the A'lwni'n^ ifirror. Ho pub in IS39 

Mr. Brewster, having most property, was the " The Adventures of Harry Franco," a novel ; 

greatest Eulferer, and, obtaining with much dif- "Story of the Telegraph," 1858; in 1844, 

Sculty and expense bis liberty, he Grst assisted " The Haunted Merchant," and in 1847," Tha 

the poor of the society to emigrate, and then Trippings of Tom Pepper." He is a vigoron* 

followed tlicm to Holland. His means being and caustic writer. Some of his poetical 

exhausted, he opened a school at Leyden for pieces have appearod In Putnam's MoaUilg, and 

teaching the English language. By the assist- others in s choice vol. of selections, — " Sea- 

ance of some friends, he also procured a print- weeds fhim the Shores of Nantucket." d- 

ing-press, and pub. several books against the Brooklyn, N. T. June 20, T877, a. 67 

bicrarcby, but could not obtain a license for Brigff^ Gboroc Nuoif, LL.D. (Wms. 

their pub. in Eng. Such was hierepatatiooiD Coll. 1844), gov. of Ms., b. Adams, Ms., April 

the church at Leyden, that he was chosen a 13, 1796 ; d. Pitlsfietd, Sept. 13, 1861. A.M. 

riling elder, and accomp. its members who of H.U. 1838. His father serveid under Stark 

emig. to N. E. in 1680. The church at Ply- at Bennington. He learned the trade of a 

mouth being for several years destitute of a hatter; studied law; was ndm. to tho bar ia 

miuialer, Mr. Brewster, who was respected for Oct. 1818 ; practised successively in Adams, 

his character and venerable age, freouently Lancsborough, and Pitts Sold, and in 1 837, in 

officiated ai a preacher, though he could never the defence of a Stockbridgo Indian tried at 

be persuaded to administer the sacraments.—- Lenox for murder, established his reputation 

Sec Life and Tinia of Wn. Drocslrr, by A. as one of the ablest criminal lawyers of the 

Stftle.ySJ'. State. Regiitter of deeds from 1824 to 1S31 ; 

Brickett, Jambs, physician and Revol. pa- M.C. 1831-43 ; gov. of Ms. 1844-51 ; judge of 

trioi, b. I73T ; d. Haverhill, Ms., 9 Dec. 1818. C. C. P. in 1851-6. He was a member of the 

He praciiied physic successfDllj manyyears in Sute Const. Conv. of 18S3. In 1861, he was 

Haverhill ; was a surgeon in the army at Ti- one of a committee to adjust the differences 

conderocs in I7&9-60; became lieut.<col. of between the [J.S. and New Grenada ; but his 

Fife's E>M-x. regL 20 May, 1 779, and was en- death, from the accidental discbarge of a gun, 

goged and wounded at Bunker'sHill, 17 Jane; prevented his entering upon tlui duty. A 



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BRI 128 

MnDooiu idToeate of temperaace 

Teinper«nceU[uon,i>f iheMa. S. f 

Baptui UiuionsTj Union, and the Trace So- ouudu uu u 

cietT at Boalon. A bjograph; by Rer. Wm. sang the r6lt 

C- BichanU apwared in 186S. His wn, CoL Aater. Stage. 

HiNkT Smw Bkioob, com. loth Ha. Voli. ; BrinleTi Frxhoii, b. Boston, Hot. 10, 

made brig-gen. IT Jalj, 1869 ; wounded at IBOO. H. G. 18IB. Adm. lo the Suffolk bar 

FairOalu;VlADg. ISM. W11U.C0U. 1844. in IBSl. Member of the cooncil of Boiioa 

A lawyer b; prafcaaion. some years, and its prea. in 1850, '51-; member 

Brigh&m, AmBjAa, H.D., phj^ieian, of the Ms. I^sl, 1833, '50, 'B4 ; of the senate 
and superintendent of asjlnms for the insane, in 1BS2,'S3, %3, and of the State Const. Conr. 
b. NewMarlbotv', Ms., Dec. S6, 1T98; d. Sept. in 1853. He was an earlj advocate of raiiwa^ 
6.1849. Left eu orphan at 11, and at IT he 00m- and other internal improvements, of the alioli 
meaccd the Itndj of medicine, supporting him- tion of imprisonment for debt, and of a wt^lt 
ei'lf b; teaching school during winters. Com- regnlaled militia ajBieoi, and was thrice chosen 
mencing uraenM in 1821, he redded sncceea- capt. of the Ancient and Hon. Art. Co. Anthor 
irel;iQ Enfleld and Greenfleld, Ms., and in ofa life of his bro.-in-law, William T. Porter, 
Hartford, Ct., and spent a jear ( 1838-9) in 1860, and contrib. to Buat'i Mtrch. Mai. and 
Kuropean travel and stud;. In 1837, he deliv- the Ameriean Jaiat. His articles on Dower 
ered a course of lectures before the Coll. of are cited bj Chancellor Kent in hi* Commen- 
Ph;fsidan4 and Surgeons, N.Y. He was so- lories. Also a frequent contrib. (o the press, 
penatendeotofthe Insane Asjlnm at Hartfbtd, and a sncceisfui lecturer. He pnb. in 1S30 an 
1810-2. and at the State Lunatic Asylum, Uti- Address before the Franklin Debating Society 
ca, S.Y., from 1843 till his death. He deliv- of Boston. — Duyotind:. 
creJ lecture* on the Ireetinent of the insane, BrlOO. (br&un), Petbb LoDis.adai. of Co- 
prepared repona, and wtablisbed, in 1844, a lombia, b. Caracas, July 6, 1782 ; d. Sept. SO, 
Jounuil 0/ laaanilg. He pub. in 1B33 a gniall 1821. Hestudied nayigationin thelT.S. After 
work on " Asiatic Cholera," soon after, a trea- the death of his lather, who bequeathed him a 
tiw on" Mental Cultivation and Excitement;" large fortune, he returned 10 hia coantiy, 
in 1836, "The Influence of Beligioii upon the bought a yesael, and made several voyages, and 
Health and Physical Welfare of Mankind ; " settled at Caracas in 1804, where he estab- 
iu 1840, " The Anatomy, Physiology, and Pa- lished a mercantile house. He took an active 
iholoi^of the Brain;'* in IS49, a small vol. part in theevents of 1809 and 1810; volunteered 
of apliorisms and maxims for the nse of those bis serriees in 1811 to the Republic of Caracas, 
who bod been nnder bis care, with the title of 4nd wu app. capt, of a fVigate. At his own 
" The Asylnm Sonvenir." — Ste Manuir, jy expenn, he Sited out a fleet, and attacked the 
E. K. Hani, I'n 6'ross'( Med. Biag. Spanish forces at the Island of Marguerite, 

Brigbam, Paul, d- Norwich, Ve., Jane wliere he gained a signal victory. Bnon dis- 

16, 1824, a. T9. Pour years a capt. in the ting, himself at the oonqnest of Oniana, and 

Revoi. army ; high sheriff of Windsor Co., also at Sania Marta and Cutbagena, and was 

Vc, 5 years; m^j.-gen. of militia; S yean in 1816 the active coadjutor of Bolivar. He 

chiefjustice County Court; and 22 yeora is reproached for his partiality, if not bar- 

lienL-gov, of Vt, j barity, in the aBair of Gen. Piar. It is, how- 

Bnght,J«88BD,,n. 8, senator (184S-fia), ever, the only stain on his character, 
b. Norwich. Chenango Co,, N.T., Dec. 18, Briabaoe, Abbott H,, engineer, b. S. C. 

I81S. Bemoving 10 Ind-, ho received an aca- West Point, I83S. In 3d An. 18as-8. Col. 

damic education, and studied and practised S, C. Vols, against the Seminole Indians, 

law. He was circuit judge of Ind.; State 1835-S, and in tbe skinniali of Tomoka, 10 

•eDalor,U.S.marshat,heut.-gov.of the State, Mar, 1836. Railroad engineer in S. C, and 

and pres. of the U. S. senate during several Ga., 1836-48; proC of belles-iettrce and ethics, 

In 185T, the Democ. members of tbe S. C. Milit. Acad,, 1848-53; planter r — 

} the senate in a ~ ' "^ ■ . -■ 

IS fraudulent and 
licon opponenia; 

. _ He continued a , , _ 

senator antil Feb. 18B°, when, on a charge of FiBBBB, French author and revolutionist, b. 

diilovaltr, — tbe principal proof of which wot, Onarville, 14 Jan., IT54; guillotined, Paris, 30 

that in Blarch, 1861, he wrote a letter to Hon. Oct. 1793, Abandoning the law for liieratire, 

Jefferson Davis, pres, of the Conied, Suies, he in 1780 pub. his "Theory of Criminal 

" recommending to 1*1 "i a penon desirous of X«awB," and was in 1784 thrown into the Bas- 

furnishing arms," — be was expelled by a vote tile for his writings. He aitorwards visited 

of 32 to 14; d. Baltimore, May iO, 1875. Geneva and Ebo;., and, on his return lo France, 

Bright, JoNATHin Browk, merchant of established at Paris a socie^ for (be abolition 

N, T. City, b. Waltham, M*., Apr, 23, 1800; of negro slavery. In 1788, be travelled in 

pnb. in IB5S " The Brights of Suffolk, Eog., America, and pnb. ao account of his journey 

represented in America by the Deecendanta in 1791, He then eetablished at Paris the 

ot Heery Bright, jon., wbo settled al Wat«r- Frtndt Patrial, a revol. Journal ; became in 

town. Ms,, ab. 1630," — Dwfda'nct. July, 1789, a member of the Paris municipal* 

BrignOli, Sio, pAsguaLiso, long an es- ity, and was a member of the National As- 

taliiiihal and favorite tenor on the Amer. ope- sembly, and a leader of the Gironiiists, Ao> 

ralicsia;^, b. Milan, 1833. Al 15, he produced cosed by Bobespierre, and brought before tin 



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Bsi 124 sso 

Mvol. iribunal, he wu >p«edilj pnt odi of th« Hi took promptmeuoic* to place dieproviiiM 

w*j. Ue wu a great admirer of the Ameri- in > condition to meet clie impending conQicl 

cans, assumed the babit^ of Ibe Qoakeri, and with the U. S.j cuturad the annj of Geo. 

introduced Che fashion of »i»riag the hair wi^ Hull at Detroit, Aug. 16, IBIB, aod, nhils 

out pouder. Among his maay writings are an rallying his troops od Iha field of Qneenaton, 

" Examiaation of \& Trarels of Chaslelloz in fell pierced by S b^U. A monnaeat marks 

America," " The Commerce of America irilh the spot vbera be fell. 

Europe, "Bvo, Lond., 1793, and "Leuera on Brookeoboroiuh, William, judge, b. 

the Uislor/ of England." July 10, 17TS ; d. Sichmond, Ta., Dec. 10, 

BristodfCiiiBLBB AsTOB, author, b.N.Y., 1B3B. RepreseataciTe of E<»ex Co. in legisl. , 

1820. Y. C. tS39. Son of UeT. Johu Bris- afterward councillor ; judgeGen. Conn, 1809- 

ted. He spent 5 years at Cambridge, Eng., 1834 ; judge of tbe Court of Appe»)«, 1S34-8. 

■ud took bis decree at Trinity Coll. in 1845. Brboerick, Datid Colbbbth, polilician, 

At both oaivorsities, he gained frequent prius b. Washtagton, D.C., Dec. 1818; killed in a 

for claasical aitainmeula. Betuniing hom^ he dnel with Judge Terry in CaL, Sept- SI, 1859. 

m., in 184T, the dan. of Beury BrerooK. He His father, a native of Ireland, and a sioue- 

bii latterly reeided in Pari* and in Baden-Ba- cutler, removed toN.Y.dariDghisearlyyouth, 

den. His con«ap. with Ae iV. Y. Spirit of tin and ab. 1S3T, with hia moiher and onW bro. 

Ti'nKf record! (be matters of art, literature, the d. there. Acquiring great political inSneuca 

drama, and the social aq)ect of the times pass- in N.T. City, while engineer in the fire dept., 

ing under his eye; and an article in Fnuer, of he was a candidate for Coagresa in 1B46. la 

July, lesa, treats of the relation of tbe English 1849, hewBiinCal. ; was iu tbe senate of that 

press Co tbe C. S. Author of many livelypo- State in 1850 ; pres. of that body la 1851 ; 

pereinFniser'iBDdothermagaziaea,ofeditioni again State smalur in 18S2, and in I85G wa« 

of some of the classics, and 5[ "Five Yean in sent to tbe U. S. senate. Ho was eminent as 

an Eogllsh University," pub. in 1852. One of a debater, opposed the admission of Kansas ai 

the original trustees of the Aslor Library. — ailaveStnleunder clieLecomptonConsCiluiion, 

Died Washinelon City, Jan. 15, 1874. and separated from the Democ. party on tbe 

BriBted, John, Pr.-Ep. dergyman and aor question of slavery in 1S58. 

thor, b. Uonatstiire, Eng,, in 1778; d. Brisltd, Brodbead, Gbh. D&kibi^ b. Va., USb; 

R.I., Fob. 23, 1855. After studying the clan- d. Milfunl, Pa., Not. 15, 1809. Ho raised a 

sics at Wiucheacer Coll., and medicine ac Ed- company of riflomen in 1775, who served in 

inburgh, be turned his atwntion to the study tbebatcleof Long Island; app.co). 8th Fa. n«t. 

of tbo law, and, arriving at New York in 1S06, In Apr, 1778, iie led an exped. again si the 

Eracliscdliiw theremanyjeBis with distinction. Indians. In the springof 1781, he led another 

ird. in 1828, when he became assist, to Bishop exped. againHt the Moskingnm Indians, which 

Griswold, then rector of St. Michael's u Bris- was successful. He m^e two important 

tol, R.I. In 1829, the bishop removed lo Ms., treaties with the Indians, — one of tbem, July 

and was succeeded by Mi. liristed in the rac- 32, 1779, nich tbe Cherokees. He received 

torsbip of St. Michael's, which he resigned in the thanks of Congieaa, and was ueoy years 

1843. He m., in 1820, a dan. of John Jacob aurveyor-i^n. of Pa. — DtHtoM. 

Aslor. Anibor of " Resources of the U. S.," Brodhdftd, Jacob, D.D., b. Ulster Co., 

1818; "The Adviser, or tbe Moral and Lit' N.Y., May U, 1782; d. Springfield, Ms., Jnns 

erarj Tribunal," 4 vols., 1802; "APedeetiian G, IB5S. Dn. Coll. 1801. His ancestor, Capi. 

Tour through Part of the Highlands of Scot- Daniel ofYorkahim, was an officer in cheexped. 

■ land in 1801 ;" a coll. of "CntioalandPhiloB. under Col. Nieolla against New Netherland 

Essays," 1804; "The Society of Friends Ex- in 1664, and settled in Esopua or Kingston, 

amiued," I BOS; and, in 1B06, "Edward and N.Y., in 16B5. Tutor in Un. Coll. in 1801; 

Anna." In 1B07, he conducted the JlfoWA/y pastor of the Ref Dutch Church ac Rhmebock 

RegitUr; in 1809, be pub. in N. Y. " Hints on from 1804 till 1309, when be settled in N.Y. 

tbe National Bankniptcj of Britain;" in 1B11, as one of tbe pastors of the Collegiate Cbuich. 

"Tbe Resources of the British Ecnpire." In He established tbe Pint Dutch Chnrch in 

1B14. ha delivered an oration on "The Utility Phila., whiihw ho went in 1813; returned to 

of Lilcrary Estabiisbmencs." »i n- ^ . ._,...,.. .,- ., 

SriStOl, John Buhtak, landscap»«inter, 
b. Hillsdale. N.Y., Mar. 14, lBi4. His early 



I Btrnggle wichonc aid, i 



Sauoerti 

at FlaCbi 



sympathy. In 1859, he visited Fla., and in and was the ministerof the Centntl Ref.j'roi. 

1862 settled in N. Y. Cilr. Among his pie- DutchChnrch,untiiberalinquiabedhispastoral 

tnres are, " Afternoon on the St. John's," "Au- service there in 1B47. 

tumn Aftsmoou near Bolton, Lake George." Brodbe&d, JonH C, 44 years miniscei 

" Uanstield Mountain at Sunrise," and "An of the M, E. Church, and M. C. from N.H., 

Afcemoon in Haying Time," — TucilerTHan, L829-33; d. Newmarket, N.H., Apr. 7, 1833, 

Brook, Sib Isaao, a British maj.-gen,, b. a. 67. 
Guernsey, Oct 6, 1769; killed at the battle of BrodhSBd, Johh Rombth, ion of Rev. 

Qoeenston, Canada, Oct. 13,1812. Enter- Jacob, politician and historian, b. Phila., Jan. 

ing tbe army as ensign in 1783, ha hsd seen S, 1314. Rutg. Coil. 18.^1, Adm.tothebario 

service in Holland, and in che attiiek on Copen- 1835; practised 2 years in N.Y., then devoted 

hagen in 1801, when, Oct. 9, 1311, with the himself to the studv of American bisiory. 

rank of maj.-een., he was app.prea.and ad- Attached. 1 1) the U. 3. lection at the Hague 

ministraior of the govt. Of Upper Canada, in IS39, he was app. ky tbe lejtisl. of N. E. in 



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i^ent to pneun and mnscrtbe origin*! ilocn- totions, — See Remiaitcenca of J. B., Salem, 

menu conMroine tbe bialor; of ihe Siaie, 1852. 

BespeniSvMn ID the archives of Holland, BroiAon, Gbsbmb CxRaiBR, LL.D., 
Eng., (ad France, oblaiool more than S.OOO (Uii. Coll. 1849), lawyer and polilician, b> 
Kparato papen, 16 toIi. from Holland, 47 Oneida Co., N.Y., 1789; d. Saratoga, Sepc3, 
from Eng., IT from Franca, compriting Ch« IB63. He Acquired high repDU m a lawyer in 
reporta of home and colonial authorities, and UIil^a ; became 9urrot,'au of the Co. in April, 
returned to N.Y. with this rich frdght in the 1819; member of (be assemblj, 1828; alty.- 
(ummer of 1844. All these ciocuoienla were gen. 1829 to Jan. 1336 ; then a pnisne judge 
pull, by act oflhe legist. Thejmakell qnarto of the Superior Court, chief-justice Supreme 
Tola., and ware ediied by E. B. U'Callnghan. Court, 1845, and a judge of the Court of Ao- 
From 1846 to 1849. he waa sec. of legation to peals, 1847, He aiierward practiced law in 
Mr. Bancroft at London. and from 1833 to 1857 N.Y. City, loit raost of biepvoperiy by spocu 
was iiaval ofBcer of N.Y. Ue is at work ui>DO lation, was collector of that port in '18S3-4, 
a history of the State, the Hr*l toI. of which and corp, counsel from Dec. 1859 to Jan. 1863. 
wa; pub. in 1853, Ihe wcood in 1871. In the He atood high aa a lawyer, and was a leader 
«prin);ori855, he walapp, conial-gen.lo Japan, of the " Hard Shell " Democ. 
bui did not accept. He delivered an addreia Btohsoq, Ibaao H.. jurist, b. Rutland, 
••elbre the N.Y. Hist. Soe., 1S44, and on the N.Y., 16 Oct. 1802; d. Pilatka, Fla, 13 Aug. 
commenrialhlalOfyofN.Y., before the Hereon- 1855. Adm. to [ho bar In 1823, and became 
tile Library Assoc, at the opening of Clinton diating. ; aent to Congress in 1837, but re- 
Hall, June 8, 1854; d. N.Y. City, Hay 6, 1873. eigned on account of ill heallll; U. S. Terr. 

Broglie (brug'le'), Clxudb Victor indge of Fla,, 1838-45, and, fh>m lliat lime to 
MiBiK DB, aoD of the Marshal de Broglie, b. bia d., U.S. Dist. judge fur the State. 
Paris in 1757 ; gnillotined, June 37, 17M. ad Brooke, Fujncib J., jurist, b. SmitbScId, 
col. of the regt. d'anttit at the age of 93, He Va., Aug. 27, 1763; d. March 3, 1851. In 
Tuinnt«ered his serricea in the cause of Amer. 1780, he was app. a lieut. in Harrison's regt.. 
Independence; was transferred to the ren. his twin bro. John obtaining a like commis- 
Siiuloiigt ander CnstiDe, and served nntit tlie siun in the same regi., and served under La- 
captaniof Yorktown. On his retnm to Prance fayette and Greene. On returning to Va., ha 
bcbecame col. of ther^. iWr^onnaif. Elected studied medicine one veor with his elder bru. 
dap. to the Statcs-gen., he espoused the popular Lawrence, then studied taw, and In 1798 was 
cause, voting for the admiasibilitT of ali citiiens adm. to the bar. He practised in the Coun- 
loofBce. As sec. of the aaaembly in 1790, he ties of Moaongahela and Harrison ; was app. 
labored to organica the military force- Prea. Common wealth's ttty. in the DisL Court, and 
of the National Aaoembly, Aug. 14, he, on the afterword practised in Essex Co., and in Ihe 
31st. reqacsud acorn. inthearmy, and wasmade Northern Neck. In 1794-S, he represented 
marshal de camp in the Army of the Rhine. Essex Co. in the B. of Delegates. In 1796, 
His conduct was praised nntil Aug. 10, 1792, removed to Federicksbnrg ; in 1800, was elect- 
when, not wishing lo recognlia the decree ana- ed tolhe senate, and in 1804, while its speak- 
pending the king A^m his riehls, he resigned ; or, was elected a judge of the General Court. 
wat soon afterwards arrest^, bran;;ht before In 181 1, he was elected judge of the Court of 
die Sevol, tribunal, and was condemned to Appeals, of which he was prea. 8 years. In 
death. — jVouc. Biai. Gtn. 1831, hewas rc-c1ectedajudj;eof ihesomecourt, 

BrokOi 8iB Philip Boweb Vbki, an of which he was a member at tho period of 

English adm., b. Sept. 9, 1779; d, Jan. 3, bis death. FsaNCis J., sod of (be prmeding, 

1841. He entered the novy in )79S, and be- joined the army in 1822, was made adj. Apr. 

came a post captain in 1801. He is chiefly 1833; Isilient. May, 1835 ; fell, Dcc.25, 1837, 

known by bii capture in " The Shannon " of in the battle of Okeechobee, Fla. 
Itw Amer. ffigaie "Chesapeake" in Jnne, Brookei Gboboe Mesceb, brev. m^,- 

1813, — a victory that was exceedingly agree- gen, U.S.A.. bro. of F, J., b. Va, ; d. Sun An- 

able to his countrymen, who had begun to be tonio, Texas. Mar. 9, 1851. He entered the 

Kriously alarmed at the repealed successes of onnv. May 3. 1808, as 1st lient. Sth tnf. ; was 

the little Amer. navy. He wo) raised at once made rapt. Slay 1, 1810; maj. 23d InF, in 

to the dignity of ft baronet. In this action, he 1814; lieut.-cot, 4ih Inf., Mar. 1, 1819, and in 

received so Kveie a wound as to incapacitate July, 1831, col. Sthlnf. Hisfirstbrev.,ihal of 

him from service; and he retired on haJf-pay. lient.-col., Aug. 15, 1814, was for" gallant con- 

Bromfleld) John, merchant, b. Newbnry- duct in the defence of Fort Erie ; " his second, 
port, April II, I7T9: d. Boston, Dec. 8, 1849. that of col. Sept. 17, IBU, was for " dialing. 
He was the last representative in Amer. of the tervicesin the sortie from Fort Eric," lie was 
male line of a family disting. for more than a made a brev. brig.-gen. Sept, 17, 1824, and 
century, among the ciliicns of Boston, for in- was brev, maj, -gen. May 30, 1B4B. 
if^lv and benevolence. Edwird, his ances- Brooks, Cbarleb, Unitarian clergyman 
tor. came w Boaton in [6T5. He acquired a and author, b. Medford, Ms., 30 Oct. 1799. 
fonnne ■> European agent for Amer, mercan- H.U. 1816. Descended from Thos, of Water- 
tile houses, then by the Canton trade, and town, 1631- He officiated for ■ short time as 
aftarwards by investmonu of his capital in a reader in the IV-Ep- Chureh ; was pastor of 
Boston, where be resided during ihe latter pan the 3d Cong. Church, Hingham, 17 Jan. 
of his life. In 1849, he gave to the Boston 1821-1839; chosen prof, of ni '" 



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126 



of ihe animal kingdom, and on his retarn pab. Brown TJ., then Uaght a et 
a large vol. on ornithology. Failure of otb- Harerhill, Ma., and edituT i 
siithi compelled him abortlj after to Kiign tiis MM. In 1836, he became the Waihin^'i 



piofesaonhip. He strongly adrocaled the Prua- coireep. of (he iV. Y. IJailii Advertiier, aail etv- 

sian bystem of education, and the eelablUh- eral N. England papen. Acqairingnn interest 

loent of normal tchooU, and has labored ia in the N-Y. Ecpreu, jnit eatablisbed bv his 

behalf of peace, temperance, and African brother Jamea, in 1836, he continued from' that 

colonizatioD. Beaidea contriba. to periodicals, time one of its editors and proprietors. He 

pamphlets, sermons, &c, he has pnb. " HisLorr travelled extensively in Europe in 1S43, was in 

of Medfurd," I85&, " Family Prayer-Book,^' the N.Y. Senate in 1853 and in 1895, and 

" Dei If Monitor," 10 vols, of biogruphy, a in the sumcoer of 1856 was the candidate fol 

paper on the sanitaty sorrey of the State, and the Amer. party for goT. of the State, and 

a report on the tornado in Middlesex Co. in afterward joined the Democ. party. While a 

Aug. 1851 : d. Jttly 7, 187S. member of the senate, he had a controreny 

Brooks, CHJtsLas Tihotst, Unitarian with Archbishop Hughes of N.T., in rolBtiriD 

ctergymaD and author, b. Salem, Ms., June SO, to the title to church-property in real estate. 

1813. H.U. 1832, He commenced preaching Brooks, Hobace, breT, brig.-gen. U.S.A., 

at Nuhant in the summer of 1835, and settled, b. Boston. West Point, 1B3S, Son of Maria 

June 4, 183T, in Newport, B.I. In 1851, be Brooks, poetesa. Entering the 2d Art., he was 

pub. at Newport a pRmphlet, " The Contro- brev. 1st lieut. for gallantry in the war against 

versy touching the Old Stone Mill." In 1853, Florida Indians, Dec. 31, 1835; assist, prof 

be made ■ royage to India (or his heatili. Bo- mathematics at West Point, Not, I83G to Aug. 

sides his translations ttata the minor German 1839 ,- capl. IS June, 1846; brev. major fur 

poets, he is the author of numerous occasional Contreras and Chnrubusco, Aug. 30, 184T ; 

verses, ascries of FestirsI, New Year, and An- brer. lieut..col. for Molino del R«y, Sept. S, 

niveraary Addresses. He is an accomplished 1841 ; com. 2d artillery, and disting. at Cha- 

Oerman scholar, and has pub. a transladon pullepecand San Cbsme Gate; toaj, 3d Art. 

of Schiller's " William Tell," 1838 ; a vol. of Apr. 28, 1861 ; lient.-col. Oct as, I8S1 ; col, 

miscellaneo OS poems from the German in the 4ch Art., Aug. 1, 1863; brev. brig.-gen. 13 

series of " Specimens of Foreign Standard Mar, 1865, for merit, services during the Re- 

Literature ; "a translation of Schiller's " Horn- hellion, in which he served in defence of Wash- 

age to the Arcs," 1847, &c,;" German Lyrics," ingion. Fort Pickens, Fla., Apr.-Oct. 1S6I, and 

1853, " Songs of the Field and Flood," and an Ft. Jefferson, Fla., 1861-2. — CU^m. 

admirable translation of Goethe's "Fanst," Brooks, Jaxbs. JoumallBt, h. Cape Eliis- 

1857. In 1863, hepub. airansl.from (he Ger- beth.Me., Nov. 10, 1807. Waterville Coll. 1831. 

man, of " The Life, Opinions, Actions, and Losing his father in I8U, he had to straggle 

Fate of Hieronimus Jobs;" "Titan," by Jean with poverty. At 16, ho taoght school, was 

Paul Richier, in 1865, " Hesperus," a compan- afterwaida at the head of the Latin school iu 

ion romance; " Aqnidnec," and other poems, Portland, then travelled through the Southern. 

1848. — Dai/ddnek. Stales, and among the Creek and Cherokee 

Brooks, Col, DaTiD, a Rerol. soldier, b. Indians, and corresp. with varioos journals. 

1796 ; d. at his house in Duchess Co., N,T., He afterwards became the corresp. at Washing- 

Aug. 30, 1838. Lient. in the Pa, linein 1776 ; ton of several papers, and originated the sys- 

captured at Fort Washington, Nov, 16, 1776 ; tem of regular Washington correspondences, 

exchanged 1TT8, and promoted to assist. A member of the Me, legisl, in 1835, he intro- 

clothier-gen., in which responsible post he duced the first proposition fur a railroad from 

secured me friendship of Washington, After Portland to Montreal and Quebec. The same 

the war, he settled in Ducbesa Co., N.Y. ; was 6 year he visited Europe, travelling on foot ocer 

years a member of the assembly ; representative a great part of the Continent and the British 

ID Congress from May to July, 1797 ; a com- Isles, and wrote a series of interesting letters 

missioner for making the first treaty with the to the Pontand Advei-tiier. In 1836, he eatab- 

Seneca Indians, and subsequently, for IGyeara, lished the N.Y. Eiprett, which baa atluinrd a 

Brst judge of Duchess Co. Ue was an officer large drculacioo. He was a member of the 

of the cuBlonis at the time of bis death. Assembly in 1847, and of Congress from 1849 

Brooks, Eleazer, Revol. soldier, h. Con- to 1893 and from 1865 to 1871, taking an actire 

conl, M»., 1727 ; d. Lincoln, Ms., 9 Nov. 1806. pari, pariiculady in matters relating to trade 

Without any schooling, he acquired by read- and commerce. He look fiart in faror of the 

ingand observation a fund of information, and "compromise measures" in 1850, became a 

even a knowledge of civil and pulitieal taw. prominent advocate of and identilied with the 

Ho rose fiom a capl. of militia, in 1773, to the Ibrtuneaof the American party, and, sinl^e the 

rank of bri;;.-gen. ; disting. himself greatly at Rebellion, a prominent Democrat, Delegate to 

White Plains, where he com. a regi, ; chosen to the State Const. Conv. of 1867 ; d. Apr. 30, IB'3. 

the Gen, Court in 1774; he was afterwards a BrookS, Jahbs Gordon, poet, b. Claver- 

member of the senate and of the council, with- ack, N.Y., Sept. 3, 1801 ; d, Albanv, Feb. 20, 

dra^ving from public life in 1601. 1841. Un. Coll. 1819. Son of David Brooks, 

Brooks, Ebastits, journalist, b. Portland, a Revol. ofHccr. He studied law, and removed 

Me., Jan. 31, 1815. At 8 years of age, he was in 1823 to New York, whore he edited the.Vi. 

sent to Boston ; waa employed in n grocerv- nerva, a literary jo nmal, and afterward theiite- 

ilore, and allended an evening school. Ho rarg GaieUe,ibBAllimaaM,ihe3Iarnin^ Courier, 

■ubse<iNenc1y became a printer, and pub. the and contrib. to Ihe Coinniai:>(ii Affnerluer under 

Yaniet, at Wiscasset, Me. He studied at the signature of " Florio." Inl 838, hem. Mary 



,v Google 



BBO 127 SBO 

Eliiabeth Aiken of Ponijhkeepaie. wbo had I7ST, and of the Ma. Bible Socivly. He lad 

wriiien nnder tbe siinBiurc of " Norma," and two sons, Col. Alesanper Scammell, an offi- 

in I8S9 pub. " Tbe Birals of Bile, and other ccr of the U.S. armjr, and Lieut. John of iho 

Po«ftis," hj Jamca G. and Man B. Brooks, nary, vho wa» killed in tbe battle on I^ke 

Thcf removed to Wincbcster, Va., in 1830, Erie, Sept. 10. 1813. 

and m 1838 lo Albanr. Brooka, MiniA (Goweh), pootKBs.nnined 

Brooks, JoHn, M.D.,LL.D., soldier and bjSouthsy "Maria del Occidente."h.Me<lfoni, 

■utesman, b. Medford, Ms., May SI, 1793; d. Ms., ab. 1795; d. Mnlaniaa, Kov, II, 1843. 

Marcb 1, I8!5. Biought np on the farm of Her father, whom ihe lo«t while roang, vat 

hil father, Capt. Caleb Brook*, he received a an edncated man, and bad possezi^i^il con-ider- 

comnian school oducation, and at the age of 14 able property, but Wt it just befon! his death. 

<*u indenied as an apprentice to Dr. Simon Mr. Brooks, a Boston merchnnt, prorideil for 

Torts forTjears. The celebrated CountRnm- her edacHtion, and on its rompleiion m. her. 

foni iras a fcllow-studcnt ; and their intimacy At thin period, she first evinced poetic talent, 

wa» (»n tinned by corresp. nntil the death of but pub. nothin)? until I8S0 ; when " Judith, 

the count. He commenced the practice of Esther, and other Poema," appeared. Un the 

physic Ht Reading, where ho com. a cumpnnj death of her husband in 1623, she remored to 

of minnte-men, with whom, April 19, 1775, he Cuba, where she finished her principal work, 

did good KrTiee at the battle of Lenington. "Zophiel, or the Bride of Scren," the fii.si 

App. maj. in Brid^es's regt , and active in in- canto of which was pnh. at Boston in 182.5, 

trencbing Btfod'a Bill On the mjEhtof June 16, In 1830, >be viBiied Paris and London, whero 

bnt was not in the battle of the nth. On the her work wai nob. in IB33. In a pa9saR:e in 

re-oiganiiationof the anny in Feb. 1776, ha '■TheDaclor,''itr.Sonthey terms Mrs. Brooks 

wu made major of Col. Charles Webb's (19th) " the most impassioned and most imaginative 

reet., which assisted in fortifying Dorchester of all poetesses." In 1843, ibe pub, privniely 

Hcig:ht9, and accompanied it to Long Island, "Idomen, onhe vale of Yumuri." Her " Ude 

Being a good tactician and disciplinarian, his to the Departed " was written in 1843. Uer 

command was disling, throughout the war for son, Hobacb Bbooks, is a col. in the army. 
gallant conduct in battle, and regularity in r«- Brooks, NATB.aH Cotinqton, LL.D, 

treat. In the batileof White Plains, his regt, [Em. Coll., Ga., 1653). Poet and teacher, b. 

was the loit to quit the field, which it did with Cecil Co., Md., Adr, 12, 1819. St. John's Coll. 

Ibe steadiness of veterans, and received llie dis- lie became a teacher at the age of 18; was 

ling, acknowledgments of Washington. Early elected principal of the Baltimore High School 

ID 1777, he was promoted to lient.-col. of the in 1839, and in 1848 OTganiied the Bait, 

etb Us. ntgt., pnndpolly recniiieil by himself. Female Coll,, of which he is pies. Mr. Brooka 

Od the death of Col. Alden, in Nov. 1778, ranks high as a writer of occasional poetry: 

Brooks was made col. of his regt. (7th Ms.), among uio best of his pieces arc " Shelley's 

In Aug. I7T7, he accompanied Arnold's com. Obsequies." and "The Eall of Superstition." 

against St. Leger. who, with a body of Canar He has also produced ooe of the bvat histories 

dians, Indians, and Tories, betieged Fort Stan- of the Mexican war that has yet appeared, 

wix. To Brooks belongs tbe credit of the sue- Aathoi of a series of Latin and Greek tent- 

cessfal stratagem of sending one Cnyler to books, of which the Vi^il has received high 

spread exaggerated rcportsof Arnold's forces to praise. Hehascontrib. lodiSerent European 

alarm and put them lo fiight. At the battle periodicals, and won the oriie offered by the 

of Sarafoga, Oct. 7, 1777, ho led on his regt SoulKem Chardiman for the beat poem, over 

with fearless intrepidity, toming the right of anch competitors as Mrs, Sigonmey, George 

the enemy ; stormed their in trench men ta, enter- W. Bclhune, and N, P. Willis, 
ing tbem, sword in hand, at the head of his BrookB, Pbtxs Chasdox. merchant, b. 

men, and pnt to rout the veteran German N, Yarmouth, Me., & Jan, 1767 ; d. Boston, 1 

troops that oeliinded them. After the app. of Jan. 1 849. Rev. Edward, his father, returned 

Steuben aa insp..|!en. early in 1778, Brooks was to Medford, where had, 1781- The son worked 

axMciatrd with him in (he arduous duty of onafann. received acommonschool cducaiioo ; 

introducing a uniform system of exercise and and. establishing himself in Boston, his talent 

matxBnrres. In the battle of Monmouth, he and imegrily soon inaored snccess, Engszing 

waiaeliniradj.-gen. Afler the war, ho resumed in the buiinesa of marine insurance, hoaci(iiired 

the practice of medicine in Medford. He great wealth and was some years pres. of the 

wmfor many veari m.ij.-gen. of the militia of N, E, Ins. Co. Member of both hrnnehea of 

hi' ooontv, and. as a member of the legisl., ac- the State leipsl., of the exec, council, and of 

fitely supported tbe measures for suppressing the first citv cutincil of Boston, and a delegate 

<:hars' Rebellion. He was a delegate to the (o the Const. Conv. in 1S20. He m. the dau. 

State convention for the adoption of the Fed- of Judge Kalhl. Gorham, and had, forsons-in- 

«rsl Constitution, which be lealously advocnt- law, Edward Everett, Rev. N, L, Frothlngbam, 

ed. App. bv Washington marshal of his and Charles Francis Adams, 
difirict, and inspector of the revenue in Dec, Brooko, Rbt. Philupb, an eloquent 

I73J; successively a State senator and conn- Prot.-Epis, clergyman, b. Boston. 13 Dec, 1835. 

cillor; dnringtbeWarof 1812-15, adj.-gen. of H. U. IKJS. Studied at the Theol, Sem at 

tbe Bute; and ita gov. from ISI6 to 1823. Alexandria, Va. ; was ord. 1859, and became 

when he retired to private life. He received pastor of the Church of the Advent, Fhila. ; 

from H. D. in 1816 the degrees of M,D. and in IB63. of the Holy Trinity; and, in 1 870, of 

LL.D. He was prea. of the Ms. Med. Society Trinitv Church. Boston. 
Trata 1817 tohisdeatb; of theCincinnatifrom BroOks, P&aBTOR S., lawyer and M, C. 

L :u iLtGoogle 



IK-*, BOTt,, „ . 

IBST. n? tbe beaTient majoritj ever giren io ihe 

1S43, Sum. 

H« BroOKham, Jobh, an Iriih actor ai 

iring piaywriEM, b. Dublin, Maj B, I8H. He w 

i, he incendcil for [lie metlical pTofeasion : bal, d 



C 



ended for [lie metlical pTofeasion ; bal, dU- 
■ppoinied in the hope of a gorr. i^lerkahip in 
IJondon, be gaTc Icsaona in drawing for a lime, 
uKii- and in Jnly, 1830, becnme an actor in the 
iay Olympic Thenira. He appeared with artat 
inner inccesa at the Hajinarket In Jnne, 1B32, Oi 
oki's Looney McTwolicr in " The Review : " became 
irled, » fayorice in light comedy, and Irijbmcn, oocn 
wai lionallr writing farces and id' 



aoM, in " The Irish Lion," and baa since performed 

Lan- in almost eTeir principal theatre in the Union 
He built the Lyceum CWallack's) in N.T, in 

roll., 1850. bucrelinqoithedii in I8S3. Hemaaagpd 

fnly, the Bowerr in IB56-7, and viaiwl Eng. in 

e 3d 1B60~5. tie ii a very popular actor ; aalhor 

brcv. of thHoui cotoediea, dramas, and extraragan- 

adj.- laa ; and bae also successfully adnpted pieces 

[ICO ; from Ibe novels of Dickens and Bulwor, He 

capt. has pub. " A Bosket of Chips," 3 vols., and 

iiiini " The Bunsby Papers." 

Inf., Bronghton, Capt. Williui Robsbt, 

iept. anEn^linticircamnavigator.b. Gloocesicrshirc, 

f (ho 176l'; d. Mar. 13, IBSl. Ho went to sea in 

took Dec. 1TT4, and, in the sloop " Falcon," arrived 

id at at Boston 3 days before (he Lexin^on battle. 

Gen. and parttcipated in the attack on Bunker's Hill. 

Hvis. He was soon after made prisoner in an attempt 

ville, to bring offa schooner which had bceo driven 

a. of nnhore at Cape Ann ; was exchan^d. Dec. 

efoTt HTe, and served on the station nnlil 17T8. He 

Mav was nctivcly engaged nnder Sir Ed. Hashes 

Cold in tliB E. Indies; in 1790, accompanied Vsn- 

and coavor in his voyage of discovery; app. com- 
mander, Oct. IT93 ; made n second vovage in 

) the 1796 of 4 }-ears' dnralion, and assisted in the 

uati- capture of Java in tBll. Vancouver gave the 

lilled name of Brougliton's Archipelago to some 

Jtcs islands in the Pacific in aboat 50 decrees N. 

from latitude. He pnb. " Voyage of Discovery 
to the N. Pacific Ocean,'' 1894.— ,S« Ann. 

r the Obiluan/, 18il. 

I.T.. Broughton, Col. Thomab, gov. of S.C. 
from 173& to hisd., 1738; was a conoctllorand 
collector or the customs in ITOB; afterward 
Itent.-gov. ; succeeded Gov. B, Johnson, May S, 
5, b. 1735. — (Xdmixon'i Camlina. 
and, Brown, AtROH Vaii« poatmaster-gen. of 
nter, tbe U. S., b. Brnnswick Co,, Va., Ang. 15, 
pnb. 1795; d. Washinirton, D. C, Mar. 8, 1859. 
m.^ Chapel Hilt C. 1814. In IBIS, b« removed 
arles to Tean., where he was l<>r many yean a 
took law-partner with James K. Polk. Member 
leO. of the Tenn. leglsl. Isai-SS; M. C. from 
nsl; 1839 to 1815; gov. of Tenn. in IBtS, and 
law- was made in 1857, by Pres. Buchanan, post- 
aged master-gen. A delegate to the Southern con- 
lical venlion at Nashville, in ISSO, and wrote 
fo in the report known as the " Tennessee Plat- 
and form," He wusalso a member of the convFTl- 
the tionof the Democ. party at Baltimore, in 1B53, 
!Iav- to which he reported the platform adopted by 
very them. Among The measures of his ad niinistm. 
nest- tion was the c>tahlinhmcnt of a new and slior;. 
pre- er commnniuatioti to California by Tehnnnre 
' the pec, and another acrtus ttie cootinctit hv the 






t.Google 



BBO 129 BRO 

w>j of Sail Lake. Hii speediM were pub. St nndcr [he ftcncriLl lulo of " Sbadoirs of out 

He.-hvil1c in ISM. Social Syium." In Jan. 1BS6, she ni. Sum). 

Brown, ALBBBTQ.,nateni]aii, b. Chester C. Blickwcll, whose bra. had m her friend 

DisUicl. S.C-, Ma^ 31, 1813. RcmOTingwUh Lncy Stone. 

hii narenu to Mpi. while ■ child, he was app. BrOwn, B. Qbate, itateBman, b. Lexin^ 

■ bng.-gen in the Stit« militia when only 19. ton, K;., Mdt 2S, 182B. Traniylv. TJ. 184S; 



He ulopted the law as a proreanion ; waa a T.C. 1S47. Graodaon of Senator John Bruwn 

- ' " - • ■ 1, f'rom 1B3S to 1839, of Ky. Settled as a lawvor ' - • ■ ■- 

. in 1840-1. Be waa member of the Stale leaisl. 

alto a jud^'G of the Circalt Superior Court in ed in establishing the Mlt* 



member of the Stale l^iil, f^rom 183S to 1839, of Ky. Settled as a tawvor in St. Lonjs, Mo. ; 

and waa M.C. (rom Mpi. in 1840-1. Be was member of the State lea' 

alto a jud^'G of the Circalt Superior Court in ed in establishing the Ai 

le4I-3^ (toT.of MpufnimlS43 tolS48; again edited it io 1834-9 ; a speech delivered liv li 

M. C. from 1848 to 1834; and a U. 8. senator in the letcisl. in 1857 was the initial moremoni 

from 1854 to 13S8 ; reelected for six years, in behalf of freedom in that State. Early in 

commencing Mar.4, 1859, butresigned in 1861 1861, ho raised a r^t., which assisted in the 

10 join ihe Kebellion. Be was an nnfliaching capture of Camp Jackson. He snbseqnently 

chumpion of the views of the Democracy of com. a brigade of militia daring an invasion 

the South, A toI. of his speeches was pub. of the State. He was foremost in orgaiiixing 

in 13i9. the mOTCments which resultetl in the Dnlinancc 

Brown, Ahdkbw, edlior, b. in the north of freedom in Mo. in 1864. U.S. senator 

of Ireland, ab. 1T44 ; d. Phila., Feb. 4, 1T9T. 1863-7 ; gov. Mo. 1B71. 
Educated at Tiin. ColL, Dublin, he came lo Brown, Bihtholombw, musical compos. 

Amer. in 1773 as an officer in the British iei<- er, b. Sterling, Ms., Sept. 8, 1'Ta; d. Boscon, 

rice, anil settled in Ms. He fought on tbe Apr. 14, 1854. U.U. 1799. He was a lawyer 

patriot sideat Iioungion and Banker's Hill; at Sterling and B, Bridgewater, and, with 

was made mniiei-maiier-gen. in 1777, and Jndge Mitchell, edited about SO years "The 

tcrred nnder Gatei and Greene, with the rank Bridgewater Coll. of Church Muaic," which 

ofmaj. Aflerthepeace, haeslablishedanacad. contains many pieces of his composition. He 

tot young ladies, first at Lancaster, Pa., and wrote the calendars in " The Furmer's Alma- 

afierwani at Phila. He relinquished ihiaoocu- nac " for S9 years. 

paiioo, for which bis inilable laapei unfilled BrOWn, Chad, minisier of Proiidenre, 

him, and, in 1783, established Ihe e'ederal Ga- R.I., ancestor of many dialing, citiicna of R.I.; 

iriie, ttie [iilo of which was, in 1793, changed d. 1665. He Sed thither, from persecution in 

lolheFhiliiiUpluaGaTtlU. This was thechan- Ms.,inl636i became amcnibcrof tbe Baptist 

nel tbroueb which many of the friends of tbe Church founded by Roger Williams in 1639, 

federal Cunstiiuiion addreHsed the public. He and in 1643 was aseociaied with Wm. Wicken- 

waiilietirst who regularly reported tbe-debaies den in the pastoral care. lo 1793, the town 

in Congress. Uis death was Caused by injuries of Providence voted t monament (o his mem- 

RcelTed while fruitlessly endeavoring to save orv, 

bis wile and 3 children from the fire which ^rown, Cbablm Bbocsdeh, novelist, 

destroyed his establishment on the night of b. Phila., Jan. 17, 1771 ; d. Feb. 23, 1810. He 

Jan. 27, 1797. His son Abdbbw, until 1803, was of Quaker lineage, his ancestors having 

■'■rriedon tbe GateUe, but, taking the English em ignited with Wm. Peno. Hie middle name 

side in politics, became unpopular, and left for was derived from his ancle, the " skilful coa- 

Eng., where ho d. 7 Dec 1847, a. 73. veyancer" and "greot scrivener," of whom 

Brown (BI.ACEWKLL). AiiTOiNETTK L., Franklin write* in bis Autobiography. His 
Coog. mlniiiter, b. Henrietta, Monroe Co. ,N.T.. attachment to booka while a child was remark- 
May 20, 1825. After attending an acad,, she able, and after receiving a liberal education, 
ronlinued her studies at Uliorlin. until 1849. under Proud the historian, he had, al tbe age 
Her coll. vacationa were spent in leaching, or of 16, already formed plans of exiensive litB' 
ia extra siudy of Hebrew and Greek. It waa rsir works. He was apprenticed lo Alexander 
customary for (be sudencs at Oberlin to receive Wilcox, in eminent lawyer, but occupied bint- 
a license lo preach ; and. before the completion self with literary, instead of legal studies. HJe 
of ihcir slwlies, they would begin tbe practice became intimate with a literary club in S.Y., 
of speaking in tbe neighboring pulpits; and — to which city he removed in SepC 1796, — 
she frc<]uenily preached at Henrietta, 0,, and which increased his devotion to letters, and 
in other place*, during tbe remainder of bar his eagerness to be conspicuous as a writer, 
term of iludy. She aubaequently preached. In 1798 appeared hisflrsi novel," Wielaod,"a 
and occasionally lectored on literary topics, powerful and original romance, and in 1799, 
lemperance. and tha abolition of aUvery. At " Oamond ; or. The Secret Witness," At thia 
the Woman's Rights Convention at Worcester, time, he hod begun no less than five novels, 
IS.V), Miss Brawn was one of the speakers, two of which, " Arthur Mervyu " and " Edgar 
and has been aprominent advocate of thecanse. Hunily," were soon pub. In "Arthur Mcrvyn," 
from 1853 M tbe enmmer of 1854, the was the ravoKca of the yellow-fever, which the eu- 
•ettled over a Cong, church io South Butler, Ibor had witnessed in N,T. and Philu,, are 
Wayne Co., N.T., when ill health and doctri- painted with terrific tmth. In Apr. 1799, he 
nal doubts interrupted the connection. She pub. the first number of the Moidlitf Moft. and 
snbeequently lectured on reformatoiy subjects, Anurican lUcitiB, continued until the end of the 

__i : =-- ited the character and causes of year 1800. In 1800, be pub. (he Id part of 

to it* ''Arthur Mervvn;" in 1801. "Clara Howanl," 



vice in N.YT City, with special reference 

Imring upon woman. In 185S, shepub. in a ana">iane xaiooi ' in ihu4. in nov. lau* 

K.Y. journal a number of tkeicbe* from life, hem. Eliaabelh, dau. of Dr W. Liun of N V. 



t.Google 



□ peraCTcreil 5 jeara. In 1806, be 
coiDmenced a semi-annual Amerifjui Regislur, 
5 Tola, or which he lived to compiece. In 1809, 
discovering that his langi were scriousl; af- 
fected, bo consented to travel for the recoveiy 
of his health. The remedj, howeror, was ap- 
plied loo lale. In Nov., after an excursion 
into N. J. and N.Y., he betook himself to his 
chamber, ai he thoui'ht, for a few davs ; bnt 
his conSnement lemimated only with his life. 
Mr. Brown was a man of Tomaniic temper, 
benevolent heart, ptrignanl Inventi 






Hia 



els abound both with excellences and 
and bear a character of orit;inality. lie Is 
said to have been ihe first in Amer,, who ven- 
tured to pursoe literature as a profession. He 
also pub. " An Addi-eas 10 the Govt of the 
U. S. on the Cession of Louisiana to th« 
French, and the Late Breach of Trealf bv 
the Spnniarda" (1803), " The British Trealv,'' 
and " An Address to the Coiiaress of the U.S. 
on the Utility and Justice of Bestriclions on 
Forcijjn Commerce," &c., 1809. 

Browne, ChirlebF, (AbtbhdsWabu), 
hnmorisi, b. Watcriord, Me., Apr. 36, 18.^; d. 
Soulhumpton, Eng,, Mar. 6, 1867. He began 
the printer's trade, as a compositor on the 
SkowhoKan Clarion, and aflerward worked on 
the Carpti Bar/, a comic weekly in Boston, 
which conuined his first literary cfluru. Con- 
necting himself with the Cleveland PlmndeaUr, 
he bei;an his series of "Artemas Ward's Saj- 
inss." which gained for him the reputation of 
beinK a clever and original humorous writer. 
While editing Koniij Fair, in N.Y., he com- 
menced his hnmorous lectures, " Tbe Bahes in 
the Wood," " Sixty Minolea in Africa," ic. 
These were alio very successful. After a visit 
(o Gal. and Utah in 1862, he (.-ave comic lec- 
tures on Mormonism, with panoramic occom p., 
which were the best of their kind ever attempt- 
ed, and conitantly drtw crowded houses. In 
1866, he visited Eng., and was exceedinfriy 
popular, bnt broke down completely in health, 
and wasnbont to rctnm home when overtaken 
by death. His papers were coll, and pub,, en- 
titled " Artemus Ward, his Book." " Arte- 
mus Ward, bis Travels," " Ariemua Ward 

Brown, Cwfk. Pr.-Ep. minister of Wil- 
liani and Mary Parish, Md.; d. there Jan. 12, 
1617. He had been a Cone, minister in Ma- 
chias. Me., in 179S-7, and at Brimfield in 
17S8-1803. A vol. of bis *enDon« was puU 
after his death. 

Brown, David, a converted Cherokee ; d. 
Creek Path. Mpi., Sept. 14. 1829. Ha waa ed- 
ucated, with his sister Catharine, at tbe school 
of Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury in the Cherokee ter- 
ritory, and at Cornwall, Ci., and enijaged with 
her m odacating and Christianizing their na- 
tive tribe. He was a preacher and interpreter, 
and also acted ua sec. of the Indian Govt. His 
letters and reports show cultivation and intel- 
ligence. Cathiriiie, who was first among all 
her tribe in wealth, rank, and personal beantv, 
baptized in Jan. 1818 ; d. July 18, 13:23, a. S3. 

Brown, Datii> Pxjii^ lawyer, b. Pbila., 



1856. 

Brown, ErnAn Allek, jurist and states- 
man, b. Darien, CL, Jnlv 4, 1776; d. Indian- 
apolis, Feb. SI, 1853. ttoger, his father, d. 
1816, a. B2. He waa edncated by an Irish 
scholar, and acquired a critical knowledge of 
languages. Ho reail law in the office of Alex. 
Hamilton; was adm. to the bar in 1802 ; emi- 
grated to the WcKt, with biscousin. CapL John 
Brown, and in 1801 settled at Cincinnati, ac- 
quiring an extensive practice. Re was a judge 
of the Supreme Court of O. ftom Feb. 10, 1810, 
to 181B;gov. IS18-32; U. S. senator, 1822-5; 
canal comniissioner, 183S-30; U. S. minister 
to Brazil, from MnjS6, 1830, to Apr. 11. IS34 ; 



Brown, Obosob L., landscape-painter, b. 
Boston, ISU. His tastes led him to sludj 
wood-engraving ; but his desire to be a painter 
occasioned a visit to Antwerp ; and, during a 



t of Venice, of n 



His 



mospbere 



1860, after a 12-yeara' 
... , . !iomed to the U. S.. and re- 

sides in BiiMon. His " Crown of New Eng- 
land," ibc highest of the White Mountains, was 
purchased by the Prince of Wales. He haa 
executed several American landscapes, views of 
Niagara, the White Mountains, and the N. E. 
and Southern coasts. Among bia heat pictures 
are " The Bay of Hew York." " Monie Pel- 
Icgriuo," " Capri, and Italian Sea^eoasl." 
" Home," " Lake of Lucerne," " View of Na- 
plea," "Florence bv Sunset," "TbeCampflgna 
of Ilome," and " Lake of Como." — Tacktr- 

Brown, Ooold, grammarian, b. Provi- 
dence, R.I.. Mar. 7, 1791 ; d. Lynn. Ms., Mar. 
31,1857, Of Qnakerparentage, He was edu- 
cated in the schools and academies of his na- 
tive State, and at 19 began his vocation of 
teacher. He firet taught a district school in 
R, I. ; then a Friends' boarding-school in 
Duchess Co., N.Y,. in 1811 ; removed to New 
York in 1SI3, where, for over 30 years, he con- 
ducted an need. He pah. " Institutes of Eng- 
lish Grammar," 1823; "First Lines of Englirh 
Grammar," 1833; and "A Grammar of En^liiih 
Grammara," 1851. He had, at the limeofbis 
death, jnat concluded the revision of the latter 
work. — D-igckiiidc. 

Brown, Uaktbt, brer, maj.-gen. U. S, A., 
b. Itoxbnry, NJ., 179S. West Point, 1818. 
Enlerinit ihe art., bo became Ist lieut. 4lh An.. 
23 Aug. 1831 ; capt. 10 Apr, 1835; maj. Sd 
Art.,9 Jan. 1851 ; lieut-col. 4lh. 36 Apr. 1861 : 
col. 5th, May 14, 1861 ; brig.-gen. vols., 28 Sept. 
1361 ; declined ; retired I Aug. 1863. He won 
the brevela of mnj,, 21 Nov. 1836. for "gal- 
lantry " and " general efficiency " in the Flori- 
da war; Heut.-eol. for Controras, 30 Aug., and 
col. for the Gate of Belen, City of Mexico, 



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pan; fa an expel, against ths Indians, and in 
1792 became aoc. to Gov. Shel%. Soon aftel 

nged in repulse of rebel attack on Siuita Bosa the cessioQ of La., he emigrated thithor ; aided 

IsUnd, Fla., 9 OcU 1861 ; and brev bris.-gen. LiTicgeiOD in compiliDg tbe LouiHtana code, 

U.S.A., S3 Noy. 1861, for EHllantrj in tTie en- and became sec. of the lerrilory; U. 8. ai[». 

ftagemenl between Fort PiukenB and the rebel Tor La.; U. S. senator in 1812-17 and IS19-!!4; 

batterisa, Nov. aa-a3 ; and 3 Aug. 1866, brer, and iras D. S. miniater to France in 1824-9. 

ii4|..geii. U. S. A. Tor servicea in suppressing Hie bro. John was U. S. senator from Kt. 
riots of JnJT IS-16, 1863, in N. Y. City. — Brown, John, statesman of Ej., brother 

d. Clifton, Staten IsUnd, Mar. 31, 1874. of James, h. Staunton, Vs.. Sept. 13, 1797; d. 

Browili Hehbt Kibkb, scalptor, b. Le;- Frankfort, Kj-, Aug, 29, 1837. HJB father, 

den, Ml., 1814. At 18, be vent to Boston to John, 44 years pastor of a Preeb. church in 

study portraitrpainting, but turned hi) aiten- Roekbridce. d. 1803, a. 75. John left N. J. 

ttOD to sculpture; and, to obtain nteani to risil Coll. to join the Revol. army; anbseqncnil}' 

Italy, he became s railroad-Guginccr in III. In completed his education at Wm. and Mary 

1842, besucceedcd in getting to Italy, uhere Coll.; went to Ky. in 178S; praciised law; 

bo passed * yean in stndy. Returning, he fixed was a member of the Va. iegial. from Kv. dii^t. ; 

hit lesidence in Brooklvn, N.Y., applied him- member of the Old Congress, 1787-8t M. C. 

seirtothecastiDgofbroaie.andissaid to have 1789-93; and U.S. senator, 1793 lo 10)5. He 

produced the first brouie statue ever cast in this was oclire iu the Indian warfare of his day, in 

coantry. He has prodnced in marble, " Hope," the admission of Kv. into ibe Union, and the 

"The Angel of Retribution," "The Indian secnrtng for the West the navigation of tbe 

and Pauthor," " The Pleiades," "The Four Mississippi. — Coi/tWi ifi«(. ffy. 
Seaaons;" and in bronze, a statue of De Witt Srown, John, a ' "' '' - 

Clinton, the joloflsal Btituo of Washington in b. Providence, R.I., .. _ _ __ _ 

Union Square, New York. Sept. 20,1803, OnHof4 brolbers, — Obodiah, 

Brown, Jacob, maj.-gcn. U. S. A., b. Nicholas, John, andUoses, — partners in a iner- 
Bncks Co., Pa., May 9, 1 775 ; d. Washington, cantile firm disting. for enterprise and public 
Feb.24,1828. OfQuakerancestry. He taugbt spirit. He led the party, which, on the night 
school at Crosswicks, N.J., from (he ageofis of Jane 17, 1772, deatroved the Ih-iti»h aloop- 
(o!l, and passed thenezt two yearsinaurrcy- of-«ar " Gasp£" in Narniganseit Bnv, and 
iog nablic landa in Ohio. In 1738, he opened was sent in irons to Boston on suspicion of 
• tcDOol in N. Y. City, itodicd Ian, and wrote having been concerned in that aflfair, but was 
poliiical articles for the presa ; but hts active released through the effijrts of his brother 
temperament led him to purchase land on the Moses. Anticipating the war, ho instructed his 
borders of Ontario and tbe River St. I«wrence, captains to freii,'ht their vessels on their return- 
where be established himself, and erected the Toya;;;es with powder, and furnished the anny 
first building within 30 miles of the take. A at Cambridge with a supply, when it had not 
Sourishing selllcmenl soon sprang up; he be- 4 ronnda to a man. tie was a member of 
came county judge, col. of militia in 1609, Congress in 1799-1601, n great projector of 
brig.-gen. 1610, and in 1812 was app. to com. works ofpublic utility, and a munilicent patron 
the frontier from Oswego to Lake St. Francis, of Brown D.. of which he was for 20 years 
" " I, he repulsed the attack of a lrensur«r. Chosen delegate to the Continental 



U. S. regL, bal declined. At the request of field, Ms., Oct, 19, 1744; billed by the Indians, 
Col, Baclcna, he took com. at Sackelt'e Harbor Oct. 19, 178U, while marching to relieve Schuy- 
a season to def^t an attack by mperior nam- ler, in the Mohawk- Valley campaign. Y.C. 



hers. May 29, IBIS. App. brig.-gen. U. S. A., 1761. He was king's any. at Caughnawaita, 

July 19, 1613, m^j.-gcn. Jan. 24. 1314, and N.Y., afterwards practised taw in Piltsfield, 

placed in com. of the northern division of the Ms., and wus an active patriot. In 1774, and 

army at French Mills. From this period, sue- again in 1775, he entered Canada in disguise, 

cees attended our operations in Canada. He and endeavored to secure the co-operation of 

took posseMion of Fort Erie; gained a victory the inhabitants with the other Colonies in the 

over Gen. Rial! on the pUios of Chippewa, Ju- Revol. Ho was a delegate to the Prov. Con- 

ly 5, 1614; over a superior force nnder Lieut- gress is 1775 ; aided Allen in the capture of 

Gen. Drum mond in the battle of Niagara Falls, Ticonderoga. and, Sept. 24, look Fort Cham biy. 

July 39, 1814, where he received two severe In the attack on Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775. mai, 

wounds ; and in the lortie from Fort Erie over Brown co-operated, by making a false attack 

the same officer, Sept, 17. 1814. thtu raising upon the walls to the south of St. John's Gate, 

the siege. He received the thanks of Congress, He was witb Montgomerf wheu he fell, and 

Nov. 3, 1814, andagold medal emblematical of was, on bis recommendation, made lient.-col. 

those triumphs. At Che close of the war, he Aug. 1, 1776, with rank and pay from Nov. 

was retained in commend of the northern divis- 1775; Sept. 18, 1777, early in the morning, ivo 

km of the army, and was made gen. in chief surprised the outposts of Ticunderogn, set free 

Har, 10, 1821. — Nal.Pori. Galleri/; Gardiner. 100 Amcr. prisoners, capttired 4 companies of 

Brown, James, lawyer and statesman, b. regulars, a quantity of stores and cannon, and 

Dear S to on ton, Va., Sept. 11, 1766; d. Phila.. destroyed a larre quantity of boats, and an 

April 7, 183S. Wm. and Mary Coll. Ho armedsloop. He left the Service on account of 

studied law, and, emigrating to Ky., rose 10 his detestation of Arnold, whose treachery he 

disiincCioii at tbe bar.. In 1 791, be com. a com- predicted, but continued to act with the ml 



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SItO 132 BRO 

litin of Berkshira. Member of the lagiil. in was pastor of a charch at Lexington, Ta., anil 
1778, ' was snb^eqaentl)' editorial sec. of the Amer. 
Brown, C*pt. Johh of Onawatloiiiie, a Bapc. Pub. Societr. and editor of the CIruiian 
discing, champion of libert;, b. Torringtoo, Chronide aod the yaiionai BaMt'it. He editec 
Cl., 9 Maj, ISOO ; hang at Charleatoira, Va., for this aociet; tbe worlts of Banvan and Ful- 
S Dec. 1859, Id a letter lo a relative, dated ler, and " Fleetwood's Life of Christ." The 
from his prison, 19 Nov. 1859, ha mp, " I Ba^tiatarticles of faith, called the "N.H. Coo- 
Guppoec I am the Srsl of our mataal kindred, fessioti," were prepared by him, and revised in. 
since tbe landing of Peter B,fo«ii of The May- 1B92. He also wrote verse; one of bis bestef- 
Bawer,' that has dither been sentenced lo im- forts being a traaslation of the Dks Ira, 
prisonmentor to the gallows. Onr grtadfitber, "Emily, and other Poems," he pab. 1B40. 
Capt. John Brown, fell in 1776, and he, loo, BfOWn, John Sclutah, aathor, b. Moul- 
mighl have perished on the icafiold, had dr- tonborough, Sept. S. 1835. Dartia. Coll. 1846. 
CQinslances been but ver; little di^rent. I Solicitor of patents at WashinKlon, D.C., since 
shoald be 60 years old were I to live till Maj Apr. 1651. Has 7 patents of bis own, and 30 
9, 1860. I have enjoyed much of life as it is, or 40 improvements of other inventions ; has 
and have been remarkablv prosperous; having pub. "A Catalogne of all Patents prior to 
early learned to regard the welhre and pros- I8B7." " Hives, and the Managing of Bees," 
periiy of others as my own. I have not as jet and the Pen and Leoer, devoted to mechanism 
j_.___ .. .... ...g of gisMcs, but can see and inventions. — .d/umni ofCC. 



to read and write quite comfortably, and I have BrOWIl, John W., author, b. Scbenectady, 

generally enjojod remarkably good health." N.Y., Aug. 21, 1614 ; d. Malta, Apr, 9, 1649. 

His father removed U> Ohio in 1809. In ISli- Uu, Coll. 1832. AfWr completing his stndies 

90, be worked at the trade of a tanner and cni^ at the General Theol. Sem., he setiJed as a 

rier In 18S0, he m, Dianihe Lnsk. He re- Pr.-Ep. minister at Astoria, N Y, Julys, 1B3G; 

moved, in 1646, to Springfield, where hewasa condncted tbe Astoria Female Institute in 

dealer in wool ; afterwa^ visited Europe on 1836-45 ; became in 1845 editor of the PrU- 

buuness ; emig. in 1655 to Ks., where be took e»lant Churdman ; was the author of the 

an active part in ihecontosi wiib theproslaver/ " ChriatraaaBetls, a Tale of Holy Tide," 1642, 

party. A devoutmemberof the Cong. Charch, and other poems, and of eevemi religious tales 

and a man of strict moral character, possessed in prose, 

of onBincbing courage, and intense earnest- Brown, Mabon, LL.D. (Trans, D,), jurist 

ness, he was specially adapted to the work he and legal writer, b. Pliila., 10 Nov., 1799 ; d. 

wastodo. As early as 1639, he conceived the Frankfort, Ey., 27 Jan. 1867. Y.C, 1830. He 

idea of becoming a liberator of Che Soatbem studied in the office of J. J. Crittenden and in 

slaves. In Aug. 1656, he defeated at Oasawat- the Lexington Law School ; practised ai 

tomie B band of Missouri invaders ten times Frankfort; became the partner of Charles S. 

more numerous than his own force. In May, Morehead, with whom he compiled " Morehead 

I8S9, be called a secret convention of the and Brown's Digest ; " was many years judge 

friends of freedoio, which met at Chatham, of the Circuit Court of his disl., and sec. of 

Canada, organized an invasion of Va, to liber- State, 1855-9. Father of Senator B. Grmi 

aie the slaves, and adopted a constitution. In Brown, and of Brig.-Gen. J. M, Brown. Son 

July, he rented a farm-house about G miles from of Sen. John Brown of Ky. by a sister of 

Harper's Ferry, and collected there a supply John M. Mason, D, D. — r. C. OU. Reeord, 

of pikes, guns, &c. On the night of 16 Oct. 237. 

1859. with about 20 men. hesurpri.sed Harper's Brown, MiTTHBW, D.D. (NJ.Coll. 1823), 

Ferry, seized the arsenal and armory, and took LL,D. (Ham, Coll, 1835; Jeff. Coll. 1845), 

40 prisoners. Attacked bv the Vn, mitllia, on educator, b. Norchumb. Co., Pa,, 1776 ; d. 

tbe 17th, after two of his'sons, and nearly all Piit>barg, Pa., S9 July, 1853, Dick, Coll. 

of bis men, had been killed, and bu bimselfhnd 1T94. Licciued to preach by the Presb. of 

been wounded in •evornl places, he was cap- Cariisle, 3 Oct, I79P; some time pastor at 

lured, " Enemies and friends," says Rcdpalh, Cftnonsburg, Pa. First ptos. of Wash. Coll,, 

'• woiecmiallyaraaicd at ihecarrii^e and say- Pa., 1806-16, and pres. of Jeff. Coll. Pa., 

ings of the wounded warrior." He was tried 1832-45. Besides addresses and aermoos. 

in Noi'., and met death with serene composure, he pub. " Memoir of Rev. O, Jennings, D.D.," 

He was twice married, and had 20 children.— 1632, and " Lifeof Rev, John McMillan, D.D." 

S'-f.LiJi.bHRedpath,\6&Q; Life and Utttri.bg — Sprar/ue. 

li. fj. II>M,I661. Brown, Mosbb. capL D.S.H,; d. New- 

BrOWQt John Newtok, D.D,, Baptist baryport, Jan. I, 1604, a. 63. In the Bevol, 

ck'TKytnan and author, b. Mew London, Ct., war, be com. several of the largeel privateeta 

June' 29, 1603 ; d. Germaniowu, Pa., May 15, of N.E. ; was engaged in many severe battle* ; 

1 868. He grad. at what is now Madison U., disiing. himself parricidarly in one with a ship 

Hamilton, N.Y,, with the highest honors in of superior force, and was a leolous, brave, and 

1613 ; preached one yearin BuBalo, afterwards sueceesful officer. On the eetablishmeut of 

at the Isi Bapt. Church, Providence, in Maiden, the U.S. navy, the merchants of Newburyporl 

Ms, and in Exeter, N.H. He edited "The built a ship by subscription tor the govt., the 

EncTclopiediaofHeligious Knowledge" (1833}, com. of which was j-iven lo Capt Brown, who 

repuh.inEng. From 1S3Stol845,hcwaspror. was commilsioned capt, Sept. 15, 1796. While 

of ihcol. and eccl. hisCiry in the New Hampton he com. " The Merrimack, he was as enicrpris- 



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R.I. C^U. 1786. He desccndecl from 
Chad Brami, one of tbe earlj colonisu with 
Roger William*, and wtt tbe bod of Nicholas, 
(onoorthet brolhen), whod. May 29, ITSl.a. 
61. In 1791, be tdanded [ho mercaotile hooge 
of Brown & Ivei, one of ihe moat ancceufDl 
in the coiintrj. For munv years, he was ■ 
member of the R.I, leglsl. ^e wu one of the 
moat maniSceDt palnma of R.I. Coll, which, 
in 1804, chaaeed ita name to Brown Unir, 
ID ISS3, he built a aecond coll. edifice, entirely 
at his own expense, aod gave, in all, nearly 
•100,000 to that institution. He gave nearly 
SIO.OOO to the Providence Alhenaum, liberally 
aided in iho bniUiog of churches and the en- 
dowment of colleges and academies, and be- 
qoeatbed S30,000 for an insane aaylnra, to be 
eslabliahed at Pn>ridenc«. His son, John 
Carter Brown, baa also been a manificent 

BCron of B.U. — £^e Ilunfi Una af Ama. 
tnAanll. 

Browiti PjiTBiOK, M.D., b. Mayo Cb., 
Ireland, ah. 17M; d. 1790. Author of" Ciril 
and Nat. Hist, of Jamaica," 1756. 

Brown, PncenB Hinsdalb, poetess, b. 
Canaan, N.T.,lTS3;d. Oct. 10, 1661, aillenir, 
ni.,at the hoDse of her dan.. Mrs. Elijah SmiU. 
She m. Timothy H. Brown. One of her sons 
■■ a miMionary at Japan. Some of her lyrics 
are in Clercland's " Lyra Sacra Americana," 

Brown, Coi^ RiCHASO.aChcrokee Indian; 
d, Tenn., Jan, 26, ISIB, a. 4^. He led the 
Cherokees in every battle of the Creek war, 
nndcrGon. Jackson, whose personal friendahip 
be enjoyed, and waa severely wounded at the 
battle of the Horn Shoe. At the time of 
his dcalb, he was one of the Cherokee delega- 
tion to Washington respecting a treaty. 

Brown, Gen. Robert, fa. Northampton 
Co,, Pa., 1745 ; d. there Fi-b. 26, 1823. App. 
-.t the bcj.-inning of the Ravol, '" -"— — 



work at hia trade, that of a biackainitb, dia- 
tribuied the proceeds of his wages among his 
lei low-prisoners. He was made a brig.-gen. of 
the State militia, 6l1ed several civil stations, 
waa ■ member of the State senate for some 
lime; M.C. from 1799 to 1815. — ^>;ri. 

Brown, Suiuel, M,D., physician, b. 
Rockbridge Co., Va., Jan. 30, 1769; d. Ala,. 
Jan. 12, 1830. Dick. Oill, 17H9. He studied 
medicine onder Dr. Rush, in Fhlla,, and took 
IhedegtMofM.D. at Aberdeen, He practised 
• while near what la now Waahington City ; 
Httled in Lexington, Ky,, in 1797 ; in 1806, in 
New Orieans ; at Natchez, where he m. Miss 
Catharine Percy, fn 1808, atUr irtiose death, 
be willed on a plantation near Huntsvjlt^ 
Ala. Prof, of medicine in Transylv. U. in 
1819-25. He was extensively engaged in prac- 
tice i snfKiTsted the process now in general 
D<e for clorttying ginseng, and for the applica- 



slaves, bat did not succeed. Author of a trcu- 
tise on yellow-fever, 1800. — Alemoir by ij. 
Rxhe, in (iroas'i Mfd. Biog. 

Brown, Sahukl Gilhim, D.D. (Col. 
Coll. 1853), educator, b. N, YarmoDth, Me., 
Jan. 4, 1813. Dartm. Coll. 1831 ; And. Theol. 
Sem. 1837. Son of Francis (pre*, of D.C.. 
IS15-20). He was principal of n hin;h school 
at Ellington, Ct. ; travelled in Europe in 
1838-40; wiis prof, of oratory and belles let- 
trea at D.C., 1840-63, and of intell. phil. 
and potit. econ. in 1SG3-7 ; ord, a Cong, 
preaclier at Woodstock, Vt., Oct. 6, 1952; 
pres. of Hamilton Coll., Clinton, M.Y., srni^e 
IS6G. He has pnb. addresses, and coittribs, to 
reviews, '■ Hist. Discourse bcfbre the Alumni of 
D,C., 21 July^ 1869," being ita lOOth anniver- 
sory ; also " The Life of Hon. Rnfus Choaie," 
" Biography of Self-Taught Men," 1847 ; and 



I 10 ( 



s of I. 



" The Earlier Enc. Literature," the other . 
" British Orators, delivered before the Lowell 
Institute, Boston, in 1859, and elsewhere. 

Brown, Sahdbl R,, aotbor, d. at Cherrr 
Valley, Sept. 15, 1817, a. 42. He was a vol, 
daring [he War of 1912, and afterwards edited, 
until 1815, a newspaper called the Patriot, at 
Cayaga,N.Y. He pub. " A View of the Cam- 
paicns of the North-western Army," 1814; 
" History of the War of 1812," in two vols. ; 
"'" Gazetteer ; or. Emigrant's Direc- 



&o' 



1817. 



1 the distillation of spirits 
was ■ member of the I'liilos. Society 

.."ml. vl. 






conirib. to its " Transactit 
Iso to the N.Y. iM. H'poa. With his dis- 
nu. brothers. John and Jnmca Brown of Ky., 
Id Henry Clay, he endeavored in 1799 to 
ttry a project for the emancipation ol the 



N.Y., where 
be preached Sweden borgian ism. Since 18.12, 
he has practised dentistry in that city. He 
pub. in 1BI8 an essay on Amer. poetry, to- 
gether with some miscellanies ; " Dentologia," 
a poem on (ho diseases of the teeth, 183:! ; 
and, in 1839," Dental Hygeia," a poem on the 
general laws of health. He has contrib, to 
the N.Y. itirror, and been co-editor of the 
Journal of Dfntal ScieiKt. — Everest's Poeti of 

Brown, Thomas. capt. U.S. navy, b. Del. ; 
d, Pbila., Nov. 2S, 1828. Midshipman, Apr. 
27,1801 ;)ioal. March 21, 1807; master, March 
1, 1815 ; capt. March 9, 1825. > 

Brown, William, an early naval com- 
mander of the Revol. ; d, Boston, Nov. 29, 

Brown, Willi AM, adm. ofBaenoa Ayrea.b. 
Ireland, ab. 1779; d. He came to UaltimorB 
in 1793, and was employed in the mercantile 
marine until 1796, when lie was impressed by a 
British man-of-war. In 1814, beingat Buenos 
Ayres, in the cem- of an Eng. merchant-ship, 
dnring the War of Independence, ho was in- 
duced to enter the naval service of that coun- 
irj. Recfiving the command of its flotilla, be 
eng^ced in April, 18l4,some Spanish vessels off 
the island of Martin Qarcia. Id the ensuing 
May, a more decisive engagement look place 
off Montevideo, in which 4 of the enemy's ves- 
sels were taken or destroyed, and the rest dii- 
pcrsed, causing the speedy capture of Monte- 
video. Brown was made adm,, and, his services 
nut being reiioired, ho planned an exped. 
■tfainst the Spaniards in the Pacific Ocean, and 



iv\^ioo«^le 



BBO 134 BRO 

Mine lime tncMMful, making man]' rich in 1868. Anihor, nlao, of" An Amer. Famil; 

After having greatly annoyed the in Gennnny," " AdTcninres iu the Apacha 

icommene in the Pacific, he waa »■ Counliy,"" I^ndof ThDr,""CrD«oe'»lBrend, 

wiih a rich booty, ohan lie wm cap- with Sketches of Califoroia and Washoei" and 

y a British abip-of-war, carried into " Yusef. TraTela in the East." d. Dec B, 1870. 

I, and condemned upon frivoloaa and BrOWOe, William, loyalist of Salem, 

nable alleealiona. Owing to this an- Ma., b. Feb. 27. 1737 ; d. Eng., Feb. 13, 1803. 

•ceeding, Broivn lived at BuenoB Ayrea U.U. 175^. Grandson of Got, Bumet. He 

mem, and almost in poverty, nntil the was many yean a reptesentatire of BsJcm ; 

th Brazil commenced. Tbie event one of the 17 rescioden in 1768 ; a col. of the 

him once more into notice, and gave Essex Co. militia ; a judge of the Superior 

opportunilj' of acquiring no small share Court, 1773—1, and waa banished in 1778 ; and 

I rcpntation. bia immenae landed eatalea were confiscated. 

ra, William Hill, poet; d. Mnr- Got. of Bermuda in 1781-90. — So&i'w. 

ongti.N.C, where he was stadving law, Brownell, Thomas Chcboh, D.D. 

, 1793, a. 27. He wrola a' tragedy LL.D., Prot.-Ep. bishop of Ct.. b. Wesiport, 

on the death of Andr^, and a comedy, Ms., Oct. 19, 1779; d. Hartford, Jan. 13, 18ES. 

-a and laabella " was pah, in 1807, Un. Coll. 1804. In this inatitutiou, he held, in 

rae. Col, Thomas, loyalist officer of tnm, the aiiaationa of tutor, prof of logic and 

'ol., of Angnala, Ua. ; d. St. Vincent's, helle»Jettres, lectoreron chemistry, and prof, of 

, l8Sa. hi 1775, he flod, bat was rhetoric and chemistry, until, in Apr. ISIG, he 

. back by the Whiga, tried, tarred and took ordera in the church ; and became an as- 

d, and drawn 3 mifea in a cart exposed aist. minister in Trin. charcb, N.Y., in the 

opulace. Removing to Fla., he made, summer of 1B18, He was conaec. biahop of 

lead of a small force, predatory incur- Ct., Oct, 37, 1819, and, remoring to Hartford, 

I the hanks of tbe Savannah. Joined was chosen first pres. of Trin, Coll,, which 

by about 300 Tories from the inlerior, took it> rise under hia auspices in 1834. He 

liiod the" King's Bangers," uniformed, was chiefly instrumental in the liberal endow- 

1. ibem as lieat.n^ol. In 1T79, at [be menu of its prufeaaonhips, and in procuring 

400 mounted men, he made a forced important additions to the general fund. Ha 

10 Aagnsla, and, after being wounded realised the pres. in 1831. He became presid- 

;:e defeated by Cols, Twiggs and Few, ini; bisbop in tS&S. He pub. "A Bible Class and 

led there a military post, and was re- Family Expoeiior to the Study of the New 

1. In Sept. 1780, Col. Clarke heaiegied Testament, and "A Commentary on the Book 

It tbe talent and skill of Browne, who of Common Prayer." In 1839-^10, he prepared 

iself shot through both thighs, enabled 5 vols., entitled " Religion of the Heart and 

bold out 4 days, and until rehered by Life." He is also the author of several impor- 

uger. His barbarity to Col. Clarke s lant charges to his cler):y, and various sermons 

d, wham be bung, covers him with in- on special occasions, ancl bos contrih in other 

A^-ain bcsicgod in April, 1781, by wavs to tbe current literature of the day. 

and Lee, he was forcod to surrender firoWnioKi Okvillk H., lawyer and poli- 

>. Such was the haired his cruelties tician, b. Harnaon Co., Kv,, ab. 1810. While 

>ired, that he was obliged to be specially a clerk in the office of the clerk of Bracken 

ingly guarded until delivered at Savan- Co., he went ihrongb a course of classical study 

be would have been torn limb from al Augusta Coll,, studied law, was adm.to the 

\fier he was exchanged, be served at bar in 1831, and settled in Quincj, HI. He 

th. InMay, t7e2,hemarchedout with served throui;h Ihe Black Hawk war in IBSI ; 

lerable force, but was completely rout- mem>>er of the III. senate in 1836-^0; of the 

c<i ujr iVayne. His estates, both in.Ga. and lower house in 1841-3,and, in conjnnclJnn with 

S.C. having been confiMuted, lie retired to his friend Abraham Lincoln, was mainly in- 

the Bahamas al the peace, whence, in 1786, he slruraenial in forming Ibo Bepab. party of III. 

wrote an elaborate and able reply to Ramsay's ai the Bloomingion convention. Delegate 10 

comments on his conduct during the war, ad- the Chicago coavcntion of 1860, and a warm 

dressed to the historian himself. In 1809, be sujiporter of the govt, durin? the Kebctiion; 

WHS a petitioner in Eng. for a grant of crown. U.S, senator in 1861-3 to fill the vacancy oc- 

latids, and received 6,000 acrea in the Island of caaionod by the death of Mr Douglas ; an 

Ki VinccnL It has been staled, that in 1813, active member of the Union exec, commit- 

he was convicted in London of forgery, which tee, June, ISGS; and sec. of the interior in 

seems unlikely. For his services, he had been 1866-8 ; and from March, 1868 to March, 1869. 

made col. com. of his Majesty's late regt. of also performed the duties of U.S. any. -gen. 

S.C, or Qnecn's Rangers, and also supcriiiien- BrownlOV, William GAKNkWAT, cler- 

dent of Indian al^ira in tbe southern disc, of gyman and politician, h. Wythe Co., Va,, Aug. 

N, A. — fialnur. 29, 1805. He was left an orphan at 1 1, and, 

Browne, Johk Ross, traveller and outhor, by hard tabor as a carpenter, obtained a &ir 



817. In his ISth year, he descended the education. Entering the Methodist 

sissippi and Ohio. Irom Louisinlle to New in 1826, he was an itinerant pnac he. ... 

Orleans. In 1846, after visiting a prcat part years. While travelling in S,C., he took part 

«r >h. _i....l.l Ka n„h •' PlnMn.nnf o \V).si;.i.r. .„ ihs ....IKK ,...,;,.., ,^„it^„^^„ n..».I .. , - .h_ 



of the world, he pub. "Etcbini.'sof a Whaling- m The nullili cation controversy, opposing the 

Criiiw. with Notes of a Sojourn on ibe Island project, and puh, n pamphlet in his own vindi- 

01 Ziinzibnr." He has been in California and cation, on acconni of the strong opposition 

tbe Holy Land, and was app, minister laCbiu excited against him. In 1838, ho advocated in 



vv^iuo^ie 



SRO 135 SKTJ 

'TsnQ. Ibe eloction of J. Q. Adams to tbe Pre«- mnnion in IS44, and hu sinco labored itrek 

idencj. Ab. IBST, he became editor of the aously for [he di>ctrii]09 of chBC clmrcb. Tha 

KHomlU Whig, a political newspaper or wide later puba. of Mr. Brawnaon are, " The Spirit- 

circuUlioo, and obtained the MOnouEt oF the Bapper,"ISM; and " The CoavErt, orLeaTet 

" GghtiDg parson." In 1858, in apnblic debate from mj Experience," 1857. Since 1844, he 

at Fbila., wiih Re*. A.Fryn«,onslaTerj. after- hsBSDpporled.almoBtBingle-handBd.firuiciiian't 

wud pub. in a vol. enlitleil "Ought AmoricaQ QaarUrig Rteiev, devoted especiaily to the 

Slaiery to be perpetuated V Mr. Bronmloi* dereoceof Catboiic doctriais, bocalsodiBcuuea 

TDainlaincd the afflrma^Te. From the begin' qneationa of polltica and literature. Trana- 

nine of the wceasioD moremeat in IS60, he laliona of aeveral of his works have been pub. 

boljl J maintained in hia paper the principla in Europe ; d. Detroit, Apr. IT, 1876. 
of wlhcrtncs to the Union as the best safe- Bruce, Asdbbw, lieut.-col. ath Foot, a 

|[Danl of Soathern inatiiutions. This conrae British officer, who served at Lexington, 

■objected him to much persecution after tbe Bunker's Hill, &c ; d. Eur., Feb. h, 179^. 
•eceaaion oF Tenn. Oct. 24, 1861, he pabliahed Braoe, Archibald, M.D. (U.oFEdinb, 

Ihclaal number of the (7%, and, after remain- ISOO), phjaician, b. N. Y., Feb. 1777; d. there 

■ng some lime concealed, waa induced, by a Feb. 22, ISt8. Col. Coll. 1795. Ris father, 

promise oF panporu, to report to the com. .gen. William Bruce, the head of the medical dept. 

at Knoiiille, where he was arrested Dec. 6, ofihe Britiahnrmyat N.T., upon bolngordered 

and ihroKQ into jail. March 3, 1 B62, ho was to the West Indies, specially directed that hit 

releaacd, and escorted 10 the Union linea at son ahould not be brought up to the med. pro- 

Na^hvilte. He afterward made a tour of the fession. Hunecer, from Ibe medical lectures 

Korlhem States, delivering speechea in the of Nicholas Bomayne, the leocbinga of Or. 



C' Lcipal cities ; waa joined by hia family, who Uoaack, and i 

also been expelled from Knoxville ; and medical instru 

pub. " Sketches of the Rise, Progress, and De- a knowledge of the science. He went to Europe 

dine of Secession, with a Narrative of Personsl in 1798, and in a lour of two years in France, 

Advenlurca among the Rebeli," I2ma, IBBS. Switzerland, and Italy, collected a miners- 

Hi: returned to Naahrilla after ita capture by lo;;iciU cabinet of great value. Ho m. in 

the Union Forces, and waa gov. of Tenn. in London, and, in the aummcr of 1803, re- 

1865-9 ; U.S. senator since 1869. Among bis turned to N.Y. City, and commenced practice, 

otherwritings ore "The Iron Wheel Examined, From 1807 until 1811, he wos prof, of materia 

and its False Spokes Extracted" (ISmo, mudica and mineralogy in the Coll. of I*hy. 

Nashville), a replv to attBCka on the Methodist sicians and Surgeons. Having, in connection 

Church, 1 85S 1 d. Knoxvilie, Tenn. Apr. 39, '77- with Romayne and olhera, afterward constituted 

Brovnson, N.ithxi), atatoiman, d. Lib- anotlier medical Faculty, he delivered lectures 

trty Co., Ga., Not. [79S. Y.C. 1761, He on his bvorile atndiea. In 1810, he edited a 

was a physician of Liberty Co., and an early vol. of a Joamai of Aiaericaa Mimrnlogg, 

supporterof the rights oF his country ; member which, as well as his discovery oF the hrdrale 

of tbe Prov, Cong, of 1775 ; was some time a of magnesia at Hobokon, contrib. materially 

surgeon iu tbe army ; wasspeakerof thelegial. to extend hia fame. Member oF many leaniM 

of 1781, by which body he was ehosuncov. of aasociationa in this country and Europe. — 

Ga. ; member of the Cont. Cong, of 1776 and Tharhfr. 

1778; speaker of the Ga. H. of representatives Brace, Sin Fbedbrick, an Eni;lish di- 

io 1768; pres. of the senate in 1789-91, and plomatist, hro.of the Earl of Elgin, d. Boston, 

taemberofiheconventionihatframcd the State Ma., Sept. 1S67. App. ambassador to tbe 

Constitntion in 1789. — Ga. Hitl. Cutk. 213. U.S. early in 1BG5. 

Brownson, Obbsteb Acoubtus, LL.I)., Brncs, Gboboe, an eminent type-fonnder, 
author, h. Slockliridge, Vt„ SepL 16, 1803. b. Edinbnrgh, Scolland.June26, 1781 ; d.N.T., 
He became in 1825 a UniversulisI minister, and July 5, 1866. Ho came to the U.S. in Jane, 
preached in various places in Vt. and S.X., 1795 ; waa apprenticed to B printer in Phila. ; 
writing for and editing various rebgious peri, afterward went to Albany, and thence lo N.Y., 
odicals. Making the ncqaointaace oF Bohert where, in 1803, he was foreman, and a con- 
Owen, ho was attracted by achentes of social Cributor (o the Daily Atlerrtiarr. In 1806. with 
rcForra, and in 1828 was prominent in the his bro. David, he opened a book -printing- 
formation of a workinttmen's party in N.Y. office. Iq 1812, David went to Eng.. and 
The writings of Dr. Channing led him. in brought back with him thcsecret of stcreotyp- 
1831. to become pastor of a Unitarian church, ing. In ISIG, they sold out their urlutiDg- 
In 1836. he orsaniied in Boston the Soeioty buainess, and began that of type-Fuunding, into 
For Chrisiian Uoioa atid Progress, of which he which George iniroduced many valuable im- 
hid charge till he ceased preaching in 1843. movements. In connection with his nephew. 
On removing )o Boston, he pah. his "New David Bruce, jun., be invented the only ly^ 
Views nF Christianity, Society, and tbe caating machine which has stood the lest oF 
Church." He established the Boston Qimrter/jf experience, and is now in general nae. He 
RiFiesr in 1838, and waa almoBl its sole writer waa many yeara pres. of the Mecbanint' In- 
*~~~~ the 5 years of ila continuance, and siitulc, and an activememberof several literary 
largely to it during the iirat year alter and hcnevoli'nt nasociationa. 
1 -_._ iiig [)f,„ac. lievieviot N.Y. Bruen,MATT[iiAH.ministeroFlheBteecker 



ing tl 



In IB40, he pub. " Charles Elwood. or the In- St, Chnn-h, N. Y. (14 Jnne, 1825-1829). 
fiJel Converted," which passed through several Newark, NJ., Apr. 11,1793; d. N.Y., Se| 

olitioaa in Eng. He entenid Ibe Bonao -'>m- 6. 1829. Col. Coll. 1812. He travelled 



i.,C 



Eoropewithhispreceptar.Dr. Haioit,mlS16; I*adatoi7 prefiwe, ncurin^ bim ■ Europsan 

WIS ord. in London in I SI9, and preached six rspntation. Uaring; asiocialed Wm. Leggell 

monltis in tbe Amer. chapel, Paiii. In 189S, with himself in cha nianagement or Che f«*f, ho 

he became B miSBianarj inN.Y. He was active TJsiced Europe in 1B34, and trsTel led there ex- 

fn missioiiarf, religions, and educational work. tensiTelj. He went again in 1645, and inn 

Antborof " Si^etches ofltalj." — SeeLifeaai third Tuit, In 1849, extended hia journey lo 

Character of. N.Y., 1831. Egypt and Syria. Hij lellers written to the 

Bniyas, Ret. Jacques, of Lyons, mis- Posf during these joumers were pnb., with the 

sionary, arriTed at Qaabec, Aag. 3, 1666; title or "Letters of a Traveller," soon after 

beciime cbicf of the Iroquois Missmns in I6TI, his lait retnm. Ab. 1845, he purchased an an- 

and wns superior at his order ia 1693-1700. cient minbion ticar the rilta^ of Roilyn, on 

In 1700, he was in stra mental in making a peace Long Island, where be has since resided. Iti 

with the Five Nations, which lasted over SO tB4S, he delivered a funerBl-omtion on Thos. 

years. In Aug. 1 TOl, he attended the grand Cole, the great landscBpe-paialer ; and in I Sii 

mtiacation of this trealy. Ho wrote several a discourse oq the life and writings of Jamej 

works in (he Mohawk tongue. His Dictionary, Fenlmore Cooper. He made another journey 

Catechism, and " Racintt Agment " are Still to Europe in IBST and '8, described in a series 

exlnnt. — 0' Callaghaa. of letters to Che £(«ninjr Posf, pub. in 1 8^9 as 

Bryan, Qbobob, judge, b. Dublin, Ire- "Letters from Spain and Other Countries." 
laud, 1731 ; d. Ptiila., JaD.ar,179l. Became AfK'. 3, 1360, he delivered at the Acad. of Mu- 
to Amer. in early life; was engaged some years aic, N. Y., an address on Washington Irving. 
in commercial pursuits in Phila. ; was a mem- A new vol. of verses, entitled " Thirty Poems." 
ber of the State Assembly, and, in 17SS, was a appeared in 1864. His brother Joux How- 
member of the Stamp-act Confi;reas, in which, abd, also a poet, b. July S3, 1607, first came 
and in the subsequent struggle, be took an into notice in 18S6 by the publication of " My 
active part. Vice-pres, of Che supreme exee. Native Laud." He went to SI. in 1831 ; baa 
conncil of Pa., from the period of the Deciora- been a representatiye in thelegisl., and pub. a 
tion of Independence, h« was, in May, 1773, coll. of his poems in N. Y. in 1655. 
advanced to the preiidencj; and in 1779 he BrysOQ, Akdrew, capt, U. S. N.,h. New 
was elected Co thelegisl., when he projected and York, July S5, 163S. Midshipman, Dec. 21, 
procured the passage of an act for the gradual 1837; lieat. Ang. 30, 1851 icom.JuljlS, 1862; 
abolition of slavery. App. a judge of the capt. July S5, 1866. He com. steamer " Chip. 
Stiite Supremo Court in 1780, he remained in powa " on special service, 1862-3 ; com. iron- 
that position until hia death. In 1784, he was clad " Lehigh," S. A. B. squadrou, at the re- 
elected one of the council of cenaors. He dncdon of Fort Macon, and in all the princi- 
nrenuDuslj opposed the adoption of the Federal pal acuons in which the iron-clads were engaged 
Cunstitntion. He was an impartial andincor- off Charleston, from Sept. 1863, to Apr, 5, 1364, 
rupritile judge. and wounded slightly by fragment of a shell; 

SrTant, William Cdlleh, poet and jonr- com, iton-clnd " Essex, Mississippi sqnadron, 

nalist. b. Curamingion,Ms.,Nov.3, 1794. His 1864-5. — IlaiBtr^. 

father Peter, a physician, superintended tbe - Buohanan, FltANKi.TR, an officer of the 
education of his children. Young Bryant com- Confed, navy, b. Bultimore, SepL 17, 1800: d. 
municalod verses Co the county gaaette before Talbot Co., Md., May 12, 1BT4. Midshipm. Jen. 
hbwas 10; and his "Embai^," a political S8, 1815; he became lient. Jan. 13, 1825; mas- 
satire, and "Tbe Spanish Eeiolnlion," were ler^om. Sept, 8, 1641 ; first supi. of the naval 
pub, in bis I4ih jear, and again in 1809, At acad, 1845-7 ; cnpt, Sept. 14. 1855. Apr. 19, 
IB, he wrote " Thanatopsis, first pnb. in the 1361, he sent in his nuignation; but, tindlug 
Xorlh Amer. Rri-ieie in 1317. After 2 years' that Md, did not secede, be petitioned to he re- 
study at Wms, Coll., ho Studied law; was adm. stored; was refused; entered the Confederate 
to the bar in 1315; commenced practice in service, and superintended the fitting-out of 
Plainfleld,andaf^rwanl removed to Great Bar- the frigate " Merrimack." He com. her iu Che 
rington ; but, though he rose to distinction in attack on the U. S. fleet in Ilamplun Roads, 
the courts, his tastes inclined him to literature, and was so severely wonnded as to be obliged 
He wrote several prose artlclea for the North to relinquish bis com. He was in com. when 
Amfrlcaa ; in 1821 delivered before the Phi Gen. Wool occopied Norfolk, and blew np his 
Beta Kappa Society of H. U. a poem on the ship to save her from capture. Made a rear- 
" Ages ; and a vol. containing several of his adm., he com. the iron-clad " Tennessee " in 
poems, pub. at Cambridge, at onceslamped him Mobile Bav, Aug. 1864, where he was defeated 
as a genuine poeL He removed to New York bv Adm. farragot, and taken prisoner, 
in 1825; edited the N. Y. Revitw, soon after 'Buchanan, Isaac, member of the Cana- 
mei^ed into tbe V. S. Revian, and in 1826 dian parlinmcnl, and pres. of the board of 
connected himself with Che filwniwjPoji. This trade of Hamilton, b. Glasgow, N.B., 1810. 
he subs equentlj, upon obtaining its exclnsive He was liberally educated; became a leading 
control, changeii from a Federal to a Democ. merchant and politician ; was active in sup- 
print, favoring free trade. From 1327 to 1630, pressing the rebellion in 1837 ; was etccled to 
with Sands and Vcrplanck, be edited Che" Tal- parliament from Toronto in 1841, and has been 
isman," an annual, and concrib. "Med field "and many years «, mem her. and at one time pres., ol 
the "Skeleton Cave" to the " Tales of the the exec, council of Quebec. Author of "The 
Glauber Spa." In 18-'13.acomplelc edition of Kclatiuns of ihc Industrv of Canada with the 
bis poems appeared in N. T. ; and Irving, then Mother- Country and the "M. S." 
in En|,'., caused it to be reprinied there with a BuoIiaiiaQ,jAiiG3,BritishconBulalN.Y.; 



,,Google 



BUO 137 BUG 

d.uElniwood, ncarHoiitiMl, Ocl.I8fil, *.80. Sspt.1846, EoMbt, 1M7; uting m^. aud di» 

While ■ resiJenl of N. T., h« wrote and pab. tiiiE, ia batde of Cbanibasco ; brev. lieal.-«ol 

*■ Skeicbei of the Hutorjr, Hanaera, nod Cat- forEl Holinodel Bej, Julj, IMS ; actiiiK iniip.- 

lomi of tbe N. Amer. lodiHiia," S roll., 19tiio, md. n Geo. Bntler ia 1848 ; msj. 4ib Inf., 

1824, repub. ia Load, the lame Tear, a work Feb. 3, 1B55 ; com. and disCJag. inseTsral con- 

-' '" — N.E.H.andGe>tal.Btg.,yi., 101. flicta with ladiane near Rt^e River, Owoii, 

— ' %, ISih Pre«. of the in 1856 ; lieni-col. Sepl. 9, 1861 ; col. lit Inf., 

. Pa., 23 Apr. IT91 ; i. Feb. 8, 1864 ; brig..gen. U.S. toIs., 99 Not. 

Lancasler, Fa., I June, 1868. 186S ; was ia tbe batllea and aie^es of the 

Lfici. \,oix. iBua. Hia fnthor cbtth Trom Ire- peninsular camp.; battles of Uanosaai, Aniie- 

land in 1783: hia mother. El iiabeth Spear, wb« Um, and Frederickabarg i brsT. brie.-gea. D. 

ibedau. ofafanner. Adm. lo tbe bar in IBIS, B.A., tS Mar. 1865, for MalTCm UiU; breT. 

he practised at Lancaster with ancb aoccoaa, m^.-gen. U.S.A. , forManaaiaaand Fredericks- 

diat. at the age of 40, ho retired with a compe- botv. — C'uUaai. 

■encj. Beginning as a Federaliat. be was an BuDldiu;Iiaill, Jaxbb Silk, traveller and 

M. C. in 1331--3I, and aapported Jockaon for anthor, b. En);., 1784 ; d. Iiondoo, June 30, 

ibe Fretidencjr Id 1838 ; mmisier lo Russia in 185S. He made loars in Tarious parts of Gu- 

l83!-4: U.S. senator, 1884-45 ;*ec. of State, rope and N. America, the pablished acconnta 

under Pros. Polk, in 1845-9, opposing tbe of which make maaj toIs^ 9 of (hem are 

Wilmoi PrOTiso and the amialaTer; moTe- upon Amer. Ue risiled the U.S., and lectored 
meni; and U. S. minister io Eng. iti 185»-«, 

III ISU.bewastbe Democ.candidateforPrea., 

and was elected, leceiviBg 174 electoral votes Buckingham, JoiEPH Tinkkb, editor, 

(o 139 Tor Fremont {BepoblicaD), and Fill- b. Windham, Ct., Dec SI, 1779; d. Cam- 

.more (American). In Congress, ho favored a bridge, Ms., Apr. II, 1861. His father, Nehe- 

tariff merely for reTeaoa, and, aa chairman of miah Tinker, a Kevol. soldierjd. in 1783, leav- 

tbejndiciar; committee of tbe honae, condncted iag hia family deatilnte. Joseph worked on a 

with ability the prosecalion of Jadge Peck of brm; entered a prindng^Sce at 16 ; came lo 

He. in 1829-30. As minister to Russia, he Boeton in Feb. 1800, and in 1804 had hianama 

ooDclnded a commercial treaty, securing to us changed by act of the legist. He becan to pub. 

important priiili^cs tn tbe Baltic and Black the P/Jfoiilliot in 1805, the Ordeal, a weeklv 

Seas. In the acnate, where bo waa regarded as of 16 pages, Svo, in Jan. 1809, the iV.£. (?<J- 

a leader of tbe Democracy, he urged Congress axy, in conjunction with S. L. Kaapp, in Oct. 

to declare that it had no power to legislate oa 1817, and in Mar. ISS4, the Baiion Courier, 

the tabjccl of slarery, and advocated the an- as the special and avowed advocate of the 

nexation of Texas, Aa one of the 3 memberg Amer. system. Ha redred Irom tbe Couritr in 

of the Ostond Conference in 1834, be declared, Jane, 1848. From 1831 to 1834, in connection 

that, if Cuba Gonld not be purchased, we should with bis son, he pub. the N. E. Ma^dne, Ha 

be josli&ed in wrestingitirom Spain. His cab. was several times elected lo the legL'il., and was 

inet was composed pnncipally of disnnionisli a member of the State senate in 1847-^, and 

and their friends. In the firal year of his ad- 1850-1. He is the author of " Spoeimena of 

ministration, great Gxcitemeol waa producedihy Newspaper Literature," &ic., 3 vols., ISSO; 

an attempt to establish slavery in Kansas. /In "Personal Memoirsand Recollections," S vols., 

his message, Dec 1857, he urged that Kansas 1853; " Annals of tbe Ms. Char. Mechanics' 

be adm. with the Lecompton Constitution, Assoc.," 1853. He was pres. of the )ls. Chsr- 



proslavery party, aided by executive itabte Alsoc., of the Banker Hill Monnment 

inSnence, bad framed. In his last message, Aaaoc, and of the Uiddleaex Agric So^iy. 
Dec. 1860, Bnchanancaat on tbe Northern peo- Buoklngham,Wiu.TAx Alfred, LL.D. 
pie the hiame for the disruption of (he Union, i^C 18SS},gov.of Cl, 1858-6S, b. Lebanon, 
then imminent, and declared that the Consticu- Ct., Mav 38. 1804. His ancestor was Rev. 
tiou did not delegate lo Congreas or to tbe Ex- Thoa. of Saybrook. He engaged in bnainess 
ecutire power lo coerce or to prevent the seces- in Norwich, in 1825, and became a aacce«sful 
sion of a Stale. Dec. 13, i860, Cass resigned merchant and carpet mannf. Hia patriotism 
the Slate secretaryship, because the Pres. de- and efficiency during the Rebellion were of 
ciiaed to re-enforce Fort Snmter. Moal of the great service to the national caose. U.S. sen- 
slave States seceded in the winler of 1860-61; atorsince 1869. HegaTeS35,O0O to the Tbeol. 
and nearly all the Ibrla, araenals, and custom- School of Y.C. — See H. B. Slouv'i Men of 
hontes within their limila, were seized by the erir Tims; d. Norwich, Ct., Feb. 4, 1875. 
iaaurgents, tbe movements of the disanioniati Buokmuuter, Josbpb, D.D. ( N. J. Coll. 
to found andfonily a Southern confedemcy be- 1803), minister of Portsmouth, N.U,, b. Rut- 
ing fjadlitaled by Uie outgoing administration, land, Ms,, Oct. 14, 1751 ; d. June 10, 181S. 
Hewiifadrew toprivatelife Mar.3,lS6). An- T.C. 1770, where be was a tutor from 1 774 to 
thor of "Mr. Buchanan's Administration," 1778. Tbos. his anccBiorcame early to Boston, 
1B66. and d. Brookline, 1656. He became attached, 
BaChaiULQ,RoBEBTCiTsiBTiE,breT.maj.- whileaiNew Uaven, loeladyof repDtaiioaani' 
gen. U.S.A., b. Md. West Point, 1830. Lient. celebrity, whoae history ia the basis of Miia 
of inf., 1830; adj. 18-35-8; served in Seminole Foster's story, " The Coquette." Ord, in Jan. 
war, 1836-7; rapt. 1 Nov, 1838; brev. maj. 1779, pastor of the North Church; bat after a 
■•forBullatit and di*iing. service ia battles of ministry of 33 years, bis health becoming 
R. de la Palma and PhIo Alto." Ang. 1846 ; greatly impaired, he left home June 3. 1813, 
lieB(.-col. com. bait Md, vols, in Uex. war, accompanied bj his wife and two friends, bat 



i,v._iooi^le 



BI70 138 BUE 

i. > few day* after. He pab. tome tannoD*, An^. 186S. He inbaeqaentl; com. the IM 

and a short sketch of Dr. Alack inlosh. EUia division of Gen. Hanlee'i corpe ia Bragg** 

B. Loe, his daa., pab. "Memoirs of Ibe R«t. arm; in Tenn. Later be was madeamaj.-gen., 
Joseph BackminaCer, D.D,," IS5I. — Spragut. assigned ia the 3d grand dir., and was in the 

Bagkmiuster, Jobrpb Stetbnb, a cele- bacuus of MurfreesMroogh and CbickHinanga, 
braied preacher and scholar, b. Porumoulb, and surrendered irilb Sirby Snuth's arm; u> 
N.H., >Uy ae, 1764; d. Jane B, 1812. H.U. Gen, Canby, at N. Orleans, Maj "' """' 
IBOO. Son of BeT. Joseph. He devoted him- Buell, Abbl, an ingBnioaa 
self for 4 years to theology and general litera- Killingwoith, Ot., ub. MM; i. N. Haven, Cc, 
tare. An'assist. in Exeter Acad. afW leavine ab. 1825. In his yoath, he was apprenticed to 
coll.. he was one of the teachers of Dani^ a gold and silrer smith, and at the age of 20 
Webster. In Oct. 1801, be preached in Bos- was delected and punished for an ingeaions 
ton fiir the first time, and accepted, In 1605, an alteration of a colony note. His next exploit 
invitation from the Braitle-ai- society there, was theconstrnctionofa lapidary machine, be- 
A voyage to Europe was rendered necessary lieved to be the first used in this coontry. Re- 
far the restoration or bis liealih ; and in lg06-7 moving to N. Haven ab. I7T0, be whs employed 
he travelled extensively in Eng. and on the by Bernaid Romans, who was constructing bis 
Contineni. He was an active member of the map of N. Amer., to survey Ibe coast of Pen- 
Anthology Club, famous for the many gifted sacula, and aflerwards to engrave the map, 
men which it included, and for having origi- which was puh, during the Hevol. He next 
Dated one of the first pnrclj lilerBry penodicsis established a type-foundry, and, for his various 
of this country. In 1809, he di^livered before services to the public, was restored by the l^sl. 
the Pbi Beta Kappa Society of H. U. an ad- to his civil righu. After the wiu-, he was em- 
dress on " The Dangers and' Duties of Men of ployed by Ibe Sute in coining coppers; for 
Letters," He maintained by his sermons the which he made all the apparatus. He then via- 
highest rank among popular preachers, and ited Eng,, where he gained some knowledge of 
was a conlrib, to the periodicals of tbe day, the machinery used in Che manuf. of cloth, aod. 
The Greek Testament of Grieabacb was edited on his return, erected a cotton -factory in N. 
by bint in 1808. In 1811, he was app, the first Haven, — one of the first in the conntry. 
lecturer on biblical criticism at U. U. ; and, Buellf Don Cablos, niBJ,-gen. vols., b. 
while bnsily preparing for the execution of near Marietta, 0., Mar. 23, 1818. West Point, 
this office, a violent Ql of epilepsy at once de- 1841, Enteringthe3dlnf.,hebecanic]st lient. 
■troyed hi» inielleci, and gave a shock to his June, 1846, and won the brevets or captain at 
frame, which he survived but a few days. In Monterey, and major at Contreras and Churo- 
1803, he pub. a collection of hymns for the use busco, where he was severely wounded. Lieut.- 
of his society. Avol.of blssermons waspnb., col. May 11, 1861; brig,-gen. vols. May 17, 
with a memoir of his life and character, bj 8. 1861. In Nov., he superseded Gen, W. T.Sbet~ 

C, Thatcher in 1814. He was a member of man in tbe depl. of the Cumberland, which was 
tbe Acad, of Arts and Sciences, and of the re-organiied as thaiof the Ohio. Maj.flen. of 
Ms. Hist, ^>cicly. vols, Alarch SI, ISG2, and on the same dav his 

BaobminBteri Col. William, Revol. dist. was incorporated with that of the Mpi., 

officer, b, Frn 111 I ngham, Dec. 15, 1736; d, jnne Gen, Halleck. He arrived with a part of a di- 

S2, 1786. He removed toBarre in I7S7 ; com, vision on the battle-field of Shilob, near the 

the minute-men in 1774 ; was lieut,-col, of close of the lirst day's action, Apr. 6, in lime 

Brewer's regt. at Bunker's Hill, and_ received to succor the bard-pressed army of Geo. Grant; 

there a wound which crippled him for life, 3 of hia divisions arriving the next day, the 

BOOkner, Sivon Bolitab, gen. CS.A., Confederates were driven to their intrench- 

b, ICy., nb 1834, West Point. 1844. En- menta at Corinth, June IS, he took com. of 

lering the 3d Inf., he was from Aug. IS45, the dist. of Ohio. In July and Aug., Brogg'a 

to May, 1846, assist, prof, of ethics at West army advanced Into Ky., capturing a number 

Point ; brev. Ist lieut, for gallantry at Conire- of Buell's posts, compelling the abandonment 

ras and Chnrubusco, where he was wonnded ; of Lexington and Frankfort, and ihe remov- 

capl. for gallantry at Molino del Key ; assist, at of the btate archives to Louisville, which city 

instructor inf. tacticsat West Point, Aug, 1848, was Ihreatoned, as well as Cincinnati. At mid- 

and resigned Mar. 35, 1855. He (hen prac- night of Sept. 24, Buell's retreating army en- 

(ised law. and became the most prominent of tered Louisville amid great excitement, as It 

(be Knighis of tbe Golden Circle in Ky. Af- was feared that Bragg would reach there first. 

' " r broke out, he nas made SepL 30, by order from Wanhingion. Bnell 

' '" • .- turned over hie com. to Gen. Thomas. butwas 
restored the same day, and, Oct, t, began to 

Russelvillc an address to the people of Ky., pursue the Confederates, On the 8th, n severe 

calling on them to take up arms against the but indecisive battle was fought with ibem at 

usurpiiiion of Abraham Lincoln ; after which Perryville by a portion of BueH'b army. On 

he removed to Bowling Green. After the cap- the S-lth, he was ordered to transfer hia com. to 

ture of Fort Henry, he evacuated Bowling Gen. Rosecrona. A court of inquiry to inves- 

Green, Com, a brigade at Fort Donelson, in tigato his operationa made a report, which has 

the battles of Feb, 13, 14, and 15, and, after the never been pub. Resigned I June, 1864. Pres. 



_iUO^^Ic 



ed uDiit 18dl, wbcD he deroKd bimaeir .. .^ . . ^ . 

rical. pnrsaits in that viciDitr with great auc- he removed to Rock Islnnd, Itl., where he wu 

ceas. He vu oftea a member of the 8uie a merchani.aiiiraaroaiiiler, and banker. Col. 

auembi/; at one time a magjeirata ; was Whig 37th 111. Vols., Aug. 1861, he com. the troops 

candidate for gov. in 1B36, and, at the time of that accomp. the gnnbonl Qotilla to Colnm- 

hii ileath, wai a r^ent of the U. In ia34, he bns and Island No. Ten ; caplni-ed Union 

established the CiMvator, which has probabl; City, March 30s l^^^, and became brlg.-^n. 

ezened a greater iaflnence among egricnltu- rola,, April IS, 1863 ; in the battle of Corinth, 

fin«, and been the means of eBecting more im- Oct. 3-t, 1863, and siege of Vicksburg, Feb. 

rrement in bnsbandty, than any other limi- 1863; brev. mnj.-gen. vols., IS Mar. 1865; 

jonnial in the U. S. He delivered nnmei^ special U.S. com. lodiaD affairs in 1867, 

ons addresses, pub. the " Farmer's Instructor,'' Bulflnoh, Chables, architect, b. Au|;. B, 

in 10 vols., and the "Former's Companion," 1763 ; d. Boston, April IS, 18U. H.U. I'SI. 

1839. Member of manj Amer. and foreign Son of Dr. Thos. Ha acqaired bj travel in 

honicnllural and agricaltoral societies. Earope a caltivated taste, and a knowledge of 

y nfflifn F.nwmn GoDu>, joarnalist and architectural science. The primitive rondi- 

anlbor, b. 6. I.;d. Paris, E^nce, Dec. S4, tion of itiiicoDntrf had occaiionedatotnt ne^- 

1867. Son of Arnold Buffam, the well-known lect of art; and, on bis return from Europe m 

phitanlbroniat. In early life, he became a writor 1786, be devoted liimself to arcbiiecture as a 

for ibe NtaYark Herald, bnl In 1846 Joined profession. He drew the plan for the Suta 

Col. Stevenson's N. Y. rcgt., ond accomp. it to House and Cilr Hall in Soston, and for the 

Cal. as a licut. Being there at the time of the Capitol at Washington. He was a memberof 

discovery of gold, he was activelj engaged in the Amer. Acad, of Art* and Sciences, and of 

explorations of Ibe Stale, and Bubseqaeniij the Mass. Hortic. Societj. 

pnb. an interesting and valuable work, tliehrst Bulflnob, Stephen Obbbhlbit, D.D., 

of ttj kind, on the gold-mines of Cal. He was clergyman and author, b. Boston, June IS, 

a long time editor in chief of the .<4ba CVi/or- 1803; d. Cambridge, Oct. 12,1870. Col. Coll. 

•iuii; and in the Suie legial., of which be was D.C. 1B3S. At the age of 9, he was taken by 

a member from Son Francisco, displayed great his father, Charles, arehilect of the Capitol, to 

ability as adcbaier. He wrote a history of Col. Washington. After studying at the Camb. 

Stevenson's regt.,Braphicaily describing life in Div. School, he was from 1830 101837 a Uni- 

Col. in its early days. At the time of his death, tarion clergyman at Augusta, Ga. He next 

be had for 8 years been the Paris corresp. of kept school, and preached at Pittsburg, Pa., 

thcJV. Y. Herald. He possessed extensive ac- and was similarly engaged at Washington, 

quiremenis, and was a frequent contrib. to the D.C, for 6 years. In 1B4S, he was settled at 

leading magazines of Europe and America. Nashua, N.U., andin 1853 removed to Boston. 

Buibrd, CoL. AnRAHAX, Revol. officer of Ho pub., " Contemplations of the Soviour," 

V«,; d, Scott Co., Ky., June 39, 1833. Made 1832; a vol of poems, Charieslon, 8.C., 1834; 

col, of Morgan's lllh Va. i«gt.. May 16,1778. "The Holy Land," 1834; " Lays of the Gos- 

Hsj 29, 1780. his com. was surprised and mas- pel," 1835; a devotional vol., "Communion 

sacred by Col. Tarleton at Waihaw Creek. Thonghta," 1852 ; "The Harp and the Cross," 

Buford, JoHJf, m^.-gen- U. S. vols., b. 1857, with several sermons, and conlributiona 
Ky., 1825; d. Washington, D.C, Dec. 16, to the magaiincs. He was a contrib. to the 
1863. West Point, 1848. Entering the Ist coll, of Unitarian hvmns in use by that de- 
Dragoons, he became capt. Mar. 9, 18S9; nomination. — Dnijckinck. 
■erved in the Ut^exped.; became insp.-gen., BtHfinoIl, Tao3i*s. author, b. Boston, 
rank of tuajor, Nov. 13,1861; was altocbcd to July IS, 1796; d. there May 27. 1867. H.U. 
the sto^ or Gen. Pope in the Ai'my of Va., 1814, He was in mercantile business until 
June 36, 1862; brig.-gcn, July 27, 18(12; com. 1837; ond dnring the reslof his life was aclerk 
a brigade of cavalry under Gen. Hooker, and in the Boston tlcrchant's Bank. He pub. in 
ewly in Aug. 1863, ivas so severely wounded 1855 "The Age of Fable; " "Ageof Chivalry," 
near the Rappahannock Biver, that he was re- 1858 ; " Legtnds of Chsriemagne," " Poetry 
ported dead. He served on McClellan's staff of the Ago of Fable," "Oregon and Eldorado, 

ai the battle of Antietam, Assigned to -■-- ~- ° ' *'- "' ■ " " "-'■"- < ■■"■-■ 

com , of the reserve cavalry brigade, he was 

spicuoos in many engagements, and began — 

Btluck at Gettysburg before the arrival of Hey Bolkley, Peter, first minister of Con- 

nolds. He was Gen. Bumsido's chief of csval- cord, Ms., b. Odell, Bedfordshire, Eng., Jan. 

rv, and was one of the beat officers in that 31, 1583 ; d. Concord, Mar. 9. 1659. He was 

hranch of the service. He had been assigned educated at Cambridge U„andsoccecded to the 

to the cum, of liie Anny of the Cumberland living of his fsther, l)r, Edward, retaining it 

ioit bcfnro his death. Gfen, N, B. Buford was 21 years. Hemoved by Land for nonconform- 

bis half-bro. i'y, be come to Cambridge in 1035, and in 

Buford, Kapolbok Bowaparte, brev. 1636, with a few companions, founded Con- 

maj. t.'en. Tols.,half-bro.of Gen John, b. Wood- cord, Ms,, where he afterward rcsidHl. Auihor 

ford Co., Ky,, Jan. 13, 1807. West Point, of some Latin poems conuined in Cotton 

18;;*. Entering Ibe 3d Art,, he was employed Mather's " History of N.E.," and also of the 

in various surveys- obtained leave in 1831 to "Gospel Covenant Opened," London, 1646; 

niKT the Law School of H.U. In 1833, he and an elegy on Rev. Thos. Hooker. U« 

was aisi^i. pruf. cf nat. philos. at West Point, was as remarkable for benevolence and kind 



vv^ioc^le 



cce^ed hi 



fitn. 140 BUN 

iM tor strict virtue. Edward hi* via 1SS3, h» preached M Troy. Ha then vUited 

d him in the pAitoral charge at Cod- Borope, sod, after lUt reloni, retained Us pai- 

cord. torate orer th« Uoited PrMbjterians. He waa 

Boll, Hbhst, one of [he arigioal paTchaaera an able preacher and inicnictix', and prepared a 

and settlers of Aquidneck, now SLJ., b. Booth yvry complete ataiea of olauical tcxt-booki, 

Walla, in 1609; d. 1694, After a short reei- which aie axlcnurel^ nsed; among them are, 

dence in Ma., whither he bad emigrated, he "Practical Lesdons in English Grammar and 

joined himself with IJ others who purcbaied Composition ;" " Principlesof English Qi«id- 

land and settled at Newport in 1638. He was mar, 1634 ; " Introduction to Aoalvtiiwl Eng' 

gov. of the new colonj id 16B5, and again in lish Gramnuir ; " " Analjtical and Practical 

1689: English Qrammar," 1850; "ProgressiTe Ex- 

JSull, ObB BoBHBMim, Norwegian violin- ercuea in Analyna and Parsing;" "Laiin 

iel,b. Bergen, 1810. HestodiednnderSpohr; Oraiiimar,""lACiaBeader,"aad"Bieicisei;" 

went (o Paris, wbere ho was so destitata as to " Cna«r," " BallnsC," and " Cicaro," wiib 

be on the point of committing snicide, when he notes; " Latin-English Dictionarj, with Spio- 

was relieved bj a lady of rank. Brilliantly nymes ; " " First XieSBOna in Qreek," " Grara- 

soccessfnl in the Bnropean capitals, be came mar," and " Reader;" "Memoir of Bev. 

in IS45 to America. He bonght 120,000 acres Alex. Bullions." 

oflsnd in Pa., where he founded a Norwegian Bollitt, Alhxardsb Scott, amiesman of 

colony, Co which he eara the name of Oleona. Kv., h. Prince William Co., Va., 1761 ; d. 

Bull, WiLUJJf, M.D., physician, b. 1714 ; Je'Serson Co., Ey., April IS, 1816. Nephew 
d. London, Jnly 4, 1791. Son of Wm. Bull, of Capt. Thomas, an early explorer of Et., 
lient.-goT. of S. C. (1739-43), several jeara and dep. BC|).-geii. in Vo. in 1776; founder 
speaker of the assembly, Bon of Stephen Boll, . of LouuviiLa, Sy. ; served under Washington 
one of the early settlen of Carolina, and snr- on the fronciei, and was at Broddock'a defeat. 
veyor-gen., who d. in March, 17S5, a, 71. A His fiither, Cnthbert, was judge of the Sapreme 
pnpil of Boerhaave, he, in 173S, defended a the- Court of Va.at his death in 1T90. The son em- 
sis before the U. of Leyden, and was quoted igrated to Ey. in 1 784; m. the dan. of Col. Wm. 
by his-fellow student, Van Swieten, as the Chris^anin 1785 ; was a delegate to the Const. 
learned Dr. Bull. After hisretamtoAmerica, Conv. of 17B3;pree. of the Ky. senate until 
he was in 1751 a member of the coancil ; in 1799, when be was prea. of the convention to 
1763 Bpeo^ar of the house of representaUves, amend the State Conatitution ; lieuL-goT. in 
and in 1764 lienc-gor. of S.C, whicb oSce, ISOO-^; again in the legist, nniil 1808. — CaU 
with cbatof com.-in-chief, he held many yean. hiu. 

Failbfnl to the crown in 1776, when the Bollook, Alex, Hjlhiltoh, LL.D. (H. 

British troops left S.C. in 1783, he accomp. U. 1866), gov. of Hs. 1866-9, b. Royalston, 

tbemtoEng. Us.,March3,1816. Amh. Coll. 1836. Adm.lo 

Bnllara, Hbvht Aduis, JnriM, b. Oroton, the bar, 1841 ; member Ms. legist. 1845, 7, '8, 

Hs., Sept, 3, 1788; d. New Orleans, Apr. 17, '61 -S ; mayor of Worcester, 1859; Stole sen- 

18S1. H.n, 1807. The son of a minister of ator, 1849 ; com. of insolvency, 1 853 ; judge of 

Pepperell. He practised law, and became insolv. 1856-4. He tias pnb. sererot addresses 

connected in Phila. wiih Oen. Toledo, who and speeches. 

was organizing an exped, to revolntioniie New Bollookt AsoBiBAt-D, Bevol. patriot of 

Mexico. Joining him as aide and military tee., Oa., b, Charleston, S.C; d. Feb. 1777. Be 

they were defeated in the spring of 1813, u was a delegate from Ga. to tlie Congress at 

San Antonio, and, after suffering severe bard- Phila. in 1775, and June SO, 1776, was chosen 

ships, he reached Natchitoches, and opened a prea, of the Exec. Council of Ga., the flrsc posi- 

law-offiee Ibeie. He was raised to the l>ench tion in Ihe State, which post he tilled until the 

of the Hist. Coartin ISSa, was M.C. in IS3I- formation of the State Constitution, Feb. 5, 

4 ; jndgo of the Snpreme Court of La., from 1777. His son Wii.lii.ii B.. lawyer, mayor of 

1831 10 1846, with the exception of a few Savannah in 1809, and U.S. senator in 1813, 

months in 1839, when be acted as aec.ofState. d. Sav. 6 Mar. 1853, a. 76. 

Removing to New Orleans, be was in 1S4T Blllloc]E,WlLt,lAlf,pub. " V^irginialmpar- 

app. prof, of civil law in the law school of tially Examined," Land., 1649. 

La., and dcliveied two courses of lectares. In BuHUteSd, Fbbbhah Joriah, M.D. 

1850, be tvns chosen to the legisl., and was (1851), physician and aaibor, b. Boston, Apr. 

M.C. in 1850-1. Hia moat elaborate speech SI, 1826. Wms. Coll. 1847. He studied at 

was on the CariS-hill, in 1839, Paris in 1853, and then settled in prac^ce in 

Bullions, Petes, D.D. (NJ. CaU.I837), New- York Citv. He was some yeara snrgeon 
dcrgrman nnd educator, b. Moss Side, near to St. Luke's Hospital, and is now (1870) snr- 
Perth, Scotland, Dec. 1791; d. Troy, N.T., Feb. geon to the Eye and Ear Infirmary, and to ibe 
13, 1864. In hia Touth, he worked on bis father's Charity Hospital, Blackwell's Island. Doring 
farm, and attended school; spent three years the session of 1866-7, he was lecturer on ma- 
at the U, of Edinburgh ; studied Iheoton' fbar tena mcdica at the Coll. of Physicians and Sur- 
years, susUiinin^ himself by leaching daring geons, N.Y., and ia now prof, of venereal dis- 
vacationa ; was licensed to preach by Ihe pres- easea there. He pub. a translation of Ricord's 
byiery oFEdinhnrgh, in Jane. 1317, and tlien Notes to Hunter on Venereal, 18.^4 ; " Pa- 
nt am pd, and came to the U.S. In March, tbology and. Treatment of Venereal Diseases," 
1818, hawaa ord, paalor at Argyle, N,T., and, 1861, and a translation of CuUerier's Icoao- 
from Nov. 1834 until 1848, was prof of Ian- graj*ie dfi Sfalarliei Vtn., 1867. 
guages at the Albany Acad From 1833 to Bonob, Saiii;il,co1., h. 1786; d. Graogct 



vV^-iOO^ie 



Co., Tenn., 8ept.S, 1846. He com. a ren. of wat soon after app. prof, of orBtoirandhellea 
Tenn. moDnted ^QinsD, in 1813, under Jack- lettrea in B. U., rcdnng in IB^S. M. C. 1835- 
■on. and wu diltinB. in the attack on the Si. Ua speecbta, and bis famous passage- 
Cnek Indian* at HiUibeeloira, Not. 18, 1813 ; at-iuTna witb John Randolph, bIiowgiI ihai bo 
M.C. 1B33-T, was ablo to contend succsaafully with the ablest 
Bunoombe, Col. Sichasd, Revo), offi- debalera in Coagreaa. Hia style was omate and 
car, b. St. Eitu, W.I. ; d. Phila., ITTT, from peculiar, rich in claidcal and ecriptaral illna- 
wonnda at the battle of Branctyirine. E^u- (ration. He wv an acate logician, and mi- 
ca id in Enf(., he inhftited a larM estate ; re- equalled in sarcaam. A Memoir, with solecdons 
moTcd in 1776 to Tj;rTell Co., n!C. ; wm an mim his speechoa and oceaaionaJ wriiLn;;*, by 
■ctiTB patriot, and raised and com. the 6th N. Henry L. Bowcn, wm pub. in 183S, and an- 
C. n^ A coanlj of N. C. perpetualsi his other in 1 869. He pnb. " Baltle of Late Eric, 
wi til Notices of Com. Elliot's Conduc" " 



fiurbank, Sidhbc, brer. brig.-iieD. U.S. BuTKeSB, EuEHEzu, D.D., Cong. dcTgy 
A., sun of Lient-Col. SnliiTan, b. Hs. West man, b. Warchom, Ms., I Apr. 173(1: A. Dnl- 
I, 1839. Entering the 1st Inf., he serred ham, Ms., S Dec., 1870. B.U. ISO! 



of Lient-Col. SnliiTan, b. Hs. West man, b. Warchom, Ms., 

, 839. Entering the 1st Inf., he serTed ham, Ms, S Dec, 1870. ___ ._ 

the BlMfc Hawk and Seminole Indian wars ; tutor at B.U., and aftenrards a prof, in Vt. U. 

capi. S Not. 1 839 ; maj. 2(1 InC, 8 Dec. 1855 ; One of the (bonders of the colonj oflibcria io 

licuc-rol. 13th Inf., 14 May, 1861 ; col, !d Inf., 1817. Studied theology at Andorcrnnil I'rince- 



ChaneellonTilte and Oott/sbur);, for which he and "TheBonnas Genealogy," 1865. 

wa«br«T. brig.-gen. U.S.A. 13 Mar. 1865,— BorgeSB, Geobob, D.D.,Proi.-Ep. bishop 

CulluHi. of Me., b. FroTidence, R. I., Oct. 31, 1809; 

Borbookt Qbk. Henbt, Rerol. officer, b. d. on the passage home from the West Indies, 

BoMiin, Jime 8, 1754 ; d. New London, Oct 3, Apr. E3, 1866. B. U. 1836. Son of Jndire 

lots. IIi!< father was an officer at CasCle Wil- Thomas Burgees. He was a tutor in B. U,, 

lion). In lTT6,hewBSniiidealieat.; captofart. afterwards tiSiTelled in Europe, and studied two 

&epT. 12, 1777, and continued in octtviMerTice years in the UniTersities of Giittingcn, Bonti, 

nntil the close of the war, when he recciTod the and Bcriin. He was rector of Christ Chorch, 

brer, of major. Heparticipatcd in the battles Hartford, from 18.34 to 1847, when be was 

of Brondvwine and Gennanlown, as well aa in conaec bishop of Maine (Oct. 31), and became 

the terrible priTatioos and Bofferiogs of Valley at tbe same time rector of Christ Church, Gar- 

For^ : shared the perils of the memomble diner. His death was rcrr snddcn. Ue bad 

rcireai ihrongh N. J., and was present at Woi - establishing an Episcopal mission in 

tbe battle of Monmoath. In 1T8S, he again Hayti, and was on hb way trom Migroam to 

enicn^ tbe serrice with the rank of capt., and Port An Prince, when he was sdzed nith po- 

WR4 actively engaged for sereral years In the ralysii, and died instantly. He pub. two aca- 

In<Uan war on our weatcTO border, under Gen. demic poetns, a metrical Tersion of aoroo of the 

Wayne. Maj. com. art. Not. 4, 1791 ; lieaL- Psalms, 1840, "Pages from the Ecclesiastical 

col. MaT7, 1798; col. art. Apr. 1, IBtKt; and History of New England," a cnrions trealise 

bn.T. bng.-gen. Sept. 10, 1813; retired 181S.— on death, entitled " The Last Enemy, Con- 

Gmmt. ^. iii., 101. qoeringand Conquered," 1851, aTol. of "Ser- 

Bnzden, Rknbt, inventor, b, Dnmhlane, mons on tbe Christian Ufa," and a discourse 

8coilan<l,30Apr.l79l; d.Troy,N.¥.,l9Jan. in 1854 before the Me. Hist. Society. His 

1871. Brought np on bis fitther'e ftirm, his snie is remarkable for its Tigor. In the house 

inrpndTefacnrlj was first tested on a threshing- of tusbops, he occupied a prominent position 

machine. Alter a thorough course of sdentifle as tbe leader of the moderate church party. — 

smdr at Edinbnrgh, he came, in 1819, to the See Uenuir, h/ hii bra,, Bai. Attx. Bun/tu. 

U. 5.; mode an improred ploueh ; in 1830 In- BursoynO, John, f^ea. and dramatist, h. 

rented the first coItiTator used In America; Feb. 5, 1723; d. Lond,, 4 Aog. 1733. Son of 

patented a machine for making wrought-iron John and grandson of Sir John Burgoyne, be 

spikes in I3S5, and in 1835 a machine for wm liberally educated; entered the army, and 

making horse-shoes. In 1843, be patented his m. clandespnely a dan. of the Earl of Derby, 

book-beaded spike, now used npon crery rail- who sabscquently helped bim to rise in his 

road. In 1833, he became agCTit of the Troy profession. Brig.-ccn, of the force Bcnl for Che 

Iron and Nail Factory. These works he defence of Porttigal in 1763, and at Alcantara 

grvatly enlatged, and was Gnally sole piopii- and at Villa Franca manifested skill and cn- 

etor. ' Be waa mnch intereaied in ocean fuvi- terprise. May 35, 1779, he arrived at Bostoti, 

iraiioa. and. June 35, wrote a graphic account of tbe 

Bonces, Tbi«t«k, LL.D., orator and jn- battle of Bunker's Hill to Lord Stimlcy, which 

rii>t, b, Rocbeater, Ms., Feb. 36, 1770; d. Ptot- was pub. in the newspapers of the day. Gen. 

iit«ice, R.I.. Oct. 18, 1853. B.U. 1796. IJke Lee, bis old comrade in Poitaca!, having 

hi« father, he was both a ronner and o cooper, cmcned a correap, with bim, vindicaling the 

anil, ihongh his eariy education was limited, he Americans, Burgoync replied, and proposed an 

■ongbt knowledge with avidity. He taught interview, which, however, <Ud not take place. 

Khool in Proridence; was in 1739 admilteif to He returned home 11 Dec. I7T6, concerted with 

the R.I. bar; roee to tbe head of the profession, the ministry a plan for the campaign of 1777, 

._j i ^ loder of the Federal party; in and was made a lieut.-gen. A large force waa 



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advanced np the HadMD in order to cut off lOTy ever heard in the Houie of Ccnnmoni. 

nonununication between the oonhem and UU speech of Mnr. S3, ITTS, recommenilmg 

■oathem Colonies, in the ezpectatJoDgtlut each conciliator)' meaaarei loirards the Colonics, 

bdng left to iucIT would be mbdned with little also excited getieral admir&tion. Rettinicd 

trouble. Arriving in Canada carl; in tTTT, he from BriEtoI in 1774, ho loBt popnlarity in llint 

isened a proclamation in Jane, icTitine; the city in I7S0, by adrocating the cinlmsor the 

Indians to bis standard, and captured Ticon- Roman Carholics, and opposing the policy of 

deroga, with all its artilleiy and slorea, Joly 6 ; repreaaing the trade of Ireland, and wa8 n'^cr- 

bnt the natural difficnltieB of tbe country, the ward the repreaentatiTe of Malton. " — ■ — 

inclemency of the weather, and the scarciW of Eockingham s brief ^ .i'nmio>">i™« '• 

proviaionB, retarded hii advance, and enabled Bnrkow"" " ""' " 

the Americana, under Gien. Gates, to concen- of the fo , _ ,. ._ 

trate a superior force in hia IronL Abattlewaa "Coalition" ministry in 17B3. Se took i. 
fought at Stillwater, 19 Sept., and another at prominent part in the aflitiis of India, and, in 
Freeman'a Farm, 7 Oct; and 16 Oct. 1777, he Jon. 1786, began the prosecution of Warren 
waa compelled to capitidate at Saratoga with Hastings, Uis speech on the openin); of Boat- 
hia whole army. BcCnmine to Eug. in &lay, inga's trial, 10 Feb. 17M, was Torthy of the oc- 
ITTS, bo in rain solicited a court-martial, casion and of his great reputation. Thoagh 
but ably vindicated himself in parliament, the impeachment of Hastings was not carried, 
and, joinbg the opposition, was in 1779 dis- the herenlean labors of Barke in behalf of 
missM the senice. On the change of miuiatiy India were not Irnitless. In Nov. 1790, he 
in 178S, he was restored to his rank, and app, pub. bis great work in opposition to the French 
com.-in-cbicf in Ireland. In 1780, he pnb. a Revolution, entitled " Ileflections on the Rev- 
narrative of his exped. and the proceedings at olution in France." May 6, 1791, an open 
his trial before a committee of parliament. Aa rupture took place between Burke and Fox, 
a dramatist, be is best known by his comedy of who acanaed bim of abandoning the principle* 
" The Heiress," and " The Lord of the Manor," of bia party, Burke vindicated himself in hit 
a comic opera. His plays and poems wore "Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs," In 
coll. and pub. in two vols., 1808. Burgoyno'i 1796, he wrote his " Letter to a Hoble Lord," 
*' Orderly Book," edited by E. B. O'CalTaghan, one of the most successful and popular of all 
waa pub. by Mnnsell, Albany, 1B60. the productions of hii pen. As a statesman, 

BurkBi .£daeiu8, jurist, b. Qalway, Ire- » thinker, ot an orator, be was nitlioat an 

land, 1 743 ; d. Charleston, S.C., Mar, 30, 1803. eaual. — ,S«e Liva of Bmlce, by Prior, Biitci, 

Educated at St. Onwr's for a priest, he visited McCoraack, Crvlg, and P. Barkt. 
the West Indiee, come thence to S. C, and BurkOt Ednond, tawvcr, b. Westminster, 

was a vol. in the stmcgle for independcucc. Tl, Jan. SS, 1809; admitted to the bnr in 

A lawyer by profession, he was in 1778 app. a 1829; removed to N. H. in 1833, and estab- 

jndKc of the State Supreme Court; eerved lished, and for many years edited, in Sullivan 

again in the arm; in 1780-82 ; resumed his seat Co., the N. H. Argas. M,C. 1839-45; U. S. 

on the bench; M.C. 1789-91 ; was many yean comr. of patents, "1845-50, Ho pub. a pam- 

in the State legisl., and a short time before his phlet, " The Protective System Considered," 

death became chancellor of S,C, He zealously 1846, 

opposed the establishment of the Society of the Burke, Jobn Balt, historian, b. Ireland ; 

Gncinnati ; against the aristocratic features of killed in a duel with Felix Coqnebert in conse- 

which he wrote a famous pamphlet, subse- qnence of a political dispute, April 11, 1808, 

qocntly transIaKid by Mirabeau, and used by Trin. Coll,, Dublin, He emigrated to Ameri- 

him with great efiect during the French Revol. ca in 1796. conducted a daily paper for a short 

He opposed the Federal CoaslilulJOQ, fearing time at Boston (1796-7). and afterwards at 

consolidated power. Jodge Burke was emi- N. T., where be was arrested nndcr the sedition 

nent for wit and eccentricity, law. He aftenrards removed to Petersburg, Va., 

Burke, Edmiikd, slatesman and orator, b. where he practised law, and wrote his history. 

Dublin, 1 Jan. 1730; d. 9 July, 1797, The He was made the masterof ceremonies at the 

aoQ of a prominent Dublin attorney. He grad. Boston Theatre; pub, " Bunker's Hill,"a trn- 

at Trinity Coll. 1748; studied law; pub. in gedy; "Bethlera Qabor," an biaiorieal drama, 

1756 his "Vindication of Natural Society," IS03; an oration delivered March 4, 1808; 

and the essay on '' The Sablime and Beanti- '• History of the Late War in Ireland," Phlla,, 

ful ; " in 1 757, "An Aeconnl of the European 8vo, 1799 ; and a history of Virginia from its 

Settlements in America" and, in 1758-9, ea- first settlement to 1804, in 3 vols,, of which an 

tabliahed with Dodsley The Amiual B^itler. additional vol. was pub, in 1816, the joint pro. 

Inl76l-5,he«astbefnendandadviserorWm. dnction of Messrs, Jones and Oirardin. A 

Gerard Hamilton, sec, to the lord.lieut. of Ire- Memoir of Barke, by C. Campbell, was pnb. 

land, nnd in 176^-6 was sec. to the prime-min- 1868. 

ister, Rockineham, nnd entered parliameai 14 Bmrkei Thomas, Revol. patriot, and gor. 

Jan. 1766. He took an actire part in the dia- of N.C., b. Ireland, ab, 1747 ; d. Hillsborough, 

cnsaion of American questiooi, and proved Dec. 3, 1783. Son of Ulick Burke of Ga|. 

himself an able and eloquent speaker. His way. He left Ireland nb, 1764, and resided 

thorough acquaintance with American a&irs gome yeanin Accomac Co,,Va.,«ngBgcd in iba 

was rewarded, in Nov. 1771, bv the app. of studyand practiceof medicine. He next stn- 

agent fur the Colony of N.T. April 19, 1774, died law, and removed to Noriblk, and in 1 774 

be made • speech on American tnxaiion. con- to Hills borough, N,C, Of a bold and Impetn. 

sldcrcd by many as the greatest cfTort t f ora- ona temper, a ready writer and speaker, ht 



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BUR 143 BTTIt 

became one of the leadia^ ipiriu in theRerol. tha Aflddle Scttleaienu of North Americ*, in 

conieM. Hl9 writtDg^a in opjmaition to the 1759-60." In ITS6. he iru pre&rred lo ihe 

Sump Act drew him into notice ; and he hud b nrchdeaconry of Leicester. He nlra wrote a 

isive ihnro in the formation of Iheconllilution vol. of sermons, and a jouniHl qF a tour lo 

of N.C. Member of the Prov. Cotigrew at Corsicain 1766, Si-a. 

Balifaxio l7T6,andavalanl«er at [he battle BoTDBp, Geoboi W., D.D. (lS49),-Uni- 
of Brandjwine. HeinuaneeBcientandactiTe tarian clergjmnn and anthor, b. Meirimack, 
member of Con^reaa from Dec. 1776, until his N,H., Kot, 30, 1803; d, L'hila., Sept. 8, I3S9. 
election as ^T. in the early pan uf I7B1. In 11.17.1824. Son of Rev. Jacob Bumap, ord- 
Sept. of that jear, he was surprised and seized pastor in Baltimore, Apr. 33, 1S2B. Forcible 
by the Tories^d retained at James Istand,S.C., and impreasive in the pulpit, be wiu cbaracter- 
•s a prisoner on parole. Obnoxious to the To- iied also by his sturdy integrity and inde- 
n his prerioos coune, he was in daily pendent frankness. Among hia pnba, are 



■pprebtnaion of assBSsinalion, lo escape whiih, " Lectures to Young Men," 1840; " 

■fterhavingandeairaria) unsuccessfully toobiain History of Christian^," 18-12 ; "uii mo 

an exchange, or a parole to aoroe oiber Slate, Sphere and Duty of Woman," 1S40 ; " Life 

be effected his escape in the night of Jan. 16, of Leonard Calvert" in "Sparks's Am. Biog.," 

1T8S. after an imprisonment of 4 months. 1844; "Popular Obiections lo Unitarian 

Regnlariy exchanged aoon after, he was at lib- Christianity conaidereu and answered," 1813 ; 

eny to rclura honie,and resumed hisgoTt-; bnt, "Expository Lectures on the Bible," 1845; 

ai the next ensuing session of the )%isl., be " Lecinma on the Doctrines of Controiersy 

Tolnntarily retired IVom public life. between Unitarians and Other Denominations 

Burke) Capt. Wiu.1111, of Boston, app., of Christiana," 1335; a toI. of "Miaeella- 

in Not. 1775, to com. one of the first 4 Teaaela nies," and a " Biography of Henry A. In^lla," 

of the American nayy; d. Western Us., Uay 1845; in 1S50, SO duconrsee " On the Recli- 

M, ITB7, a. 40. tnde of Human Nature," and, in 1855, "Cbris- 

Borleigb, Wiluam Hxhbt, poet, b. tianily, Its Essence and Evidence," the moat 

Woodstock, Cl, Feb. 3, 1813; d. Brooklyn, coiopendioaa statement of the biblical theology 

N.T., 18 Mar. 1871. Blnatdo, his tklher, a of the auihor'a school of Uoitarianisca i and 

popnlar andsncoessfiil teacher {Y. Coll. 1803), occasional addresses and discounes. 

died Elainfield, Ci., 10 Feb. 1863, a. S9. Bnmet, Jacob, LL.D., Jurist, aon of Dr. 

Bred on a brm, at 16 he became apprentice to W. B., b. Newark, NJ., Feb. £!, 1770; d. 

aclolhter. then to a village printer, afterwards Cincinnati, April 37, 1853. N. J. Coll. 1791. 

labored in tbtIods placoa as a joumevman Hestodied law iniheofflceof JndgeBondinot, 

printer, and finally as editor. Be bad cEiaige and was adm. to the bar in 1736. He then re- 

of the Liieran/ Joumai at SclienectadT, the moved to Cincinnati, where he became disling, 

Ckralum WitnmM at Pittsburft, the (?Aarter In 179B, he wa« apjt, to the legisl. council of 

All: at Hartford, and the WaAawtoa Banner, the territory, continning ttntil Ibe formation 

■Q which papers, and in others, he produced of a State govt. In IBIS, he was a member 

many short poema, a coll. of which was pub. of the State legial., was a judge of the Su- 

io 184a Hr. Burleigh also took an active picme Court of Ohio in 1831-8, and in 1833- 

part in variont religions and social movements, 31, U.S. senator. He was soon after chosen by 

and was well known as a lecturer npon anil- the legisl. of Ey. a commis. to adjust some ter- 

■lavery. CetU H. Bnr1e%h, his widow, is riiorialdispaiei with Va.; look a leading part 

known ■■ a gracefnl writer and an eloquent in the eaiablisbment of the Lancsatrian Acad. 

lectur er . His mother was descended firom Qov. of Cin.. and of the Cin. Coll., of which he was 

Bradfind. Charles C., George S., and Lncien the first prea. ; was active in re-organizing the 

Bnrieigh,aU disUng. a* wriicrs or speakers, are Med. Coll. of Ohio, over which be acveral years 

his brothErt. presided. A delegate to the Barriabnrg con- 

Barlinganiei Asiok, LL.D., statesman vention in 1839, be wai maiuly inatrnmental 
and diplomatist, b. New Berlin. Chenango Co., in securing the nomination of Harrison to the 
N.Y., Nov. 14, 1893; d. St. Petersburg, Feb. Presidency. He was the first pres. of the Col- 
ts, 1870. H. U. 1846. His yonlh wag spent oniiiaiion Soc. of Cin., also of the Aatron. 
n the Western Irontiers, surveying and par- Society, and at the instance of Lafarelte, the 

'_..-_.. -Q i^g making of Indian ireaiiea far friend of his father and of his bro. UaJ. Bur- 

onfinei of civiliiaiion. He laid net, waa elected a member of tbe French Acnd. 

Tfic lonndaiion of his education at the Branch of Sciences. Hia effbria in 1821 to alleviate 

0. of >Iichigan. Stadiod law. and practised in the dbtress felt by the purchasers of Western 

Boston ; was a member of the State senate in lands, on acconnt of Indebtedneea to govt. 

1953 i a member of the convention for revis- which they were wholly unable to pay, resntt- 

■ng the Slate constitution in 1853; M.C. ftom ed In an act of Congress gtAntlng relief to the 

Boston. 1856-61; minister to Ausiria.lSGI, and entire West, raising them from a state of de- 

sobMHiiuinily to Cbina, 1861-7. From 1867 pression, which, had it been continued, must 

nntil his death, he was in the employ of the have prt^need diatreeaing results. In 1847, he 

Chinese Govt., negotiating treaties with foreign pab. a vol., entitled " Notes on the Early Set- 

powera. He was an eloquent end efiective po- tleatent of the Northern Territory." — £<in- 

liliral speaker. nun. 

Bornabr, AntSBw, an EDgllah divine, h. Bomett, David Q., b. Newatk, N.J., 

■ 739 at Atfoidby, Leceisiersbire ; d. Mar. 9, April 4, 1789; d. Galveston, Texas, Dec. 9, 

1813. Edncatedat Westmin. and Camb, (M. 1870. He entered a eountiiig-house in N.Y.; 

A. 17ST] and in 1776 pnb. "Travels ibrongh joined Gen. Miranda's ezped. m 1806; in I8IT, 



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BJTB. 144 BtTR 

Decame a mcrchuit in NaUhitocheBj La., after' Uring tlie Ath Inf., he became 1 st liniL Ana 

ward studied law in Cincinnati; enug. to Texai ia,18M),aiid in Jbd. 18ft9, relinquished rank 

ID 1 826 ; was a membec of the 3an Felipe Con- in the line, being made a capt. in tbe eabsistencc 

veniion in 1833; app. jadgeof tiomnnrcipalitj dept. Maj. and com. sabsutence, 3 Aug. IS6I; 

of Audtin in 1834. and, when Santa ASa w- bng.-gen. toIs. Sept. S8, 1861 ; served in tbe 

siuned dictatorial powers in 1836, beduoe pnfi. Army of tbe Potomac ; was wonnded in one 

od interim of the incipient republic. He was of the battles before Richmond, and Nov. S, 

afterward chosen Tics-prea., and lived in re- 1862, look com. of a dir. in (he ann; corps of 

dremeot, near the batUe-Eeld of San Jacinto. Gen. Wilcoi; participaled ia the battle of 

Chosen U. 3. senator (torn Texas after tbe Frederifksbarg; maj.-gen. vols, 29 Uar. IB6S; 

Rebellion, Congress refased to admit him. resigned March £0, 1863; brev. lieuL-col. 

Bamatt, Walco Ibvino, M.D. (1849), U.S.A. 29 Juno, 18GS, for SaT^e Station; 

BBiuralisi and micTOscopist, b. Soathborongn, brer, eol. ao June, 1 862, for Glendale, and brev. 

Ms., July 12, 1828 ; d. Boston, July 1, 18S4. brig..gcn. U.S.A. 13 Mar. !86S, far merit, ser- 

He early be^ the stadv of entomrfogy; vices in the Rebellion. — Cidtunt, 
studied minlicme nnder his father, who was a BurQaide, Ahbbobe Evbrstt, maj.-fien. 

Chyslcian; and visited Europe. Daring the vols., b. Liberty, Ind., May 23, !824. West 

is't S years of his lite, and while suffering ftx>m Point, IS47. His grandparents canM from 

consnmpiian, he accomplished a great s^re of Scotlsud near the close of the lastcentury, and 

intellectual labor, tbe results of wbJcb may he settled in S.C. Entering the 3d Art., he 

found in various scientifle periodicals. His marched in Patteraon's column lo the city of 

principal work was the Prize Essay on "The Mexico, and whs in 1849 ordered to New Hex., 

(\'ll. Its FliyEiologv, Pathology, and Philos- where, in charge of a sqoadron of cavalry, hia 

opby," He was last engagM in translating highly disting. himself in a conflict with the 

m>m the Gt:rmaii the "Comparative Anatomy Apaches. In I8M)-S1, he was quartermaster 

of Siebold and Stannius." to the Mexican boandory commissiou. Dec. 

Burnet. Williik, a colonial gov., b. at 1851, became l8t lieut. He went to R.L ; re- 

tliD Hague, Mar. 1688; d. Boston, Sept. 7. 1T29. signed in 1853. and bailt an establish men l for 

Son of Bishop Burnett, he had for a godfadier ttie mauuf. of his breech-loading Me, which he 

William of Orange. Involved pecuniarily by invented when on dnty in Mex. This proving 

the "South Sea" speculation, be accepted iJia unprofitable, he removed to Cbicaeo, and be- 

gorts. of N, T, and N.J. to retrieve his for- csmecashierin theiandoKceofthelU. Central 

tunes. He hod previously been a comptroller llailroad. He soon became treasurer, and 

of the ctisioms. Arriving in N. Y. !9 Sept. transferred bis office to N.Y. City, where he 

IT20, his administration was popular until the resided in 1861. Col. 1st R.I. Vols. At the 

pasjascof an act prohibiting the sale to the battle of Bull Run, July 21, he com. a brigade 

French of I'ooda proper to the Indian trade, in Hnmlllon'a div., and wa« highly commended 

Some of his decrees as chancallor also gave dis- by Gen. McDowell fbr bravery and coolness, 

satisfiction ; and, ou tbe accession of George II., Made brij;. -gen. vols,, Aug. 6, 1861. heassisted 

hewastransferrcdto tbegovta,ofMs.andN.H. Gen. McClellan in organising the array. In- 

He arrived in Boston in July, I Ti8, and at once trusted with an exped. (or the eaplnre of 

became unpopular by insisting upon a fixed Roanoke Island, ha left Hampton Roads in 

salary. He was majestic in stature, frank in Jan. 1862, with 10,000 men, convoyed by a fleet 

OBiincr, pojBessedaready wit.and tbonelncon- nnder Flsg-offlcer Goldsborough, Feb, 8, the 

veraatioQ. He pnb. astron. observations in the island was taken by a combing attack ; 3,000 

Trnna. of the Hoy. Soc., and in 1724 an essay of tbe enemy being captured, For this victorr, 

on Scripture propheciei. _ _ the leftiil. of R.I. voted him a sword; and 

Burnet, Williav, physidan and patriot. Mar. 18. he was made maj .'gen. of vols. Mar. 

b. Elizabeth, N.J., Dec. 13, 1730 ; d. Newark, 14. he csplnred Newbem. and Beaufort and 

N.J., Oct. 7, 1791. N.J, Coll, 1749. He held Fort Macon soon afterward. On McClel Ion's 

at difivreni times various offices in the Stite retreat to the James River. Jniy, 186S, Bum- 

govt,; was a member of Congress in 1780-81, side was ordered to re-eufonM nim with the 

and was chief physician and sor^n in an im- greater part of his army. Occupying Fred- 

ponant section of the army donng the Revol, ericksburg, the defteal of Gen. Pope comg^led 

war. He iiiffored much in property by the dop. him to fall back toward Washington, When 

reiliitions of tbe enemy, who carried off his the Confederates invaded Md,, bis com. was 

larm and valuable library. He waa a skilM largely increased, and, with Gen, McClellan, be 

and succes«ful phyBiciaa of extensive practiee. pushed forward to meet them, defeating them 

Jud^-c Jacob B. of Cindonati was bis son. — at Soath Houniain, Sept. U. At the battle 

Ald-n. of Antietam, Sept. 17, he com. the left wing, 

Burnham, Hih«>i, brig.-gen, vols., b. Me,; and was highly disting. Assigned lo the 9in 

killed at Cbaffiu'a Fann, Sept. S9, 1S64. He army corps, he occapiod Leuttaville, Va, Oct. 

entered the service as col, 6th Me. rogt, be- 26, Ab. the tame time, he was placed in com, 

havpd gallantly throogb the peninsular cam- of one of the 3 grand annies into which the 

pnijni.aiAntiotara.Fredericksbnrg.andOcttys- Army of the Potomac was divided. Nov. 7, 

burp; brig.-^. April, 1864. Cmnpicoons in be superseded MeClellan in com. of the Army 

all the campaign from the Wilderness lo Peters- of the Potomac, and Dae, 13, w«s defeated by 

burg. He com. a brigade in Stannud's div. the ConCjdi-ralea nnder Lee at Fredericksburg. 

I8tb corps, Relisved of the com., Jan. 28, 1863, assumed 

T. nr , yj (jj^^ brig,-gen. TT. com. of the dept. of the Ohio, Apr. 26; te- 

wr... t.-i_. ,=., c_ — '-d Longsireel's ottack 00 Enoxville, Nor 



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tf), 1863, and look com. or iheSthcorpi ill tba alection, Jefibnon andBuirhBd eachT3n>tM, 

loliowins Apr., i>articip*itirig id the campiiigns and the ciioic« was decided by Confess, on the 

around Richmond and Petenbnrg until !««'« 36th ballot, in favor of JeSerson for pre9. and 

•urreoder. Gov. of R. I., 1866-71. Burr, for rice-prea. Jnly 12, ISW, he mortally 

Bumyeat, John, one of the earlieit wounded in a duel Alexander flamilton, long 

preacher* of tie Society of Friends, b. Crah- his professional riyal and political opponent, 

troebeck, Cumberland, 1631 ; d. Dublin, JuW He soon after undertook his mad enterprise in 

11. 1690. He travelled in Eok. And Ireland, the irestem territories of the U. S., for which 

and In 16T2 came with George Fox to Amer. he was apprehended and tried at Bichmond, on 

Hii " Memorials " describe the condition of a charge of treason, in Aug. 1807, and, after a 

Hd., and tbe other Colonies through which he long trial, acquitted. To escape further let;»l 

passed from N. Eng, to N.C. He was a leal- requisition, and to avoid numerona cmlitors, 

ous adrocaie of his creed, aod soffbied much be went to London in IBOS, and lived some 

persecution. years in extreme poverty there and in Paris, 

Burr, AiBOM, pros, of NJ, Coll,, b. Fair- endeavoring, nnsoccessfully, to procure moan* 

field, Cl., Jan. 4, 1716; d. Sept. !4, 1T5T, T,C. to carry oat his Mexican project. It was sup 

1735, OfGerman extraction. He was a do- posed that he intended eatabliehing an empire 

scendant of John, on early settler ofSpringfleld, in Mexico, which should embrace some of the 

&Is,, and of Rev. Jooathsn, minister oFDor- South-western States of the Union. He re- 

chest«r,whod,Ang. 9, 16*1. Ord, by thePrea- lomed to N,Y. in 1813, and practised law, but 

byieryofEast Jersey,0«.a5, 1737. In 1738, lived in obscurity and poverty. By his first 

he wij iovited to take charge of the Preab, wife, the widow of Qen. Aueualiae Frevost, 

church at Ifewark, SJ. nnanimonslj elected he had a dan,, who m. Hr. AllBton of S, C. 

in 174S to the pres. of the coll. which he wat At the age of 78, ho m. his second wife, a Mra. 

instni mental in fouDding. In 1794, heacoomp. Jumel. Burr was small in stature, had a 

Mr. Whitefleld to Boston. Mr. Bnrr. pnb. reraarkably brilliant eye, and a striking ap- 

" The Supreme Deity of our Lord Jesus peamace. He possessed disting. talents, hut 

Christ llainiained ; " also a Fast^day sermon, manifested a lamentable want of principle both 

Jan. I, 1799 ; " The Watchman's Answer to in public and prirate life. He was charilflble, 

the Question, What of the Night 1 " a sermon, and benevolent to tba poor. A memoir of bis 

I75G, and a roneral sermon on Gov. Belcher, life and limes wu pnb, by James Parion, 

1757. He prepared a Latin grammar, pnb. H.T., I8ST. Another, by M. L, Davis, 2 vols., 

in y.Y. in 175S, used in tbe college of H,J„ 1S36-7. 

and known as " The Newark Grammar." Burrall, JoHiraAK, a Bevoi. ofBcer, b. 
The ealogium on his death, by William Liv- 1793; d. Goshen, N.T., Nov, 18, 1834. In 
ingston, celebratea his virtues with animated 1776, be joined tbe northern army under 
panegyric He was pre.etmneDt in force and Scbuyler. Hia talents soon procured him the 
elegance of mind, la learning, eloqnence, and ipp.of assist, paym., end, at thectoseofthe war, 
excellence as a preacher. In 1792, hem. adau. a place in the commiseion for settling the ac- 
of Jonathan Edwardi. counts of tlie commissary and qnariorm. depls. 
Burr, Aaroh, vke-prw. of the U.S., b. He was afterward assist, postmaster. -gen. ; 
Newark, NJ„ Fab, 6. 1796; d. 8 laten Island, cashier of the U. S, Branch Bank of N,Y.,nnd 
SepL 14, 1836, NJ. CoU, 1772. Son of one of tba managen of the N.r, Slate lotteries 
Pra. Borr, and grandson of Pres. Edwards, at a lime when public coafldeuce in them bad 
In 1779, he joined the army M Cambridgej been shaken. His abilitv, indnstr;, and in- 
accomp. Arnold as a private in bii exMi. tecrity were of a high order, 
■gainst Quebec; acted as aide lo Gen. Mont- BOTTilL AixxAxatu M., legal writer, d. 
somcry in the assault on that stronghold, en- Kearney, NJ.^ Feb. T, IBGS, a. 63, Col. Coll. 
deavoriuB to bring off his bod^ when he fell 1824, with Ligbeat honors of the class. He 
at his side i acted as brigade-m^or to Arnold, stndied several years in the office of Ctiancellor 
and OD hi* retnra, in Hay, 1776, joined the Kent, and was remarkable for his scholarly 
miliiory bmilj of Washington with the rank precision and discrimination in the use of Ian- 
of mw. Dissadsfled with this position, he gnage. Author of "Circainsiantial Evidence," 
qnitted it in 6 weeks to became an aide to Qen. " Assign menis," "Practice," and a "Law 
rnmam, participating in tbe defence of N.T. Dictionary," He also aided in compiling 
loJnIy, l.77,heWamealieat.-col.inMalcom's " Worcester's Dictionary." 
rcgi-, and was disting, at Monmouth, where BorriU, Juibs, LL.D., lawyer and states- 
be com, a brigade in Stirling's division, Dur- man, b. I^vidence, B.I., April 29, 177S; d. 
inn the winter of 1778-9, he was stationed in Washington, Dec. aS, 18M. B.U. 1788. Adm. 
Westchester Co., N.T,, and com. for a short to practise law in Sept. 1791, his superior 
timeat West P<nnt, but resignedfrom ill health, talents soon gave him the first rank at the bar, 
Uar. 10. 1779. Burr belonged to the Lee end He was atty.-gen. of R,I, From 1797 to 1813, 
Gate* faction, and always aSbcied to despise when tbedecUaeofbis health caused bis retire- 
ibenililaryialentsof Washington. Heb^n ment^m the bar. Member of the leeial- in 
to practise law at Albany in Apr. 1782, but 1813, spesker in IB14, chief-justice of tbe Su- 
nmored to N.T. in 1783, He was a member ^me Court in 1816, U.S. senator, 1817-20. 
of the N.T. lerial. in 1784andl798; wasapp. He bore a disting. part in the U.S. senate, eepe- 
aity.-gen. of IM State, Sept 27, 1789 ; com- dally in the debate on the Mo. Compromi^, 
aiMiooer on Revo!, claims in 1791, and from to which be was inflexibly opposed, " 



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da, 23 Jan. 1840. Son of a Cong. clergrmaD, 
and repnled " tbe woral boj in town. Al 



uiv>u»ioTi of George 1. He withdrew fium the 
Colony in 1734, to arotd prosecation, and erado 
juHtiue, ftad was found mardcr^ one morning 
in Si. James'fl PBrk, Lond. — WilHamsm-i y.C. 

Burritt, Elihu, " the learned black- 
sniitb," reformer, b. Nev iJritain, Ct., Dec, 8, 
1811. TbcBonol a shoemaker, he was edu- 
cated at » common achool, and at 16 was ap- 
prenticed m a blacksmith. Dcsiroua of rend- 
ing iba Scriptaie« in ibeir original langnages, 
in the intervals of labor, bj diligence and a 
remarkable facilitf, he acquired sevenil lan- 
gnoges. He removed to Worcuter for the 
benefit of tbe library of the Antiquarian Soci- 
ety, and, while still plying his trade, became 
acquainted with the princiral ancient and mod- 
em languages. In 1844, he edited at Worces- 
ter Che Chriuiaa Cilian, a paper advocating 
a peaceful settlement of Internationa! difficul- 
ties. In this canae, he ^elirered many public 
lectures. In 1846, he went lo Eng., where he 
tbrmeil the "LeagueorUnlTerBal Brotherhood." 
wbose object whs "to employ all legitimate 
meaoa for the abolition of war throughout the 
world ; " and was proprietor and editor of the 
Peace Adcocate, and pub, a periodical tract, 
the Bond of BfMlierhood, He took a promi- 
nent ))art In all the European peace congresses, 
returning to Americaio IBM. The protnodoa 
of temperance, cheap ocean-postage, and the 
abolition of American slavery, have been ob- 
jects of his exerdons. He wu (br twenty-five 
years U.S. conanl at Birmingham. HIa prin- 
cipal publicationa are, " Sparks ln>m the An- 
vil," 1848, " Miscellancoos Writings." 18M, 
and " Thoughts and Things at Home and 
Abroad," Boston, 1854. 

Barroughs, Chlrleb, D. D,, Pn>i.-Ep. 
cler^'jmBnrb. Boeton, 27 Dec. 1787 ; d. I'orta- 
moulh, N.H., S Mar. 1B68. H.U. 1806. Ord. 

g-iesl, 1813, and rector of St. John's Church, 
ortsm., nearly SO years. Nearly 30 yeura pres. 
N.H. Asylum for the Insane ; of tlie Portsm. 
Alhenaum nearly 40 years, and of the Qen. 
Theol. Library of Boston, from its ori^i- 
oaUoD until his death. Author of "Memoirs 
of Horace B. Mon^e," 1829, " The Poetry of 
Religion and other Poems," 1851. 

Burroughs, Geoboe. minister of Salem ; 
executed for witchcraft, 19 Aug- 1693. H.U. 
1670. In 1676, he was settled at Falmouth 
(DOW Portland), Me. ; S9 Nor. 1680, he was 
ord. at Salem, bnt, in consequence of a diapul« 
with some of bis people, resigned in 168S, and 
relumed to Falmoutli. On the destruction of 
Ihia place by the Indiaua, !□ 1690, he is Mid to 
have reiomed to Salem. Examined for witcb- 
crolt, and imprisoned at Boston, May 8, he was 
brought to trial, 3 Aug., (or having, by hia 
" wicked arta, tortured, afflicted, pined, con- 
sumed, waated, and tormented Mary Wolcott, 
aod also Cor having performed feats of extraor- 
dinary strength." On the strength of theae 
charge*, made by professed witches, or those 
who were victims of their influence, he was 

Burrou^lB, Stbfbsn, adveotarer, b. 
Hanover, SM., 1765; d. Three Bivers, Caita- 



14, he joined the army, bnt soon deserted. He 
lett Dartm. Coll. clandestinely, became anccev 
sively privateersman, ship's physician, and 
schoolmaster, and flnallya preacher. Underthe 
name of Davis, he was a Cong, pastor in Pel- 
ham, Ms. ; was afterward imprisoned in Spring- 
field for passing connterfeit money ; scl ^re to 
his jail, and was removed to Castle Island, 
Boston harbor. After his release, he again 
connected himself with a gangof connterfeiters, 
in Canada, but afterward became an exem- 
plary Catholic, and educated the sons of wealthy 
CaDadiatis. He was remarkable tbronghont 
hia career for chuicable deeds. He pub. S 



ton, nair Phila., Oct. 6, 1785; d. Sept. 5. 
1813. Son of col. W. Ward Burrows, com, of 
U.S. marines; midshipm. 10 Nov. 1799, and 
served under Preble in the Tripolitan war; 
lieut. March 19,1807; app. COtho aloop-of-war 
"Enterprise," heBnilcdCromPonsmouth,«ndon 
Sunday, Sept. 5, 1813, tell in with the British 
brig " Boxer " off Portland, and, after an aciion 
of 45 minutes, captnied her, her com. BIyihe 
being killed. Burrows was mortally wounded 
nt the first fire. For bis gallantry, Congress 
voted a gold medal to his nearest male rela- 

Burt, William A., surveyor, b. Worces- 
ter, Ms., 13 June, 1793; d. 18 Aug. less. 
He received a good edacatJon ; waa some yean 
an engineer in Erie Co., N.T. ; settled near 
Detroit, Mich., in 1834; served several terms 
in the Terr. Council ; became U.S. dep, sur- 
veyor, and in 1840-7 surveyed Northern Mich. 
He originated the idea of the solar compass. 
Introduced important improvements in geol. 
surveying; received in 1851, Irom the London 
Industrial Exhib., a priie medal for hia com- 
pass, and in 185G patented an equatorial sex- 
tant, bnt d. before bringing it to perfection. 
He had been a judge of ibe Mich. Circuit 
Court, and member of the legial. for several 
terms, and was a pritne mover in the construc- 
tion of the Saute Ste. Marie Canal. 

Barton, Asa, D.D. (Middlcb. Coll. 1804), 
divine, b. Preston, now Griswold, Ct., Aug. S5, 
1752; d. Thetford, Vi., May 1,1836. Dartm. 
Coll. 1777. Ord. at Thetford, Jan. 19, 1779, 
over a church of l6 members, he continned hia 

tastorate more than half a centorj. He pub- 
shed several sermons and discourses, and 
"Essavs on Some of the First Principles of 
Metaphysics, Ethic8,and Theology," 8vo, 1824. 
A memoir baa been pub. by Thomas Adams, 

Burton, Hbsht 8., brev. brig.-gen. U.S. 
A., b. N.Y,, 1818; d. Fort Adams, R.l. 
April 4, 1869. West Point, 1899. He senec 
in the art. in the Seminole war ; was an in 
strucior at West Point in 1843-4; and, as 
lieot-col. N.Y. vols., disting. himself by his 
defbnce of La Paz In Lower Cal., in Nov. 1847; 
maj. May 14, 1861 ; lient-col. July 25, 1863; 
col. Sth Art. Aug. 11,1863; brev. brig.-gen. 
March 13, 1865, tor services at the captnre of 
Petersburg. 

Burton, Hutdhihs Q., a politiman o( 



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BUS 147 S17S 

H. (X, b. GnoTille Co. ; d. Apr. 31, 1836. acItMkalediicatlun.bui, at theageoriS.Mok 

After ModfiDg law, ba aeitted in Macklenbaiv, obargeorbiBfaiber'spriating.oSc^ and edited 

whicb, ID ISIO, berepreseneed in tha Houis of a monthlr maguine. After acting uvcral 

Conmona AUj.-gen. of tbe State, lSll-16; jearson the N'or«icbfirctiit,be appeared witb 

leouned to HalifiutCa. ia 1816, acaiu becom- ■□ocesB at the Hajmarket in 1B32. He wrote 

ing ■ DWDiber of the Uoum ; was M. C. 1619- several dramatic pie<sB, one of which, " Ellen 

84, and gar. iaS4-7. Wareharn," was played at 5 theatres in Lon- 

Buztoil. NaPiiK Chubtib, a British don on the game evening. He made bia difbi' 

gen., " an American b; birth ; " d, Eng., Jan. at the Arch-aL Theairs, Phila., as " Dr. Olla- 

IB35,a. 76. Heentered the service in Ang. pod,"Sept.3, lesi.appearing tirstinN.T.ata 

17T5, as eniign a2d; was made capt. Sept. complioientarj benellt to Woodworth, in 1839. 

1779. DnringihawiDierof 1779-B0,he»crved He was the lessee of theatres in thechief At- 

in (he Jenejrs ; in actions of Elizabeihiawn and laniic cities, reaiding principally in Fhila. and 

SpringSeld in 1780 i in Aus. went to Purls- N.Y. In Phila., be (milt the "National," and 

tnoatb, Va., and thence to S. C; engaged in started in 1S37 the Gattlemen't Magasmt. He 

tha afl^n of the Catawba and Vadkin, in tha was proprietor of the Opera House, N.Y,, when 

battles of GaUford and Cross Creek, and wia bamedmI841. In lM7,hapQn:btiBedPalmo's 

taken prisoner at Yorklown ; lieai.^ol. in Opera House, in Cbambet« Street, where be 

1789 ; served in Flanden ; app. lionL-gor. Up- managed dnnuuic performaDcea with popnlar 

per Canada in 1799; lieut.-gea. Jan. 1, 1805; favor 10 years. In I85G, be porchased the Mei- 

gen. June *, IBM ; M. P. Ibr Bevertaf , 1796- ropolitan Theatre on Broadway, to which his 

\tM. — PhUipari. nune was attached. The part of " Toodles " 

Burton, Maj.-Geh. Ralph; d. 176S. waaoneofhis specialties. Hewasveryancces*- 

lieut-coL tSth Foot, Ocl U, 1754, and wound- fnj as a manager and perfbrnwr, and waa anri- 

edatBtaddoek's defeat J com. tbe 3d brigadain vailed in a wide range of Mcemric and comic 

the exped. affaiast Looisbarg in 175S; was parts. An excellent Shakqwrian scholar, he 

wonndedat l£e caplore of Quebec; com. the possessed a very full Shaksparian library. He 

Rserre at the Plains of Abraham ; was made edited for several years the Littrary Soutmur, 

lienL-gov. of Qoebec, brig.-gen. in 1780, and and compiled in 18B8 a " Cydoiuedia of Wit 

maj.-gtn. July 10, 1763. In Oen. Murray'* and Humor," a rots, royal Svo. Hewaaaman 

operations at tbe reduction of Montreal, be of nnsnilied integrity and great generositv. 
ixmLthelst brigade. — O'Co^o^on. Bluh,Uaj.GBoaoE,Revol.offiGerorl)el.; 

Bortoa, Col. Bobkbi, Beval. t^cer, h. d. ab. 1794. His bro. MaJ. Lewis fell at the 

1747. Meckleobnrg Co., Va. ; d. GranvilU Co, battle of Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777. Wii, 

N. C., IsiS. He wa* a planter, and moved to lijui S. Bosh, IJeui. of marines, nephew of 

Oranrilleab, 1775. Member of the Old Con- Oeor^and Lewis, killed in the action between 

gresi, 17S7-S. Commissioneronboundaiylina the frigates " Constitution " and " Gnerricre," 

between N. and S. Carolina and Ga., in 1801. Ang. 19, 1813. 

Barton, Warobk, aathor and clergyman, Bush, Ket. Obobbb, an eminent Sweden- 
fa. Wilton, H. H., Nov. 13, 1800 ; d. Salem, boi^ian divine and author, b. Norwich, Vt., 
Hi., June S, 1866. H. D. isai. His Rrand- June 12. 1796 ; d. Rochester, N.Y., Sept. 19, 
father was one of the first settlers of Wilton, a 1859. Dartm. Cot). 1818. Ha studied theol- 
aoldier in the f reocb war, and an officer of ogy at the Princeton 6em., made a brief mis- 
tbe Revol, war. He stodiel at the Cambridge sionary tonr in Indiana, and was pastor of a 
Tbeol, School, was ord. 5 Uar. 1838, at East Presb. church in Indianapolis, from 1834 to 
Cambridge, Ms., bnt, after a brief ministry, 1839. Elected in 1831 prof, of Hebrew and 
devoted himself to otyact* of refonn, still con- Oriental literature in the U. of N.Y., be Srst 
dooiig to pRAch occasionally. Be was a min- became known as an author by bis popular 
bter at laJce In Boalon, from 1844 to 1848. " Life of Mohammed," 1833. He atUrwards 
Chaplain or the Worceitcr prison in 1849, to pub. " Scriptural Illustrations," " Treatise on 
tbe State senate in 18SS, to the bouse in the Millennium," 1833 ; " New Church Hiscel- 
lass and 1860, and to the State convention in lanies," 1855; "Priesthood and Clergv un- 
1853. He labored loDromote true culture, to known loCbrislianitf,"lB57 ; "HebrewGram- 
Taise the condition at scbooli, and eapecially mar,"183Si inlS40commencedaseriesafBible 
to senire universal attentioa to tbe spnere of commentaries in 7 vols. ; " Anastasis," 1644. 
home education, by tectarei, meetings for dis- and edited the Uitrophaiit, a monthly mag., in 
cussion. and tbiongb the newspaper press. 1844. In bis work on mesmerism. 1847, he 
His publicationa are, "Cheering Views of Man deems it aconQrroationof tbetruthof Swedcn- 
and Providence ; " " Uncle Sam's Becommen- bora's revelations. He was a man of simple 
dalioos of Phrenology," 1S43 ; " District School manners, genial and kind. Embracing the doc- 
as It was ;" " Helps to Education in tbe Homes nines of Sweden botg, he became pastor of the 
<rf our Country, 1663 ; " Scenery Showing, New Jerusalem Charch, N.Y., in 1845, and tie- 
or Word-Painiinga of ^e Beautiful, Fictut- came editor of the Seio Ctnrch Revmitor^. to 
caquc, and Grand in Nature;" " My Religions develop and maintain the principles of lliat 
Experience at my Native Home," 1839 ; " Es- philosopber. He finally became a Spiritualisu 
•ay on the Divine Agency in the Material Cni- A vol. of Memoirs of Bush, by W. M. Feniold, 
voM," beside! articM in annuals and periodi- appeared in ISSO. 
cala. Buabnell, David, inventor, b. Saybrook, 

~ ~" - -. - pj ^^ ,.j^. J Warrenton, Ga., 1824. YC. 

, , ,, _. , 177S. During the Bevol., be tnmed his mind 

Intended for the cbaicfa, he received to the invention of a machine for blowing ap 



lyV^iUO^ie V-" 



BTT8 148 Bxrr 

reswla : be made one capable of conTeviug an hebeld tiltca11edtothevice-pr««.of therepablii^ 

operator, with 100 lbs, of powder, wbicb was Dec. 31, IS29. He look part against Guerrero, 

tnod in rain on " The Eagle," a BmiBh&4gna- and In Dec. 1B30, Saala Afia having beaded a 

■hip ]jiQg in N.Y. harbor. An account of Revol. called the " plan of Jalapa," he wai 

this machine is fonod in Silliman's Joarnal for charged irilh the executive poirer (ill Aug, H, 

1820. Baabnell prepared a largr namber of 1632. Beingsucccededin thepresidcney t^lV 

macbincs in k^ to be floated bj the tide Qpon draza, ho took com. of tbe arm;, and iraa soon 

the British Teiaels lying in the river at Phils., after OTerthrovrn bj Santa AHa, who banished 

the result of which attempt occa-'-ioned the bal- him. He visited France, but, on the outbreak 

lad or the "Bstlle of the Kegs," b; Hopkin- of Texas in 1836, returned to Mexico; in 

■on. He became a capt. in the annj, and af- 1837-41 was again pres., excuptiog a short 

ter the war went (o France. Reinmins. he iuierral in IB39, bat woa again overtbrotra 

was several jeani at the head of one of the and banished by Santa Aila. He Bed to Gu- 



reapectable schools of Gn., and later aet- rope, raided some lime in Genoa, but, on the 

lied at Warreuton, as a practitioner of physic, fall of Santa AGa in 1845, again returned to 

where he was known aa Dr. Bush. Mexico, and served his country in many offices 

Bushnell, Hoeace, D.D, (Wesl. U. till his death. Under hia sd ministration, the 

1842), Cong, divine and author, b. NewPreaton, lepublic prospered. 

Cl., leoa. T.C. 1827. At one time literary Sustomente, doh Casuis Mabia db, 

ed. of the N.Y. Journal c/' Commenx, then a Moiican arcbmologist, b. Mexico, ah. 1790. 

teacher in tbe Norwich Acad. ; tutor at Tale Author of " Statistical Memoir on the Oaxaca 

in 1B29-31. May 1833-1857, pastor of the Country," 1821; "Tezcoco in the Last Day* 

North Coni, Church, Hartford, Ct.; an elo- of its Ancient Kings," 1826; "Dacripciaa 

Jnent preacher, and a disline. philos. esaayist. Hist, y Croral. de lot dot Piedras," &e., 183S. 

n 1837, be dolivenid at N. Hovea a Phi Beta Editor of a " Complcto Histonr of Events 

Kappa oration on the" Priucipies of National in New Spain," 1839,3 vols,, by the Monk 

Greatness," He also pub. " Christian Nui^ Sahagan, and the Mexican translation of 

ture," 1847; "God in Christ," 1849, and " The Conqocstsof Fernando Cortes," 1826. 

a defence of it, entitled " Christian Theology," Butler, Andrew PicsEHa, U.S. senator 

in 1851; " Scnnons for tbe New life,"l858; from 1846 10 Ms d., Edgefield dist., S.C, SS 

"Nature and the Supernatural," 18SB; "Work Maf, 1857; b, there 18 Nov. 1796. S.C. Coll. 

and Play," 1BG4; "Christ andhis Salvation," 1817. Son of Gen. Wm., a gallant Revol, 

1864 1 " The Vicarious SacriSce," 1865, and soldier of Vo. Adm. to the bar in 1618, and 

" Woman's Snffroge, the Bcform against Na- soon attained high rank ; became also an able 

tare," Also a cootrib, to tbe^. En^mder nad debater in the Stale legisl. ; judge of tbe aes- 

otber periodicals ;d. Hartford^ Ct.Feb.I7, 1876. sioos, 1833, and of the Stale Court in 1835- 

BOBhyhead, Jbbbb, chief- justice of the 46; chairman of the senate Judiciary com,, 

CberokdcA ; d. at the mission in the Cherokee he made an elaborate speech on reporting the 

nation, West, July 17, 1844. He was a self- fugitive stave law, and was conspicuous on 

made man, acquired great dislinclion among the Kansas and otbcr important qocElions; bis 

his tribe, and tilled with fidelity many public last speech being a reply to Mr. Sumner, and a 

trusts. defiance of S.C. 

BUBSey, Behjahih, a benefactor of H.U,, Butler, Bbhjaiiiii F,, a polidcian and law- 
fa. Canton, Ms,, March 1, I7J7; d. Roxbury, yer of N,Y,, b, Kinderhook, Dec, IS, 179S ; d. 
Jan. 13, 1342. At 18, he enlisted a9 a soldier Paris, France, Nor. 8, 1858. Be was a lineal 
in the Bevol. army, and was nt the caplure of descendant of Oliver Cromwell on his rooth- 
Burgoyne, At age of 22, he m., commenced er's side. He studied law with Martin Van 
business as a silversmith in Dcilliain, with a Boren, and, on his adm, to tbe bar in 1817, be- 
capital of $10, and in 1783 removed to Bos- came his partner, and was diiL-atty. of Al- 
ton; where, engaging in foreign commerce, he bany in 1621-5. He served in the State 
BCquirei) a fortune. He left a widow, one assembly, and, vrilb John Duer and J. C. 

Sanilcbild, and some greatgrandchildren. On Spencer, revised Ibc slatutes of N,T. He was 

e death of the last survivor, the whole of this U.R, ntty..gcn. under Jackson (lS3I-4),alsoact- 

eslate, estimated at $350,000, will pass to Bar- ing sec. of war from Oct. 1836 to Much, 1837 ; 

vnrd University, one half to endow b Farm U.S. dist.-ntty. for the southern dial, of N.Y. 

School, for inatruction in practical agricul- 1838-41, Ho left the Democ. parly on account 

lure, &c,, the other half to be devoted to the of the Nebraska biU.Joinod the Repaba,, and 

sopport of the law and divinity achools. voted for Fremont, Hesn 

Busttunsilte (boos-ta-nian'-ta), Ahabta- he also performed the duti 

•to, pres. of Muxico, b, in Guadalajara, 17B2 ; of law in the U. of N.Y., whicti inslitutioD bo 

d. St. Miguel de Allende, 1851, At 21, he re- was instrumental in establishing. — 6^ Life 

reived the diploma of M.D., began practice in and O/nnions of, by W. L. i/aotmoe. 

San Luis Poiosi, and was family pbvsicisn to Butler, BEyjAUiH Franelih, lawyer and 

Calleja, viceroy of Mexico. On the breaking- politician, b. Dcerfield, N.H,, Nov, 5, 1818. 

oul of the revol. of 1810, he fought in behalf WBtervillc Coll., Me., 1838. Zephaniah, hu 

of the Spanish Govt. ; but the cruelty of Cal- grandfather, was a Kcvol. officer. Be studied 

leja made him a patriot. When, Feb, 24, law at Lowell, Ms. ; was adm. to the bar in 

1821, Iturblde pronounced against the Span- 1841, and practised law in Ms. until April, 

ish Govt., Bastamente was one of the first to 1861, with high reputation, especially in crim- 

lustain him. IturUide made him gen, of div., Inal cases. He become identified with die 

and com. of the iutcrior provinces, which office Dcmoc, party, was active in politics ; wm • 



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BUT 149 BUT 

member of the Hm*. lesul- io ISM, and of coantr; in 1779, and Moomp. Sir John Joha 

Ifae 8uue uiuue ia 1859-60, of the Coau. loa'i raid on the Schoharie Mid Mohawk eel- 

CoiiT. of 1853, and in 1860 was a delegate to llemenu ia 1780, After the war, he went to 

tbeDemoc prcs. convention at Charleston, and Canada, and waa richlj rewarded by the Bri- 

af^rward al Baltimore, in whicti he snpported tish Gort.. succeeding, in part, to the ajtency of 

the nominalion of Breckinridge. As brig.- Indian aSain, long held by ibe Johnsons; and, 

gen. of Ma. mitilia, April IT, IS6I, ha marched ab. 1794, had a ealsr; of ^£500 per anniim, and 

with the Ua. Sih regt. to Annapolis, brought a military pension of £200 more. His too 

ont the frigate " Consdlalion," and was placed Wilteb, a mqjor in the British serrice, killi:d 

la com. of the dept. of Aonapolis, inclading in battle in 1781, was a man of ferocious and 

the citT of Baltimore; made inaj..gDa. of bmisl character. 

Tols. Mar 16, and transferred to the com. of Butler, Uahn, author of a " History of 

Fortress Monroe, and Che dept. of Eastani Va. Keniacky ; " d. in Nov. 1835, in coneeqncnce 

To some slaves who came to the fort for pro tec- of a railroad accident in Ho. Heetnig. loKy. 

tiOD, Butler applied the famous phrase " con- in 1806, and pab. his history at Lonisrille in 

trabaad of war." Ang. !2, he proceeded with 1S34. 

■n exped. Sfainat Foris Uatteras and Clark on Butler, Oiit. Pbbcital, ith of the Butler 

tbecoastofN.C, vhich fell on the 29th. Ha hros., b. Fa., 1760; d. Port William, Ky., 

then orsaniied an exped. for the capture of Sept 11, 1831. The bros. Richard, William, 

NewOrleana; left Boalon, Feb. 30, 1862, and Thomas, Ferciral, and Edward, all aerred with 

OD the snirender of Fort St. Philip and Fort dial, in the Berol., aod Che succeeding Indian 

Jacksoo to Flag-offlcer Farragut, May I, took wan. Capt. in the Bevol. army. Us waa 

posaeasion of the city, and by a rigorous admin- Morgan's second in com. at Saratoga, and 

iitration reduced, it toorder and securicy. He com. in the conflict with Col. Simcoa at Spen- 

waa removed in Nov. I86S. In the latter cer's Ordinary, June 3S, 1781, and served at 

part of 1BS3, he obtained com. of the depC. of the sien of Yorktown. After the war, he 

Va. and N.C. He operated on the south side removed to Jessamine Co., Ky., and was adjn- 

of the Jamea River against Richmond, in- laDC-gen. in the War of 1813, 
trenchins himselfaC City Point and Bermuda ButlefiPlBKOB, senator, b. Ireland, 1744 ; 

BuodreiC 5 May, 1864. He was attacked on d. Phila., Feb. 15,1822. He was of the family 

the 16th near Drory's Bluff; and forced back to of the Dukes of Ormond ; was made a lieuc 

bis intrenchments, so chat ho could not take 46tb regt. Aug. 18, 1761 ; capt. a9th io July, 

the oflensive. He com. the land force in Che 1763 ; major in April, 1766, sod waa aiaiioned 

ansncceuful exped. against Fort E^her in in Boston, but resigneil before the Revol., and 

Dec 1864. M.C. IB66-71 ;OQeof themana' settled in S.C. He was a member of the Uld 

gen of the impeachment of Pre*. Johnson, Congress iu 1787 Irom S.V. ; in 1 783 of the 

IB68. — See Partoa't Bulkr in Ntie (Meant; conTeDlion which framed the Federal Constiln- 

GrreUg'i Amo-. CanfliEt. tion, and waH a senator from B.C. in 1789-96 

Butler, Caleb, h. Pelham, N.H., Sept. and 1803^. Director in the U.S. Bank. His 

13,1776; d.OroCon, Ms., Oct. 7.1854. Dartm. wife,dau.of Col. Middleton ofCharleston, S.C., 

Coll. 1800. Studied law in Groton, and wai whom he m. in 1768, d. 1790. 
die principal instructor of Che Orolon Acad. Butler, Col. PiKacu M., aoldier and 

for 11 yean. He pab. a Masonic oration, stalesman, b. Edgefield dist., B.C., April II, 

1816; "Facta, ftc, as to Aflairain Oroion," 1798; killed Aug. 30, 1847, in batcleotChuru- 

1837; " Baview reviewed," 1850, "History of bosco, Mexico. Son of Gen. Wm. Buder.and 

Oroton," 1848. bro. of Senator A. P. Bntler. Lieut. 4th Inf., 

Butler, EzBA, statesman, d. Watertary, Aug. 13, 1819; capt. Doc. 1835; resignedOcL 

Vt., July 19, 1838, ■, 76. In Sept. 1786, he 1, 1629; became cashier and suhseqaently 

come from Weatbeisfield, Vt., and settled in pres. of the State Bank at Columbia; lieul.- 

Waterbory. Bo wasof the JeScrsonian school col. of Goodwin's mounted vols, io Fla. war, 

in politics; waa 11 vearsamember of cheas- Feb. 17, lS36;gov. of S.C. 1836-^; U.S. 

sembly; 15 yean ottheconncil; Gracjodgeof agent for the Cherokeea west of the Mpi.; n.'- 

Chittenden Co. Court, 1803-6 ; chief-jnstice, moved by Mr. Polk, who app. him to treat with 

leoc-U ; ch.-jus. of JeSerson Co., 1814-26; the Comanche Indians; made col, of the 

H.C. 1813-15; member of the Vt. Const. Conv. Palmetto regt. in the Mexican war, Dec. 2^, 

1622; gov. of Vc 1836-8. He was 53 yean 1846, in com. of which he was disling. and 

in ibe public service, beside the town offices he cirice wounded. 
hehl at home. — Danin/i'i Vl. Ogiart. Butler, RiCHiBD, major^en., h. Ireland ; 

Butler, Cou Josn, a Tory leader of the killed Nor. 4, 1791. He came to Amer. before 

Hevol., b. Ct. ; d. Niagara, 1794. Before 1760; wasmadcIieut.-cot.Pa. llneaCthebegin- 

ihe war, be was In official connection with the ning of the war, in the spring of 1777 was 

Jobuions, and com. a militia regt. in Tryon lieut.-col. of Morgan's rifle corps, and diatinn . 

Co., N.7. In 1776, he oiganized a bund of himselfon many occasions. WhilBwithLafay- 

iDi rand ers, who dressed and painted like In- ette'sdeeachmcntnear Williamsburg, Va.,Jnne 

dians, bat who were chiefly American' traiton 36, 1781, he attacked 0>l. Simeoe's rangers, 

and vagabonds in disgnise. He was active in gaining the advantage. Ue held the rankof col. 

the predatory warfare which so long disturbed 9tb Pa. regt. at thocloteof the war; was agent 

Tryon Co. ; was at the battle of Oriskiinr in fur Indian affuin in O., ab. 1787, and in the 

Aag. 17T7 ; com, the 1,100 men who desolated exped. of St. Clair against the Indians in IT9I, 

Wyoming in July, 1778; was among ihdse com. therighC wing, with therankof maj.-gen.; 

wIm) opposed SoUivan's exped. to the Indian attacked early in the moming of Nov. 4, he 



lOC^Ie 



retwels: !»■ r- ■■■-■ ■* /tevitw, to the an 

operator, « ■ ■' f^ ^!l ""^ '}' ^'^f 

■hip Iviii^ . -uF, » few pleanni skeTcha 

tltiimlii r • -c-"™! hnmoroM pa;*n in 

1820 [., ^ 'icitl^ The Colonfl't Ci.b. In 

roarliiT>' - ' ^maul's Punsssu^." a toL 

ihe ij. . f il.i«ted Addrp^^es; " in IS5T, 

thtre-. ■ - ■-''oiliing to Wear;" ■ oew 

I„j(,f;- ■! ■' Two JlillioM," inlK^^.ind 

g^p , . -a Buna, Lawyer, SnttesmiD, anil 

ler't!,' --;. — ftgrfrnot. 

wi,, ' -Si-er, linf- WtLJ-iA* OiiLaXDO. wilJier 

(n„.t , . .^v'liiD, h. Jessainiae Co., Kr., 1733. 

l!,.:j . ~. .^'ibPeniTBlBuller. He ww'litwnltj 

nl,. - . .-oi, uxl designed for the bar; tienc Sd 

J' ^'<'t. i8. IBIS ; wonnded and made pris- 

Ih,' ■ i. :lie EtiTCT Raisin; afterward serred wkh 

(-; ^ Kcion DnderJockson.atNewOrleaTW, and 

,... .*, in-', major, Dec. 23, 1814; aide io jack- 

t.. ^ 4.'ii, luk of lieuC..col., in I8I6-IT. Hepr*o- 

, ... '~>^i Uw in Kj. for the next 35 jean ; M.C. 

; -, vJ^»-43 ; Democ candidate for gor. of Kj. in 

. . l>u.aDd also an ansaccessfot ouididate for 

, _ ■H'TSfirM. in 1846. Mademaj.-gCQ. of voh. fcr 

I lav Mexican war, Jnne 39, 1846; dhting. and 

, 1^ luunded in the battle of Monterer, Sept. 

^.. .,11. St. IS48, for which hewM presented by Oon- 

Hrresj afilh a jword ; succeeded Gen. Scott in 

^. ir-;.ia wm. of the army in the Valley of Mexico, in 

, . .w. tVb. IfUB. Ann. goT. of Nebr. Terr, bv Pre*. 

Anthor of aome ^gitive 



•.;. Sm <^l' poace congress in 1861. 

. .oil* Dt' BntleFi Col, Zebcloit, Revol. officer, b. 

,,,. . ■u..r'K>ml Lvrae, Ct., nai ;d, Wiikesbarre, Pa.,28Jnly, 

... .'-ul. It SA'. ifSS, Heeerred in theFrenchwarandioTbe 

'i.' VvHiuo a e^pod. to EIUTana, and rose to he a capt. in 

• , v>ui v-uii^:*d 1761. In 1769, ha Battled at Wjomin(.', Pa. ; 

, , ..■u. ..vnw of lieul.-eol. Ct. line, serring in NJ.. in 1777-8; 

K .i.'vr iWlvr col. 13 Mar. 1778; and 3 Jnl;, 1778 com. the 

. . .M,.j..v iKtv wrrnl weak garrieon at Wyoming at ibe time of tlie 

,. ... u uiv HKi:* of mnsiHcro, which hewas nnahleto prevent. Ho 

. . ■,„ s. ^'ivml M'j»- •ccomp. SnlliTsn in hh Indian eiped. in ITT9, 

, ..,,., n>uniin>. "nii ■ni' sarved with disiinction tliroughont the 

' . , ., .• t (viuiimndof war, — ifitier'a Wyoming. 

... ., . ^>i >u >nr HOiilra Buttarfleld, l>AN[Bi., maj.-gen, rola., b. 

, ,, „ „,m .n.-r iho war Oneida Co., N.Y., Oct. IS3I. Dn. Coll. 1849. 

, . II ■ 'u, iiiy.'i^p'n. of Ho W8« a merchant in N.T. City, and col. I3ih 

til' nxi ■ luonihor rcgt. N.Y. militia when the civil war broke 

. , ■»■ iviwKiili-r thoad"p- out, Accompanying hia r^t. to Washington in 

, . ',.,.<:<ii<i.>ti.Hiid,wilh Uon. July, he joined Gen. Patteraon on the Upper 

. ., ».i>i k.{-iiiiit it. Ilu was Potomac, andcom. a brigade. LieilL-coL ISlh 

.... V. .■.i^Mrt'nwiillon which U.S. Inf., Ma^l4, 1861 ;l)rig.-gcn.Tola. Sept. 7. 

. ., .,..<>."><ii>>u of S.t', : was 1861, and aaaigned to the army corps of Fiu. 

, , M lU iho bvlnl, I Khpriff John Porter, in which he made the campaign 

..„ ....o kimhI nail iiinKlatriite. of the peninsula. He took part In the ci«nt 

.. i, iv'ti'i'i. ihi< S.C m>i>]>in>r hnttlea under Pope and McCfclIanin Ang.and 

>-, >.'• ,1 St>>iMli<r A. P. Iliillcr Sept. 1862, and, near the close of Oct., took 

i D'.i.it. Il>< wa* lar;:o and command of Morell'a dirision. Mnj.-gen. 

..,».ii a Ma rldvr.nnd had a Not. 29, 1663; col. Sthinf, JiilTl,IS63;com. 

,.. s .1 «« Dih corpa at battle of Freilencksbnrjr, Va. ; 

b* in 1 x« Ai I »t. la»fT<ir and chief of staff". Army of the Potomac, at Chan- 

, n. N Y , INI-'". I', of N.Y. eeliorsTille and at Gettyshnig, whore he was 

i'iivhI liw III ihf offli-c of hi) wonndod ; ordered to rB.enfori» Roeecmna's 

1 t llioti'i, irarnlliHl In Kuro|ie Army ofthe Cumhorland, Oct. 1B63; cliicf of 

1 1I anil Im< iilniw tm<ii ai'tivvtr staff to Hooker at Lootont Honntain, Mission 

„ ,.i.„'<h-.i tif law In N.Y. Citr. Hid^^a, Kin;n^>ld. and I'ea Vine Creek, Ga. ; 

• lit M i-umi, PiKiihol "The Kii- eoni adlviMon oflOth corneal battlc.iof Bui- 

iiiiili tii.iiir |»i|<cn III pivsD and aard's Itooat, ttenca, Dallas, New Hone 



,V_iOOl^lC 



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dAJB 152 CAB 

(hat or Hb/, ITT6, in which he «•• one of the al Vmke ; and lie Lepsnd ontit tnapo/Seiailiaii 

comniitlee lo draft a decluwioD of righis and Cabal ciied in UaJdagi. 

a plan of government. Ho waa a member of 0&bOti SsbiitIiIH, diacorerer of the coiut- 

ihe committee of safety ; charged with the line of the U. S. aa far sonlh as the Chesa- 

dvil and military control of the coTony ; ■mem- peake, b, ab. 1472 ; d, ah. 1557. Son of the 

.. — f ..^^ Stan; senate from Amherst district, preceding. At the ago of 17, Sebastian had 

...L 1_ g niernber of the house acquired akill ia mathematica, and hud made 

convention to ratify the eeversl voyages, la Uay, 1497, purEuaol to 

Uia brothers Joseph, letters-patent obtained from Henry VII., John 

John, nod Kicbolas, were alt active patriots. — and Sebastian sailed lo the west, discovering, 

Grlqs'i), in Jane, Newfonndland, exploring the coaal as 

Cabell, William H., sod of Nicholas.and tax as latitude 67°. In &Uy, U9S, with 2 ships, 

nephew of Wn).. gov. of Va., 1S05-3 ; d. Itich- and a laige company of vols., (him Bristol, he 

monJ, Jan. 17, 1853. He was pres. of the sailedioiearchoraBhortnorth-weatem passage 

Court of Appeals after being gov., aod 50 years to China and Japan. He reached the main - 

in public lite. land of N. A., landed in several places, and saw 

Uabeza de Vaoa (Ica-ba'-thK da vi'-ka}, natives clad in the sltins of beasts, aiid making 

Altar yo.tEz, a Spaniard, who explored the nse of copper. The discoveriee of the Cabots 

River La Plata in 1540. were so little valned, that the family suSercd 

Cabot, Geouob, statesman, b. Salem, Dec. the patent grantiag Ihem the eiclus' 



52; d. Boston, April 18,1823. After pass- lege of trade to be lost. In 1513, he went to 
mrs at H. U., be went to sea for a Spain by invitation of King Ferdinand, until 
and then engaged in the mercantile whose death, in 1516, he enjoved honor and 



procnred another ship for discovo _ , 
the ProT. Congrea of Ms., the attempt to e»- 1517 attempted a southern passage to the East 
tablish a mnximam price for the sale of pro- Indies, in which he &iled. He then visited 
visions: thns early manifesting his correct views Spain, where he was well treated, and Bpp. pi- 
of political economy. Memuer of the State lo^major by Charles V, He soon after received 
Const. Conr.j and also of that which ratified from a company of merchants the command of 
the Constitution of the D. S. U. S. senator in an exped. to the Spice Islaads, through the 
179l-6,beconiingoneoftheconfidentialfriends recently-discovered Straits of Magellan. In 
«f Wa<^hington and Hamilton, (o the latter of April, I5S5, he accordingly sailed from Cadis 
whom he was an able coadjutor in the forma- to the Canaries and Cape de Tenia Islands ; 
lion of his financial system. He received, and failing, from the opposition of his crew, in 
May 3, 1798, the app. of sec of the navy, his plan of reaching the Spice Islands, he pro- 
ffhich he declined ; was in 1308 a member of ceeded to the River La Plato, where he dlscov- 
ihe council of Ms.; in ISli a dele^te to the ered St. Salvador, and erected a fort. He aC^ 
eon vent ion which met at Hartford, and was terwanls visited the great Kiver Paraguay, and 
pres. of that body. He was a leader of the endeavored for some time to form an establish- 
r'ederul party, and exercised great ioAnence ment on the Amcr. const ; but, disappointed in 
upon public opinion. the expected aid from Spain, lie returned home, 
Cabot (kub'.ut}, John, discoverer of the whore he met with an un&vorable reception. 
North- American continent. MatxJi £6, 1476, He lelumed lo Englandneartheclose of 1548. 
denization was granted himinVDnice.afierthe A pension was settled npon him by Edwonl 
nsnal residence of 15 years. In 1495, he resided VI,, as grand pilot of England, and be was 
at Bristol, with his wife, a Venetian, and 3 thenceforward consulted on all quesdoiu of 
sons, and as early as 1491 had sent from that navigation ; and in 1559, being gov, of the 
city an exped. in search of " BraiQ and the company of merchant-adveninrcrs, he drew up 
Seven Cilice." Mar. 5, 1496, Joba and his 3 instructions, and procured a license, for an ex- 
sons obtained a patent Irom Henry VU., an- pad. to discover a northern passn)^ to the East 
thorizing them to search forislanda, provinces, Indies. He Qrst noticed the variulion of the 
or regions in the eastern, western, or northern compass; and, besides the ordinances preserved 
seas.and looccupy the territories that might be in Uokluyt, he pub. a large map of the world, 
found, ivith an exclusive right to their com- and " Naeagazioae nelle parte Sepleiitrionale." 
mercc, on paying the king aUfth of allprofila. He was also gov. of the Russian company. 
Accompanied by his son Sebastian, he sailed and was very active in their affairs. The best 
in May, 1497, in a single vessel, 700 leagues work on Sebastian Cabot is the Memoir by 
west, and June 24, 1497, saw the land, which Richard Biddle, 8vo, 1831. 
he reported to have been a portofacontinent. Cabral, Peoho Alvabbe pb, the princi- 
A letter of that year states that he sailed 300 pal discoverer of Brazil, b Portugal ; d. ab. 
leagues along the coast, landed, and planted on 1526. King Emanuel having fitleil out an ex- 
ibesoil the banuersofEngtandand Venice. He ped. to Calicut of 13 ships, Cabrat was app. 
reached Bristol in Aug., and was favorably re- com. in chief. After passing the Canaries, he 



cived by the king, who granted him special an- took a westcriyconrse, resulting it 
I — :... — , inipress 6 English ships, and lo enlist ery of Brazil, of which, Apr. 24, l^uu, nc wuk 
9. Feb. 3, 149g. Uf his Bubscquentca- possession in the name or his king. He then 



reer nothing is known. — See Iht yeiielian Ar- sailed for India, losing half his fleet in 

chiefs : lAe Paiail graaird him 1496 ; (Af License pest, landed at Calicut, and succeeded, afiet 

\i98:a Leaer,daialAa^.i!i,i497,fronLomiso negotiating with the Indian princes, ia estah- 

Patgwlit/o, a merchoBt at Lmdon, (o kit brolAert lishing a factor; there. 



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mililarr I 

Bit "8ei 



OAS 158 OAT. 

Oadvalader (etf-wor-a^er), G«>R<ia, punphleu, «nd foniMr editor of ihe Dublm 

iDMi.-gea. ToU., «oa oT Qao. Thomx, grandHin TVtfnipA. 

of Gaa. Jobn, b. Ptii]*. Es Mndied and pric- CaineB, GlOBOt, reporter of the Supreme 
IiMdlB«iiQpbiU.,uid,onthebie>kinNutof Court of H.T, ; d. Cfttskill, N.T., Jal; 10, 
the HcxictD war, wu app. brig.-«ii. March 3, 1S25, a. 54. E^ patk "Lex Mercalaria Ameri- 
1847. DutJDg. at El MoliDo, he wai brer, eoha," 1803 ; " CaM* in the Court of Erron," 
maj.-f^n. for galbuitrr at Cbapuliepec. In S toIb,, IBOS-T; "Fomu of the N.Y, Supreme 
1861, ho wa« app. bf ibe ^T. of Pa. nmj.-ecD. Coart,"lB08; " Snmmarj of the Practice in 
of Slav Tola.; had com.at Baliilliore in Ma}, the N.T. Sap. Court," 1808; " Caaes in the 
and wai second in com, in ibe force which Court for the Trial of Impeachments," &c 
moTedoD Wincbeater, anderGen. Paltarson, In lSOS-7, 9 to1»., 8to; "'S.'X. Sop. Court Re- 
Jane. Apr. 15, 1863, be wai app. maj.'gen. porta," 1803-5, 3 imls., Bvo, 2d ea., 1832. 
of Tola. One of the commiaiion to reriae tbe CaldBS, FB:iifOiBco Jost de, natoraliit, 
Uwt and regDlaCiona, Dec. IT, 1863. b. Popajan, K. Granada, 1770 ; executed b; 
TTicea in the Mexican Campaign of onlerofMorilloin 1816. Bj hu own exertion^ 
I81T" waapnb. Phila., 8ro, 184S. be aninired tbe mdimenta of aslronomT. 

OadwUflddTt John, gen., aoo of Or. bouaj, and medicine, and coaitmcied a b*- 

Thonuu, b. Fbila., 1743; d. Shrewibarr, Md., rometer and aextant, nnaided even bv booki. 

Feb. 10, 1786. Hewaa a memberofthe Pa. He accompaniedfbr a time tbe Spanianexplor- 

-'on in 1775; an actiTe member of the er, J. C. Mutia. Subaeqnenil/ he expired 

.. wof aafisty.aQd coDi.,iD PhilB.,"Tbe tbe Andei, and the Magdalen River, and in 

Silk StocUng Companj," of which nearlj all IBO* in«unred the height of CbimboraH) and 

tbe memben were app. to connniasiona in tbe Tnoganigaa. Af^ baving been nominated 

armj' Hewaa afterwardmadecol, of oneofthe director of the obaerralorj at Santa Ftf de 

d^baltaliona; wai promoted to brie.-gen., and Bogota, be began lo edit, in 1807, the " Stmi- 

waa intnuied with Ibe com. of tbe Pa. militia, nanadt la Nutva Granada." He wag employed 

and c(K)perited io the attack on tbe Heaaiani at by tbe Congress of Sew Oranadn to complete 

Ti«aion. He look pan In the battleof Prince- t&e flora of Bogota, when the disturbed ataie 

ton, Jan. S, 1 777. He acted with his com. as of public a&ir> intermpied the work ; and 

aTol. at Brandywins, Gatoantown, and Hon- himaetfand colleague, Don Losano, were pat 

month. In tbe antamn of 1777, at the request to death. 

of WathioRton, be assiited in organizing the Caldas, Pekxiba &■ Bodza Antosia, 

militia of t^e eastern shore of Hd. After the a Braiiltan poet, b. Rio de Janeiro, 1 763 ; d. 

disgrace of Gen. Cooway, Le was called to ac- 1814- He aladied at Coimbra, but, on being 

count by Cadwalader (or some oSensive re- consigned to a convent by the Inquisitian, took 

narks in reference to Washington. In thednel holy orders. His writings weiv pub. in Paris, 

which followed, Conway waasererely wounded. 1831, entitled " Poetiat Maffradat e profamu," 

After tbe war, Gen. Cadwajadcr removed to with a commentar; by Gen. Stockier. A new 

Hd., and was a momber of tbe legisl. His edition of bit poetical works, exclusive of his 

dan. Fanny, in 1800, m. D. M. ErsUne, after- translations, was brought out in 1636. 

wards Baron Erskine. His granilion. Gen. CaldeTOn de la Baroa (Fbahcbs Lh- 

George CadwaJader, disting. himself in tbe OLit), h. Scotland ; m.inie38luDoaCalderoa 

Hezicaa war. He pob, a reply to Gen J. de la Barca, Spanish minister to Ae U.S., and 

Reed's " Remarks," 1763. aubsequentl; to Mex. ; pub. " Life in Mexico," 

Cadwalader, Coi. Luibbkt,' H. C. with a preface by Wm. H. Prescott the bia- 

1789-61 and 1793-9, b. Trenton, VJ., 1741 ; torian, in 1843. 

d. there Sept. 13, 1823. He com a Pa. regt. in Caldioott, Tromab Ford, D.D.,Bapli«t 

the Revol,; assisted in tbe defence of Tort clergyman and aalhorb.Bnckby,Eng.,lB03; 

Washingion.Nor. 16, 1776; was taken prison- d. Toronto, Canada, July 9, 1869. He cmi- 

er at iucapture.and retired tofaise«IBtes,iiear grated to Canada in IB24; removed to Hamil- 

Trenton. Member of the Old Congress, ton, N.T., in 1831, and preached snccessivety 

1184-7. there, at Loekport, at Boaton, and at Brooklyn, 



37 Jan. 18S3; lien t.-eof. 7th In/, 6 June, 1B61; Toronto. A tnorough scholar, an ablew 

col. 8th Inf., SO Oct. 1863; retired, IS Hay, and an eloquent preacher. 

1864;brei'.brig.-gen.l3Blar.l865. Heserred Caldwell, Cbabuh, M.D., physician and 

in the Florida war, 1 838-4a ; in the Mexican author, b. Caswell Co., N.C., Hay 14,1772; 

war, 1846-8 ; was at tbe sieso of Vera Crui, d, Loaiaville, Ky., July S, 1853. The son of 

battle* of Ccrro Gordo, Chnrobusco, and Uo- an Irish officer. Heflrsltaaghtschool in N.C.; 

lino del Key, where bo was Hoonded, and bieir. went to Phila. in 17S2 ; studied and practised 

maj. B Sept. 1847 ; and in the Sioux exped. medicine there ; and, daring tbe vtllow-fever 

was engaged in action of Blue Water, Dak., of 1793, particularly dialing, bimself. He waa 

tSepLIBSS, — Cuilam. surgeon of a brigade during the " Whiokey 

Cahill,Bir. Dahisl Williak,D.D., an Insurrection." In 1810, he filled the chair of 

Iriah pricat. chemist, astTDnomer, and pulpit natural history in tbe U. of Ph.; was prof, of 

orator, b Queen's Co., Ireland, 1802 ; d. Bos- materia medica in Transyl. IT. in 1818-37 1 

ton, Oct. 27, 1864. Studied at Carlow Coll., and in 1887-40 in the LonisTille Med. Sebool. 

and at Mavnooih, where be was ord. Prof, of He translated Blnmcnbach's " Elements oF 

sal. hist. In Carlow Coll. Anthor of leTeiBl Physiology " in 1795 ; pub. " Malaria," Svo^ 



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OAXi 154 OAX. 

N.T., IB3I; "Unit; of the Hamu Race," to theirmeiiK>T7on th%64thatiDfTEnaTy of hit 

8vo, IS30; edited the Pon/olio in ISU; death. His son, Jobh E. of NT., woi uikea 

odiied " Cutlea's Practice of PliTBic" in 1616. (o France, and edacaied by LBfarecte. Hewai 

aod in 1819 pub. hi* " Liie of Gen. Grvene." a diiting. philaalhropist, ediuxl the CAriitiaa 

Inl856, his Aniobi^graphy appeared. Hapub. Herald, and fbtindea tha Bible Socie^. — 

" Memoinof Horace Holley, 1628; and "The Spragta. 

Boval Foandliogs," a Peniao tale ; " Medical Caldvell, Obm- Johh, lieat.-goT. of Kj., 
and Plijs. Memoira," &c, 1801; "Medical 1804; b. Prince Edw. Co., Va. D. Frank- 
Thews,'' &«., 1S05; andwroie over 300 piacca fort, Ky., Nor. 0, 1804. He went ta Ky.io 
in Tarioog departmmti of literature and acieDce. ITSl ; aarred in the eonflieta irilh the Indiana ; 
Ha wrote mnch apon phreDoloay. A bio- became a maj.-gra of militia ; member of the 
graphical sketoh was read by Dr. B. H. Coaias Staia conrentiona of lTft7-8, and of the State 
Before the Amer. Phil. Soc aenate, 179S-3. 

CaldwelL Chahi.es Heukt Bbomsimh, Caldwell) Josefh, D.D. (N. J. CoU. 

capt. U.S.N., b. Hiagham, Ms., Jnne 11, I8S3, 1816), b. Leaminnon, NJ., April 31, 1TT3; d. 

Midahipm. Fob. 37, IBM ; lient. SqiL 4, 1853 ; Cbapet Hill, N.C,, Jan. 24, 18^^ N.J. Coll. 

com. July 16,1862; capt- Dec 13, 1867. 1T91. At tchoot, be displayed a taite for math- 

With a detachment from " The Yandalia," be ematicg, and that diligence and energy which 

defeated a tribe of cannibals at Wega, one of characterized hii anbleqnent career. ^He ato- 

tbe Ftpee Islandi, and burned their town, OcL died for the ministry, taught <cboot. and in 

11, 1858 ; cam. iieamor " Itasca," We«t Gnif 1796 vna chosen pruiding prof, of the infopt 

block- squad, at the battle of NewOrleaot ; at U. of N.C, alto perfonniog the dntiesormath- 

Grand Gulf, Mpi, River, June 10, 1863 ; eom. ematical prof. Licenaed to preach 33 Sept. 

ironclad " Eseei," Moi. squadron, IS63-3 ; 179G. In 1804, a presidency was created, to 

Port Hndeon, from March to July, IS63, in which he waa chosen, and which he held until 

com. of " Essex," and mortar flotilla ; com. the period of his death. Upon hia declion to 

steamer "Glaucus," N. A. B. squad., 1863-4; the presidency, he racated ibe mathematical 

steamer " R. R. Cnyler," N. A. B. squad., chair for that of moral philosophy. In 1834, 

1864-5, and present at aDrrender of Wilming- he Tililad Eoropa in order to direct in pencm 

Ion. — Baiiiertlf. the coanrue^on of a philosophical apparatot, 

Caldwell, Datid, D.D. (U. of M.C. and lo select books for the libraiy. To him 

1810), b. Laacasser Co., Pa., Mar. 33, 17S5 ; M.C. is indebted for vaiionB internal improve- 

d, Aug. 35, 1824. NJ.Coll. 1761. He was a meats of his suggesting, M well as to fais aer- 

hou9e.<:arpeuter until hia BSth year; was U- tIgm in the cause of education. He pub. in 

censed to preach in 1763; ord. July 6, 17B5, 1 633 a treatise on geometiy, and "Leileiaof 

and installed pastor of Bo^lo and Alamance, Chiton," 1835. — aprague. 

Hanover, N.C. He also opened a claasical C&Idwell) Sajhtki, gen., maj. of Ky. 

school, which he continued nearly SO years, and " lerins of 1 791 ; " distlng. in Wilkinson's ex- 

hecame a skilful and auccessiill physician, ped. against the Indians on the Wabash in 

Member of the convonlion which met at Holi- Aug. 1791 ; liout.^»l. com. Ky. Vols. 1813, 

fax, No*. 13, 1776, and of the coBTcntioa to aniTiu Clay's brigade under Gen. Harrison in 

ratify the Federal Constitution. He retired IBIS ; brig. Ky. Vols. Aug. 1813, and com. a 

from the ministrrio \ 820. — Set Life, tig S- brigade in battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813. 

tV. Cttnilhers, D.D., 1842. —Gardner. 

Caldwell) Howard B., poet, b. New- Calef (or Cai.fb), Robert, merchant of 

bory, S.C., Sept. 30, 1831. S.C. Coll. 1851. Boston, famous for hia opposition to the witoh- 

Adm. to the bar, 1855; haa since practised at cralt persecutioa of 1692 ; d, ab. 1723. Xd 

Columbia, In 1853, he pub. "Oliatta and ton of Robert of Roibury, who d. Apr. 13, 

other poems." He lias cootrib. (reqnently lo 1719. Such was the preralence of the belief 

the periodicals of the South; andaoewTOl.of which he so powerfully attacked, that, DO- 

his poems nas pub. 1858. able to pub. his defence inBoaion, itvras print- 

Caldwell, Jaxm, Fresb. minister and ed in London in ITOO. Its tilk, " More Won- 

Revol. patriot, b. of Scotch parents, Charlotte ders of the luTisible World," was sngrated 

Co., Va., Apr. 1734; d. Eliiabethtown Point, by Cotton Mather's "Wonders of the Invisi- 

. NJ., 34 Not. 1781. N,J. CoU, 1TS9. Ord. ble World ; " and its plain facta and coramOD- 

over the Isl Church at Eliiabetblown, Mar. sense arguments conCnb,, notwithstanding the 

i 762. E1o<ineD[ and energetic in oronsiag B learned and powerful were its opponents, moat 

Rcvol. spirit in the people, he served in the essentially to a change of public opinion. Dr. 

war as chaplain, and afterward as commissary Increase Mather, pres, of H, C,, ordered the 

10 Iho N J, troops ; was the special object of wicked book to be burnt in the coll, ;ard. The 

the hatred of the loyalists, and was obliged to members of tha Old North Church pub, a de- 

remove hid fumily to Connecticut Farmi for fence of their pastors, the Mathers, entitled 

safety. During the frequent incursions of the " Remarks upon a Scandalous Book," ° ~ 



nemj', the bell of bis church always sounded with the motto, " Tmlh will come off Conqner- 
i alarm, and raised the countiy. His church or." The complete triumph of Calef turned 
iB bnrned ; his wile, Hannah Ogden, whom he the satire upon them; judges and jkirots cou- 



1 1763, woa deliberately shot at and fessed their errors ; and the people < 

killed, 8 June, 1780, then her bouse fired and ished, and ashamed of their own follies. Jni- 

buml down ; and he himself waa shot by a sen- tice was, however, withheld from bim in hii 

tinel who had been bribed to do the deed. A day ; and traces of hia unpapularitv are diacov- 

marble monumental Burlington was dedicated erable in several proceedings of tbe town- A 



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CAX. 155 -CAX. 

■MW cdhkni of litiirfttk « 
Id 1T9S. 

OslboaniJOH>CUu>wB(.i,,LL.D.,Mat«- Oall, Haj. Biobasd or Vft. Revol. offl 
nun, b. Abbevilla IMatiict, 8.C., 18 Mir. 1T89;-' ccr ; fbaght M Chu-lwion, 8.C., Mb? 6, IT90 ; 

d. Wa^ngtoo, D.C-, Bl Ubt. ISSO. T. C. com. rifle corps iu ictioa with Col. Simcoe at 

IBM, with dia fint bonon. Patrick, hii &- " gpennr'i Ordinary," Ta., June SS, 1 781, and 

thar, a datire of Iielatid, com. a Dompai]?' for ararod under I^ftyetM; madft BnTT.-gim. of 

fironiicr dcAiKe, and <na (or 30 j^a*, and O*., Jan. 1TS4. 

DDtil hit d. In ITSe, a nonber of the legiaL Gidl, Riohasd K, gen., b. Kr. ; d. Talla- 

HU motbar, Martha Catdwdl, vat of Sootdh- haMee, Sept, lS6a. App. frotn Kj. liont 44Ili 

Irlth deaceot. Fran hb boyhood, he wia Inf., Jaly 15, ISM; brsT. capt. Nor. T, 181i; 

mre, tbB^lftil, ankm, and penenritw. toI. aide to Oon. JbcIiwd, April, ISIS, and 

Heatodied biw at Litchfldd, began practice la ac^g insp.-gen. lo tbeannjia the field, May, 

bii DadTe district to I80T, took bigh nnk In I81S; capt. Jul;, 1818; resigQed May 1, 1623. 

bis profbwion, and, with • lncratiTC praeiiee, Uembor Iqsial. eonnclf of Fla., Apr. 182S; 

cawed early npon (be polideal anna. He brtg.-gen. W. Fli. mSliia, Jan. 1833 ; delegate 

was In the State IismL in 1808-10; H.C. in CoQ^resa, (833-&; reoeiver land office, W. 

18I1-1T, and loflinBtfal in prt>cnring Uie dec- Fla. Mareh, 1826 ; gor. of Fla. and com. of 

Inratloa of waririth England in 1813; lee. of tbearmyagaimttheSeininoIeB, Dec.e, I83S,to 

*ar in Monnw's cabinet, 16 Dec. IBIT-Mar. Deo. G, IBSB; com. la Si Mid 3d battles of 

tS» ; ricehprei. of the U.S., 18SS-.3I ; U.S. Wahoo Swamp, Not. IS and 31, 1836 ; U.S. 

aeoBior, 1831 and IB4S-S0; see. of State 1 844- gor. Fla. Terr., IS36-Uar. 1844; mu.-een. Fla. 

9. Aa praiding officer of dte senate, be was inilitia, Jnly 1 to Dec. 8, 1846. — (kii5>ur. 

pnnctDBl, meihodica), and Bccoraie. Thepe- Callq}s (hU-li'-M), Don Fbux dw, 
enllar doctrine of this eminent man, which be ' Rar, Counr on Ciuieboh, a Spaaiah gen., 

boneitly entertained and earnestly ad Tocatef, b. ITSO; d. ah. IS21. After haring been treaa. 

was, that the Contdnition was a mere tiMty, of tbe council of tlie Indies in Amer., he com. 

ftom (be condiHoDi of which any Bute might in 1810 at San Lois Potosi, Mexico, when be 

•eparanhenalflfderirable to the inhabitants, — was ordered toparsne the iosargeDt Hidalgo, 

tbe doctrine of " State Rights," as it ia called, wlio was edTancing on tlie capital wiib a large 

Calbonn'd InBoence in his own Statawasso natlTefoice. BasDydefeMing him.hecsiTied 

fiQlt, that lii« Dltra views of tlM tariff, aulUfl- Gnanazoato by asaanlt, and Jan. 13, 1813, do- 

catioD, and ilaTery, convolled tlie opinions of f^ted aod mortally wonoded him at Onadalax- 

llie majority of bis constltueiits. Hia collected are. He gained oUier adrantagte, iMt throtigb 

writiDgs and fpeeehes, edited b^R. K. Cnlle, his cmetiy eansed the iosnrrectioD to become 

with a btognphy, wwa pnb. in 6 vols., 8to. mnch more fbnntdable; and, under Morelos, 

His son, Haj. Patmok, U.S.A., d. Pendleton, the success was balanced between the two par- 

B.C., I Jane, 1858, a. 3T. Another ton. Col. ties. Calleja was madericeroy, 4 Mar. 1813; 

WiLUAK LowKsas, a phmier, d. Abbeville ordered Hoielos, who had been made prisoner, 

Diet., 19 Sept. 1858, a. SS. to be ahot. Si Dec 1815; was (Qcoecded la 

Oalhonn, JoHH Ewmo, lawyer and aea- bia«ioeroyBhipiDl81T,and,retaraiDgioSpain, 

Bior, b. 1749; d. Pendleton District, 8.O., waa made a eonnt. In 1819, be wasgiren the 

Not. 36, 1803. N.J. Coll, 1774. While tcit com. of troops desdned to act against the in- 

Toong, he lost bis bther, bat was taken by his dependents of Paraj^ay, bnt was taken pris- 

Uncle Patrick, who proTided him with an ex- oner by Rf^o, attd conflned in the Isle of Leon, 

c^Ibdi edacatfon. He studied law, became dying soon after rocorerinc bia liberty, 

dialing, in the pnfesaion, was many years in CBllender, Jawbs '^ompbo!!, political 

the l^il, of S.C., and was a U.8, senntor in writer, b. Scotland ; d, Richmond, Va., July, 

1801-2. He was on the committee to report a 1803. He was exiled for pub, bU " Political 

modlHcation of the judiciary system of the Pro^n^s of Britain," Edinb., 1792. Came to 

C.S., and was an eloquent and independent Philn., where he pub. tbe " Political Rcgiater," 

man. 3 Not, 1794 to 3 Mar. 1795, Sro; '• Amer. 

Calbonn, Wiluak Babkw, LL.D. Annual R^terfbrlT96,"BTD,IT97. He was 

(Amb. Coll. 18S8), b. Boston, Dee. 39, 1799 ; atone time theOiend of Jefferson, bnt became 

d. Springfield, Ha., Not. 8, 1865. T.C. 1814. his enemy and calnmniator. The ftii^rHaid 

He nrndied law with Geoi^ Bliss of Spring- Recorder, which he edited some years, was 

field, and for 40 year* was prominent there, noted for its virnlent asaaolts upon the edmin- 

Mcmbo- of tbe Ms. legisl. 1835-35; apeaker, istrations of WashinelOTi arid Join Adams. 

1834-5 ; M. C. 1835-43 ; pies, of the Stole He was drowned while bathing in the Jan 

of Hl-legisl.lSSI. Maavyeanaconlrib. to the C&lletldQr, Joan, BaptiBt minister of 

Sprinsfi^d Repithliavi. JaH<i,hi9 brother, who Newport, R.I., b. Boston; d. Jan. 36, 1748, a. 

while mrr.-gcn. of Kansas, gained an nncnTia- 41. H,U. 1733, He was a nephew of tbeRer. 

Ue reputation in the attempt to force the Le- Elisha, a Baptist minister of Boston ; was li- 

oonipuin CoDstitDtion npon the people, d. Oct. censed to preach in 17S7 ; was pastor of the 

19, 1859. Baptist Church in Swansay, He,, from Aug. 

CbU, Dasibl D., an eminent lawyer; d. 1738 to Feb. 1T30, and Oct. 13, 1731 van otA. 

Richmond. Vs., Hay 30, 1840, a. ah. 75. Bra.- miniaterof the second Baptislchuri'h io Amer, 

In-law of Judge Marshall. He pub. 6 toIb. of formed in 1644. His centennial diKoarae in 

"Reports of the Ta. Conn of Appeala," 1738isTei7Talnable,andcoaiaioBmachr«f the 



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CAX. 166 OAJJ 

vu\j biilorj of B. L, eapecisllj in ecclwiaati- ChsriM I. ; but, dying before lite paUnt itm 

eti aflbirs : this wet reprialed in ISSS, in the completed, it wu ogtuD dra<m in tbe name 

Colla. R. I. Hist. Soc., with notes by Dr. El- of hi« eldMl mo Cecil, who succeeded to his 

ton. He also pab. sonDona on tbe death of honors, and it passed tbe seals, Jane 20, 1633. 

Rcr. Mr. Clapn, 174S, and Rer. Mr. Condy, This terrilory, named in honor of Henrietta 

1739. His coUectloos relating to the hisloiy Maria, queen-consort of Charles I,, wu eo\- 

of the Baptist! in thia country vera nsed by onized nnder the paCrooage of Lord Baltimore, 

Mr. Backas. »bo displayed jnatiee aod good faith in his 

Gallierea (deh-H'-leair*), Chbtaues dealings witb the Indians, and liberality to re- 
Locris llscTOB, DB, b. Torigny, France; d. ligions sectaries in bis l^al. ananKemenls, 
Montreal, Ca., May S6, 1703, He was a gallant highly creditable to his principles andcbarac- 
mitilary oEBcer, and came to Canada as a mem- tet. Lord Baltimore wrote some political 
her of the Montreal company. App. gOT. of inMMS ; aod bis speechee ia parliament, and tet- 
Hontreat in 1684, he enclosed the town with ters of State. hBTC also been pnb. — See Life of 
palisades. In 1689, he went to France to gag- Calvert, by S. F. StreHer. 
gestnprojectfoTtlieconi]DestorN,Y.,iowhii^, Oalvert, Obobob Hehbt, author, b. BfJ- 
Enl for ils failnre, be would bsTe had the chi^ timore, Md,, Jan. S, 1803. R. U. 1839. Hit 
com. Got. of Canada froia the death of tather was of tbe family of tbe tbandei of Md. ; 
Frootoooc, in 1698, until bis own death : his and his mother, a lineal descendant of the 
ability and valor made bim popular in the painter Rubens, was a native of Antwerp. Af- 
Colony. He bad several □(^luuioos with the ter studying at Gottiogea, be edited forseveral 
Indians, but died in the midst of his labors, years the ^^'niore^nHrican. In 1B32, he pub. 
and was succeeded by Vaudrenil. He enduv- " Iltustratioos of Phrenology," the Srst Amer. 
ored to unite all the Indian tribes in a perma- treatise on tbe sobject; in tS33, "Life of Rob- 
Dent peace, and to attach them to the French ert Barclay ; " in 1 836, a metrical version of 
Interest. — Chaiitvoiz. Schiller'g "Don Carlos; "in 1840, a fragment 

OalmeSi Obn. Hu^qcis, Bevol. oGScer ; on " Arnold and Andr€," 3 cantos of " Cabi- 

d. Woodford Co., Ky., Feb. 37, 1834, a. 79. ro "a poem, and " Coant Jnlian," a tragedy ; in 

He was a capL in the Revol., and was dialing. lB4iS, a portion of the correspondence of Goethe 

at tbe battle of Monmonth. Made brig.-gen. and Schiller, end, in 1846 and 1B52, Ssericsof 

Ky. Vols., Aug. 31, 1813. Be served ander "Scenes and Thooghtain Eurojw;" in 18S6, 

Harrison, and com. a brigade at the battle of " An latrodoctioo to Social Science ; " " Tbe 

the Thames. Gentlemen," 18&3 ; two additional cantos of 

CalT8rt,BBitEl>iOT,gav.ofMd., 1737-39; " Cabiro " in 1864; a new edition of his 

d. June 1,1732, on hispassof^ to Eng. Ed- " Scones aod Tbougbts in Europe," 1 865 ; and 

WABD Henby, bro. of Benedict, and pin. of " Comedies," Boston, I£mo, 1856 ; " Thoughts 

the council, d. Annapolis, Apr. 34, 1730, a. 38. of Joseph Joubert, with a Biog, Notice." 

His wife was dan. of tbe Earl of Litchfield, Since 1843, he has resided at Newport, R.I., 

and sister of the wife of Edward Touug tbe of which city he was niByor in 1893, and was 

poet. Fbsdbbick, Baron Baltimore, and last the orator at the celebration of the 40tb anni- 

Eroprietor of Md., succeeded Charles, Lord B., versary of the battle of Lake Erie, He has 
I 1751; d. Naplea, Sept. 80, 1771, leaving his tMatiib. to ihe ff. A. IUvUh!, Pulmm's MmUMf, 
property in Md. to his sou Henry Uaiford. and other literary periodicals. — Dui/ch'ndi. 
Hejjub. a " Tonr ia the East." &e., 1767. Oalvert, Lbokuiii, first gov. of Md. ; d. 
Calvert, Sib Gborqb, the first baron of June 9, 1647, a. 41. His bro. Cecil, the pro 
Baltimore. Founder of the province of Mary- prictor, sent him to Amer. as snperinlendent of 
land, b. Kipling, in Yorkshire, in 1583; d. the colony in 1633. After landing with his 
London, Apr. 15, 1632. Ho was descended company of 200 at Point Comfort, Va., Feb. 
from a Flemish family. Grad. at Osford in 24, 1 634, he sailed up Chesapeake Bay, Mar. 3, 
1997. and, after travelling abroad, entered the entered the Potomac a distimco of 12 leagues, 
serriceof Hobcrt Cecil, afterwards Earl of Sails- and anchored at an island which he nam^ St. 
bury. He was knigbted by Juisa I. in 161T, Clomcat's, of which he took Ibrmal posscesion. 
and mnclu clerk of the pnvy council, and, in Having convinced tbe natives that his d»iigns 
1619, one of the sees, of State. ThisjKist he were peaoeful, he look possession of the territwy, 
resigned in 1624 in couseqneoce of havinf; be- giving to the town the name of St Mary's, and 
como a Roman Catholic. Notwithstanding to tbe creek on which it was situated the name 
this, be retained the confidence of tbe king, of St. George. The liberal policy of eccnrity 
who in 1625 raised bim to the Irish peerage of of property aod toleration, upon which its col- 
Baltimore. He bad previously obtained a onuanon was baued, made a Romnn-Caiholic 
grant of land in the Island of Newfoondiand, colony an asylum for those who were driven 
which he named Avalon, where he was pre- from N. E, by tbe persecutions there carried on 
vented from making a settlement by the inva- among Protest&nts. He experienced much 
aions of the French. Still desirous of farming troubb from a settler of Kent Island. Wm. 
a settlement in Amer., whither he might retire Clajborne; who denied his jurisdicdon. and took 
with his family and tViends of tbe same reli- up arms against bini. but who was uldnuitely 
dous principles, he in 1629 visited V»., whose driven out of the province. Cali^cn supcrin- 
nriiliiy and attractions had been bighly laud- tended the affairs of the colony until the civil 
ed. Meeting with an unwelcome reception on war in Eng., when the name of a papist became 
account of his reUgion, he turned his attention so ohnoxious, that the parliament a^iimed the 
to the territory north of (ne Poiouioc, and, on govt, of the province, and app. a new j;ov. At 
bisratnm to Eng,, obtained a grant of it from the resloratioo, Cecil Calvert recoTcred his right 



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CA2X 167 CJLM. 

Cambreling. Cbubcrill C-, merchaDt buhop;(l. Betblebem, Pa., Apr. 3S, 1791. He 

uidH.C., b. Wuhingtoa, N.C-,lTB6;d. West came U> the U.S. in 174B, viaiied the csiabUah- 

Neck, L.L, Apr. 30, 1862. He received aa meatMShomokinoD theSii£qiiehannaiDlT49, 

academica] edncatioii at Newbern, remored in andin 1750 irent to Onondaga to labor anumgat 

180S to N.T. Ciij, wbcre he Bnb«ec|nent]y re- the IroqnoU. Hia was a character of toach 

nded, and.engagiiu; at an early ilaf in mercan- benerolence, and be wm grestl; belored.— 

tile pnnuits with John Jacob Astor, travelled LoAieL 

McieonTely over tbe world. He waa M.C. from Oampbell. Ai^i., D.D., fonnder of the 
N.Y. fhim IB31 to 183B, and cbainoan of the wet called " CampbelliEes," b. Antrim Co., 
com. of commerce of wsys and meaiu, and of Ireland, Jnoe, 17S6; d. Bethany, Va., 4 Hot. 
torma aftin. Of hii nameroni reports and 1866. Ednca[«d at the U. of Glasgow. He 
pidinealpamphleta, that on commerce and navi- came to the U.S. in 160), settled in washing- 
KBiion passed tbTon^Kveral editions, aad was ton, Pa., and preached at Bnuh Ran in 1810. 
rvpoh. Ln London. Wbile travelling in Europe Originally a Presb., bnt in 1813 became a Bop- 
in 1839, he was arai. minister to Bosiia. Hem- tist. With his &ther Thomas Campbell, be 
bcr of the Slate Cwut. Conv. in 1846. — Lour fbnnded several congregations, vrhich uniled 
IB". with the Bapdsts, bat protested against all 

Cameron, Sib Ai^i(,a British gen.; d- creeds; and m 1B27 was excluded ^m fel- 

FnlhoiD. Eng., Mar. B, ISS8- Ho was eon- lowsbip with the Baptist churches- In 18M, 

crmed with Coimollr in 1 TTS in the plan of his folIoweTt numbered 350,000, mostly in the 

arousing and combining the Indian tribea Statee of Va., Ky., and Tenn. In 1844, he 

against the Colonists ; was token prisoner near fbimded Bethany Coll., of which he was inode 

Hogeistown, Md,, and remained fi>r ae«riy 2 pm. A historr of the sect is in the Chrittlan 

fMTS io the common jail at Pbila. In attempt- atatiil and MiSmnial Hariii'iger, edited by him 

ing to escape tVon this confinement. Sir Alan in Bethany (1823-63). Im^ading his "De- 

bu both his ankle* shattered and broken ; bates," he pub. M roll. He was a man of 

and he never perfectly recovered from the pain- strong intellect, fine schotorship, andsreat logi- 

fhl eflbcts of those injories- He was nibee- cal powers, — Ste Memoir, bg BabtrtEidmrdm, 

qocntlj placed upon half-pay as a ftai.oS&aia; i noU., PAiJa., 1868. 

bat in 1793 he raised the 7eth, or Camenm Oampbell, Sm AxoHnaLD of Invenwil, 

Highlanders, at his own expense. With thit aBrltishiiu^.-g«n.;d-Uu'.ai,I79I. App.capt. 

tcgt. as major, and then col. comg., be served in 49d regt. Oct. I7S8; m^j. iW. 1760 ; Ueat- 

tbe Netherlands and in the Wen Indies, and col. 71itin 1775, and was, with • portion of his 

tahaeqnentlyinthepMiintnla, where he disting. corn, made prisoner wUte mtering Boston 

himxlf pMticolariy at TiJarera and Bnsaoo. luuttor, jnst after Qen. Howe had departed. 

Sir Alan was top. nuy.-gen. Jnly 35, 1810: Hade a subject of retaliation for the cmel 

after the peace. fLC.B. ; and, on the 13ttl of treatment of captive American officers, he yet 

Aug. 1619, lieuL-goi. displayed gentleness and bamanity iowarda his 

Cameron, Simok, stoteamao, b. Lancaster foes, while conducting, afterword, active opera- 
Co., Pa., 1799. Left on orphan at 9, he learned tlons in the South, where he proved himself a 
(be trade of a printer; worked at Harrisbnrg brave and skilftil commander. Nov, 27, 1T76, 
aind at Washington, D.C.,emplimng his Idmre he com. on exped. against Savannah, def^ted 
fa ftody. In 1 830, he became eiUtor of a news- Gen, Bobert Howe, and, Dec 29, captured 
paper at Doyleolown, Pa.; in 1823 *ett)ed in that dty. He captured Augnaio, Qa., Jan. 39, 
Horrislnirg, editing • Jonnial advocating Gen. 1779- was made col. Dee. T, 1779 ; M.F. fbr 
Jocluon'i electioa to the Ptesideni;?, and fo SlirUng, ITT4-80 and In ITS9; gov. of Madras, 
1833 was pne. of the Hiddletown bank of Pa. 1789-89, and sov. of Jamaica in 1781-4- 
He became pra. of two rulrood componiee, Campbell, Col. Abibdb, a Western plo- 
and o^j.-gcu. of the Slate. U.S. senator in near, b. Augusta Co., Va., 1743; d. Yellow 
1845-9 and 1857-61. In that body, he voted Creek, Knox Co., Ry., 1S15. At the age of 
fbr Mr. Douglas's proposition to extend the fifteen, he was taken by the Indians, and nude 
Ho. Compromise tine to the Pacific. Alter llie himself master of their language. Escaping in 
repeal of ihe Mo. Compromise in 1854, and 1759, he served as guide in an exped. to the 
(be attempt to foiro slavery apon the people of Upper Lakes, and was rewarded by govt with 
Kansas, heconneciedii{mseIfwithihe''People's 1,000 acres near Loniiville, Ky. In 1789, he 
Partr" in Pa., ami in 1 656 voted fbr Fremont, settled at "The Boyal Oak," on Holsiein 
Mr, Lincoln made him, 4 Mar, 1861, sec of war, Biver; was app. major of mlKtla; was col. of a 
whkh post he filled until Jan. 14, 1869, wtken he regt. mora than 30 yean ; and was engaged in 
resimed, and was app. minister to Russia; but and com. several military expeds,, especinllT 
inretumed to ttte U.S., arriving Nov. 8, that against the Cherokees, in Jan 1781, with 



ceeded Mr. Simmer as chairman of the com. took a decided stand against an established 
on foreign aflUn in Feb, 1871. His brother church. He was for some vear* counr " ' 
Col. JxttM. b. Maytown, Pa., Mar. 1 , 1801 ; of Washincton Co., Va. After 35 veai 



1863. Delegate to the Bait, convention, 1864, whom he made an Important treaty. In tbe 
the Phila. convention of 1 866, and was again a ■pringofl7:6, he was elected to tbe Va. a-isem- 
U.S. senator fbr tbe term ending in 18T3. Sue- bly,and,M a meinberof the State Const. Conv., 



kOled at the battle of Bull Ron, July 21, 1861, dence at Holsteln, he removed to Telfow Creek, 

koding a chotge of the 79th N.T. regt. He Bo m. a sister of Gen. Wm. Campbell, and 

began life aprinier In bis bro.'s office, and edited wa* tbe fntber of Col. John B. 

the PeiiUcai SfMiiuJ, 1837. CompboU, Cbarlbs, biitorinn. b. Peter* 

Gammerhof, Joan FWid'k, a Moravian bnrg, Va., 1S07. N. J. Coll. IBSS, Son of 



_iUO^Ic 



"Tbe Bland Papen," 8*0, 1840; " Hiatarv of Bigblanden ; Mrred througb tbe Scotch rebel- 
VireiniB," 8ro, 1859; " Memoir of John Dalj lion; made the campaign in Flam' — " "" 
Barke," 1868; " Oeoealogy of the SpoUwood opt. 1 On. 1747; Aprils, 1756, h 



FnmilT," i86B. ConCrib. to the Sw/Aen Lil. the 4ad Highluiders ; wu wounded in l£e al- 

Memenger from it« commencement. Editor of tackoa Ticoaderof^a in 1758 ; major of the ITtb 

" The Ordedj Book" of 0«n. Andrew Lewii in Foot, Julj 11, 1759; lieat.-col. in the annj, 

1778, 4to, I8E0id.St«nntoD,Va.JalTll,lSTe. Feb. I, 1763, and com. this regt. in the expeda. 

Campbell, DiTTD, gov. of Va., 1336-9; d. againat Maninico and HaTaoa. Hay 1, 1773, 

Abingdon, Va., March 19, 1859, a. 80. App. he became lieat,.col. of tbe 37th Foot; remmed 

major laihlof., J11I76, 1813; lieat.-col. 30th to Amer. in 1776 iritfa his regl, at the ontsel 

Inf., Mar. 12, 1813; reiigned Jan. 28, 1814. of IbeRerol.; waaapp.maj.-(ten.Feb. 19, 1779; 

OampbelL Dtmcin K., D.D., Baptist col.' of bia rest. Not. S, 1780; and com. tbe 

clergymaa, b. Scotland, ab,I797; d, Covington, BritiRh (brcesin Weit Fla., where, after a ral- 

K;., Aug. II, 186t. Qradnata of a Seottiab lant de^ce, he was oblieed to aarrender Fen- 

nniveraity; soon after oame to the U.S.; ascola to iho Spaniarda, Mb/ 10, 1781 ; lieui,- 

preecheil some yean, and after a paiiorate at gen. Sept. 38, 1 787 ; gen. in the arm;, Jan. 36, 

Georgetown, Kj., was pre«. of Qeorgetown 1797. 

Coll. from 1849 nntil his death. Oampbellf JoHH B., col., b. Ej. ; d. of 

Oampbell, Oeobsb W^bh., stateamut, b. wonnda reed, in the battle of Chippewa, Anr. 

Tenn., 1768; d.NashTitla, Feb. 17,1848. N.J. 28,1814. Nephewof Col. Campbell of King% 

Coll. 1 794. M. C. from 1803 to 1809, during Mountain renown. Waa app. lieot.^ol. 19th 

the loat two yean of which period be was chair- Inf., March 13,1813; com. detachment agaioat 

man of tbe committee of w&ya aud meana; theMiasiasiDewalndiani.Dec. 1813, for which 

U.S. senator, 1811-14 and 1815-18; lec. ofthe he was brer, col.; col. 11th Inf., Apr. 9, 1814; 

treasurj from Feb. 9 to Oct. 6. 1814 ; eDTOr- diiting,, end aererely wounded in battle of 

axtraor. and miniator-plenipo. to Bussia in Chippewa, Jul; i, 1814, where be com. the 

ISIB-Sl; and at one time jndge of the D. S. rlgbtwinK of thearmy under Scott. — Gardofr. 

Diat. CoDFt of Tenn. Aoommiasioner in 1831 Osmpbell, Joan N., D.D. (NX Col). 

to letlle the claims on France. 1835), Fresh. cleroymBn, b. Fhila., March 4, 

Oainpbell,EcaHF.,commodore U.S.N; 17S8; d. Albany, March 37, 1864. He etud- 

d. WnahingtoD, Nor, 11, 1830, App. master- ied ibaology with Ber. Eira Stiles ; was for 

com. July 27, 1799 ; capt. Oct. 16, 1800. a while at toe U. of Pa., and was afterward a 

OampbelL Jacob, aathor of "Folltical tocher of langnagei in Hamp. Sid. Coll. In 

Essaya,' b. R.I. 1760; d. 1788. — AUBxrae. May, 1817, he was licensed to preach by tbe 

Campbell, JAKKa.jnrlet, b. Fhila., 1813. presbytery of Hanover, Va. In 1820, he wa» 

Sob of an Irish emigrant, who gnve his chii- chaplain to Congresa. After preaching in-Fe- 

dren a thorough education. Hi* penevering, terabuig, Newbeni, and elsewhere, he, in 1833, 

energetic, prompt, and inquiring mind soon gave became tbe assist, of Dr. Balcb of Georgetown, 

him a high rank among the proverbially acute D.C. From 1825 to 1831, be was pastor of 

and eloquent member* of the Fbila. bar : and the N.T.^ve. Church in Waahingtoo, D.C. ; 

In 1841-50 be was a jndge of theC. C. F.; and (rom 1831 to his death, be was pastor of 

atty.-gen. of tbe State in IBSO-3 ; U. S. post- the Firat Fresh. Chnrch at Albany. He wag 

masier-gen. in tS53~7. for more than 30 years one of the regents of 

Campbell, Jixse Abokibald, judge the N.Y. D. Be was an eloquent preacher 

U. S. Supreme Conn, 1853-61, b. Washington, and a vigo mas writer. 

Oa., Jnne 34, 1611. U. of Ga. 1836. Hia Campbell, Josh Poaob, H.D^ Presb. 

gnindfatherwaaanaide.d&camptoOeti. Greene, minister of Chill Ico the, O., b. Aug. Co., Ta,, 

Adm, to thebariuMontgometr, Ala,, in 1830, 1767; d, nearChillicothe,4 Nor, 1814. Hamp. 

and practised with anccess. He opposed the Sid. Coll. 1790. Licensed to preach in Hay, 

•eceBaion of Ala. ; did all in hia oower to bring 1793 ; settled in Ky. in 1T95. Hepnb. "Doc- 

the wsr to a cloee In 1864, and in 1866 re- trine of Justification Considered," " Strictnrea 

■nmed practice in N. Orleans. on Slone'a Lettera," 1805; "Vindex,"in an- 

Oampbell) JoKir, bookseller, and post swer to " Stone's Reply," 1806. He left a MS. 

roaster of Boston many veara, and until 171S ; Hist, ofthe Western country. — Spragut. 

Sub.. 34 Apr. 1704, the OMm Ntia Lttter, the Campbell, JosH W., jnriat, b. Augusta 
ratperman.newap.isauedinN. Amer; b.Seot- Co., Va.. 23 Feb. 1782 ; d. Delaware, 0., 34 
land, 165S; d.Boaton, Mar. 1728. Some years SepL 1833. His parents removed to Ky. in 
justice of the peace for Suflfalk Co. — Drain't 1791, and afierward toO. He received acorn. 
Boston, MB, 538. school edncation; was adm. lo tbe bar in 1608; 
Campbell, John, political writer, b. Edin- became pros. atty. Adams and Highland Conn- 
bunch, Mar. 8, 1708; d. Dec.S8, 177S. Agent tiee; member ofthe leglsl.; M.C.1817-37,Bnd 
ofthe British GDrt.forGa.lh>mI7SStobi*d. U.S. dist. judge from 1839 to his d, — 5« 
Aathor of a "Concise Hist, of Span. America," Btofi. Slatch and Lil. Raitaini i^fui widaiB,ivii, 
1741; "Lives of the En g. Admirals," 1744; 1838. 

" New Sngar Islands In the W. Indies," Bvo ; Campbell, Lswia D., Democ. politician, 

" Trade of Great Britain to America," 4to, b. FranHin, O., 9 Aug. 1811. He bad a liBt- 

1773; "Political Surrey of Great Britain," Ited education ; became assc editor of tbe Ciii- 

fe. ci'nnoii GatfUe ; studied and practised law ; wa* 

Campbell, JoHM, a British gen., b. Sirs- H.C. 1849-57, and "I'hI'tiwi of the com. on 



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C.A2T 160 CAR 

•nd tbe pUlosophv of the homan mind in cal ecoDomiat, b. Savennnb, Oa., Jane IT. 

Hutg. CoU. AutW of "LectaiM on Chro- 1786; drowned in James RiTer, Va., Aug. S6, 

nology," "Lecturea on Paatoral Tbeologj," 1850. He received a plain EnKliih edncatioD 

Sto, 1853. in Cbarlexton. S.C. In 1816, tie became edi- 

Oaimon, NeWTOK, soldier and Btaleenuui, tor of the Southern Patriot, a (i««-trsdo orj^n 

b. Guilford Co., N.C., ab. 1781 ; d. NaabTille, in Chitrleston, becoming sole proprietor in 

Tenn., Sept. 29, 1841. Member State \emd. 1323, in which <^ear be was activo in eatabliih- 

lSll-I2,andSlBle Const. ConT.oflB34. Col. lag tbe cbamlier of commerce. He oppoied 

Teaa. Mounted Rifles, Sept. to Dec. 1813, and the uiiff act of 1838, bnt did not adopt «x- 

com. the left in battle of Tallalml(;bie, Nov. 3, tramenallificatlon riewa. Id 184S,he sold the 

1813; was M.C. firom Tenn. from 1814 to 1817 Patriet, and m>od after establihhed the Evening 

and from 1819 to 1823; was app. bj Monroe .T^cm, another deilj, of wbicb he waa commcr- 

one of two commisMoners to treat with the cial odiior. Be was a contrib. to the Soitthtnt 

ChickaMws in 1819 ; and was gov. of Tenn. Quarterla Rtviea, and otber periodicals, and in 

iTom 1S3S tolS39. 1835 pno. "Notes on Polincal Economj, 

Caiinon, WtujAH, go*, of Del., 18M-9, b. Oaraw, Sis Bbhjuiiv HtLi»wBLi., 
Bridgeville,Del.,1809;d.Pbik.,Mar. 1,1865. adm. R.N., b. Boston, 1760; d. Beddinston 
He was sonw tioM m the State t^iil.; was Park, Eng., 3 Sept. 1834. Son of Benj. Hal- 
Stale treasDrer, and number of Uie peace lowell, cosloms commissioner at Boston. . En- 
congress in 1861. lering the nsTj- at an earlj age, be became a 

CailOIlloaa,aNamgtuuettcluef,nadeof Iteat. in Aog. ITSl, capt. 1793, rear-adm, 

Miantonomob, b. sb. IS6S; d. Jnne 4, 1647; 1811, and rice-adm. 1819, K.C.B. 1819, K. 

was tbe firm Mend of Che English, especiallj O.C. 1831. He was with Bodnev in tbe great 

of Etoger Williams. From him, Williams light with DeOrasse ; com, a sbip of the line 

obtain^, Xarch 2i, 1638, the ^axn of land nnder Hotbam in the action off the Hiei«s 

for Mb seitlemeot of the fiitnre State of R.L lalsnda ; was a vol. on board " The Viclorj," 

In 1633, two joors after the Pilgrims landed at in the battle of Cape St. Vincent; and, in com. 

Pl^onlh, Canonicns sent as a cboUenae a of " The Swiflsure," contrib. estenlisllr to the 

bnndle of arrows tied with a snak&«kin. The great victorj of the Nile. He was with Hood 

skin was returned QLled with powder and ball ; at the redaction ot St Lucia and Tobago, and 

bnt the peace was onbroken. In 1633-5, with Nelson in the W. Indies. He succeeded 

tbere was a war between the Peqnots and Nar- to the estates of the Carewa on the death of a 

rogansetts, about the ownership of land Ifing coniin in IS38. — Soims. 

between Faucatuck Rivet and Wecapang Gfiry, Auoe and FatiBi, two sisters, 

Brook. Canonicns, aAer losing bis son, bnmed poets, Alice was b. Mount Healthy, nearCin- 

his own reeidence, and aU bis goods in it. cin., 0„ Apr.se iaaO;d.N.Y. City, 13 Feb. 

Roger Williams c^s him " A wiio and peace- 1871 . Walter, her emignml ancestor, settled 

able prince." During his life, tbe Narragsn- at Bridgewater, Us. Her grandfatber, a 

setts, thoujih engaged in wars with otber Revol. soldier of Ct., settled after the war in 

Indians, rvmaincd at peace with the whitea. Hamilton Co , 0. Robert her &ther, one of 

Many years after his death, however, imder the the Hrtt Mttiersof Cindn., d. II Feb. 1866, a. 

famom King Philip, tfaev made war on tbe 80. Alice fir:! becsma known bj a series of 

Eoglilh, and were exterminated. sketches in the Natioaal Em, signed " Paltv 

Capers, William, D.D. (Aog. Coll., Ey,, Lee." The sisters pub. jointly in 1850 a vol 

1839), bishop M. E. Church, b. St. Thomas's of poems. She pub. a vol. of prose-sketches. 

Parish, S.C. Jan. 36, 1T90; d. Anderson, S.C, " Clovemook," ia 18S1, a second series in 1853. 

Jan. 39, 18SS. S.C, Coll. 1808. He became a and a third in 1854; "Lyra and otber Poems," 

IrBvelling minister fn 1808. In 1821, he was 1853; " Hagsr, a Story of To^lay," 1893; 

■pp. missionary to tbe Indians in Western Oa., " Married, not Mated," 1856 ; a new collection 

and travelled extensively tbroughom tbe State, of poems, 1345; "Pictures of Country Lif^," 

He established a latssion aoiong the Creek In- 1899; "Lyrics and Hymns," 1866; "The 

dians on Flint River In 1822; preached in Bishop's Son," 1867; " Tbe Lover's Diarv," 

Charleston from 1S26 to 1S31, and edited the 1867; and" Snowberries." In I893,theeisier9 

FTu/eyan Joamal, In 1818, be was sent to removed to N.7. City. Pb<bbs, b. Clover' 

Eng. as tbe repicaentalive of his church at nook, Sep. 4, 1824 :likeherdBter,wBsa frequent 

tbe British confcrance. In 1836, be wa« elect- contrib. to periodinals, pub. in 18M a vol. of 

ed prof, of the evidence* of Christianity In ihe poems and parodies, and recently, "Poems 

U. of S.C, and afterwards took charge of tbe of Faith, Heme, and Love." D. 31 Julv, 1871. 

Souihem Chritttan AdmcaU. For seven! years, Oarey, Hb.vbv Cbaslu, political econo- 

he was one pf the gen. miasionarT secretaries, mist, son of Matthew, b. Phila., Dec. 15, 

and in Mny, 1846, was elected bishop of tbe 1793; was brought nji a bookseller, becoming 

southern division, wbicb.at the grai. conference a partner in bis father's firm in 1814, In 1831, 

held et N.T. In 1844, had separaied from tbe he became the leading partner in the Hm "' 



remarkable for arbanlty, el^atice of itvie, the country, and in 1839 withdrew fi 
and the omtorical finish and force of hia polpit ness to employ his capital in Indnstriai e 



northern on the slaver; question. He was Carey & Lea, the lar^t pabtisbiDg-boiise it 
L_i._ t !__,._ .. ., _. ._ .. .T .... t,'\ja\^ ■ 

_ prises. Lung a smdent of political economy, 

OaprOD, Eliiri &., oonnseltor at law, and originally a aeelons partisan of f^ trade, 

author of " Hist, of California, from Its Dis- be eventually became a protectionist. He has 

TOvety to 1854," b. N.Y.. 1806. pub. " Essay on the Itate of Wages." 1B3S i 

Cardoso, lauo N., joamalttt and polid- >' The Principle* of Pulitieal Economy," a 



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June, 1S6S. Anthor of a " History of the with lOO meo end 2S cannon ; he baTingoaN 

Battle of Buena Tiau," N.T., ISIS. £0 men and T cannon. The tiller of thu Tark 

CorletODf OgooOD, a teacher of malhe- wiu dbabled ; and ihe fell off, leaTins 50 men 

mniics nnd narigation ; d. LitchBeld, N.H., in who bad boinled Cannan'i ship. These ha 

June, 1816. A resident ofUa., he pah. Talaable attacked aiicl killed, or forced overboard. Be, 

maps of that Stale und of the district of Me. with oiben of hia men, were woanded ; but fas 

"The Amer Narigalor," 1801; "The Sonih lost only one man. — Savofft't WislA. U., 124, 

Amer. Pilot." 1804; "A Uap of tbe U.S.," *S9- 

1806, and "Practic«of Arithmetic," 1810. Oannioha«l, Wiluam, diplotnatiit, b. 

Garleton, Thokia, Britiih een., bro. of Md. ; d. early in 1795. A man or farlune, of 

Sir Guy : d. Feb. S, 1817 a. 85. App. ensign a dieting, family. Hewas on hiswaj to Amer. 

Wolfe's regt., 17S5 ; capt 17S9 ; brei. maj., in July, 1776, with dei^tcbes from Arthur 

1773; quartennaBt.-gen. lotbearmyin Canada Lee, hot was detained at Farii by sickness, aod 

in Not, 1775; lieot.^wl, 19lh, 1778; col. No». assisted Mr. Deane, our minister, in hia corresp. 

20, 1782; iDlu..gBn. 1793; lient-gen., 1798; and transaction of bniiioeM for more thiin 

gen, 1803. Be had Ken lervice in Germany; a year. Be commtinicated to the king of 

was wounded in tbe naral contest with Arnold Prussia, at Berlin, Intel lieie nee ■ '-~ 

on Lake Champlain in 1776, and was goT. of Amer. eotnmeiTO; assisted Ae com 

N, Brunswick m 1 783, — Pkiliparf. at Paris ; was a delegate to Congress from 

Curlin.Tnoiiia.gOT.of Ill.,183&-43,and Md. in I77S-60; was sec. of legation during 

a pioneer to that Stale in 1813, b. Kj., 1791 ; Mr. Jay's mission to Spain; and when the Ibi- 

d. 4 Feb. 1852. (er left Spain, in Jane, 178S, he remained as 

Carlin, Wiluam P., brev.-raqj.-gen. ciarg€ d'affairtt, and retained that oOlceab. 13 

U.S.A., b. Qreene Co., III., Not. S4, 1839. years. In March, 1792, Wm. Short wasjoined 

West foint. 1850. Entering the 6th Inf, he with him in a commission to negotiate atrealr 

took part m the Sioux exped. in March, 1855, with Spain ; bnt the attempt was un successful. 

under Gen. Uuroey, and, in the sammer of His leclers are in rol. i% of Sparks's " Dipl. 

1857, com, a company in the eiped, of Col. Corresp." 

Sumner against tbe Chsjennes, who were de- CbtiihIuiq, Jaiiei, D.D., LL.D., pres. of 

fenleil at Sulomon's Fork, Ks., Aug. !9, 1857. the Coll. QfNJ. from 1833 to 1854, b. Cnm- 

Early in 1858, be joined the Utah exped. under berland Co., Fa., Not. 15, 1775 ; d. Newark, 

Gen. A. S. Johnston; CBpt. March 3, ISGl ; NJ,, 5Urch 2, 1859, NJ. CoU. 1800. Althe 

Aug, 15, 1861, ho took com. of the 38th 111. time of his death, he was one of the imstees of 

regt., and, Oct. 31, defeated Jeff! Thompson at the Coll., and prcs. of the board of trustees of 

Fradericktown, Mo. He com. the district of Princeton Theot. Sem. D.D. of Ham. Coll. 

South.easl Ho. till March, 1863, then com. a 1831. 

brigade ondor Gen. Steele in the exped. into Gomes. Thomas P., jnrisf.h. Md. I76S; d. 

ArL, and joined Pope's army in I " "' "-"-j— — ■>- "- •» — ~ ■'■'— " ■- - 

in the putsuitofBoaniegard from _ _. , 

diatiog. himself in the battleofPorryiiilcKy., he became e „.... _.., 

OcL 8, 1863, and at Snob Gap, near Nolens- Ken., and judge of the Supreue Court. M,C. 

ville, where he defeated Wharton's rebel cav- 1793-5. 

airy. His brigade bore a prominent part in tbe GEkmooIiail, John Mcrsat, suigeon, b. 

battle of Sione River, Dec 31, 1863, as is Savannab,1817, HisfatherwaasnativeorScot- 

shown by its losses in that memomble conflict, land, and bis mother was descended from Gen. 

He was made brig,-gen. 39 Nor. 1862 ; was in Pumam. After graduating in the high school 

the Tullshoma campaign, battles of Chicka- and U. of Edinburgh, he returned to the U.S., 

manga, Lookout MonntaiD. and Mission, Ridge, and studied in the office of Dr, Valentine Moct 

Rin^old, Buzzard's Koost, Reaacca, Keneaavr of N.T. After taking his degree, he again 

Mountain, siege and capture of Atlanta ; com. visited Europe, and po^ed several years in at- 

Isl div, Uth corps in Slierman's march to the tendance upon the clinical lectures of Paris, 

sea ; brev, col, for ihebattleof Jonesboro', Qa,, London, and Edinburgh. In 1847, he beicao 

Sept. 1 , 1 864 ; brev. hrig.-gen. 13 Mar. 1865, practice in N.T,, where bis skilful and original 

for Bentonville, and brev. maj. -sen, for caltant operations gained him disdnction, la 1351. 

and merit, services in the field during tne Re- he was app. sur^eon-in -chief of tbe N.T. State 

belllion. Maj. 16th Inf, 6 Feb, 1864; trousfei^ Immigrant Hospital. In 1852, he performed the 

red to 34th Inf, 31 Sept, 1866, — CuUam. operation of amputating the entire lower jaw, 

Carlisle) Fbbdb&ice Howakd, 3lh earl In 1854, beeiseclod the entire ulna,eflvinglhe 

of, one of the 3 commissioners sent to Amer, arm, with tta functions unimpaired, and subse- 

in 1778 to treat with the revolted colonists, b. quenlly, in anoilior case, successfullv removed 

May, 1748; d. Sept. 4, 1835. In thehoaseof the entire radius. In 1856, he performed the 

peers, he first distiag. himself by his recom- startling operation of exsacliag, for neuralgia, 

mendaiion of conciliatory measDres toward the the entire trunk of the 2d branch of the 5th 

American Colonies. Lord lieat, of Ireland, pair of nerves. Amputation at the hip-joint he 

1780-3. Uncle and goardian of Lord Byron, has freqaeutty performed. In 1851-63, he was 

and himself a poet of some merit. prof, of^ surgery in the N.Y, Med. Coll. Ha 

Carman, Capt., a brave seaman ; lost at has pub, htslectures on partial amputations of 

■ea on the coast of Spain in Dec, 1645, In the foot, iitbotomy and lithothrity, and also a 

Dec. 1643, bo sailed from New Haven fbr the " Treatise on Congenital Dislocations," 1850; 

Canaries, and, near the Island of Palma, was "Contributions to Operative Surgery," and 

Mtacked by a Turkish pirate-ship of 300 tons, has translated Sedillol's " Ttestise on Operative 



_iuot^le 



5 



Htdirin«," and Karl RokiWaiky'i " Fachologi- wu made col. 3(1 111. vol. nralij, and Ibaghl 

cal Aoklom;." ander Ljon «i Wilaon'e Creek. At Pes Ridge, 

C&rpontOT, Bbhjikin, b. Rehoboth, Vtii', he com. a division, and waa aeTenly iroandeJ. 

d. Gndford, Vt, Mar. 39, 1BS3. Be vu a For hia gallanlrj, hewu madebrig.-gen. Tola., 

faander of Gniirord in 1770, a fieid-offlcer of dating from Mar. T, and assigned a command 

the Rerol., member of (he fint Coail. Conv. UDdsr Gen. Curua, in Ark.j Jblj 17, 1663, 

,.,... _.!. ._J ,.. .. __.. _., .... ....... „. . ..... Jiii^^ 

i Big 
fg.l!" 
Rocli 

... _ _ . . . Ark., Sepl. 10, for which he waa brer. brig. 

Besidaa ponraita of seTeraJ ex-preaidenu and gen. U.S.A., 13 Mar, 1B6S ; and com, the Sd 

goremon, he has produced "Tha Emancipa- div. of A. J. Smith'e corps, and led the ataaull 

tioa Proclamation,' the likenerae* in whiuh are on Spanish Port, the key of the defences of 

excellent. Hia book, " Six Months In the Mobile, which was captured Apr. 3, 1G6S. 

While House," contains valuable personal me- For this exploit, he was made brev. maj.-gen. 

moir* of Abraham Lincoln. — TwiamiA. 13 Mar. 1865. 

Carpenter, Gkobob W., merchant and Cbtt, JoespH B., brig,-gen, toIj., b. Atba- 
•rieniisc, b. OermaniowD, Pa., Jnlj 31, 1809 ; nji, N.Y., ab. 1SS4. Apprenticed to a tobacco. 
d. there June T, IMO. He wia a highly-sno- niat at Troj. he entered the vol. militia, ruse 
ccwful merchant ; was crea^nrer of the Acad, to be col., and, in Apr, 1861, became lient.^ol. 
of Nat. Science* From 1833; had a choice Ed N.Y. Vols. Col. in Maj, 1B6I, he waa or- 
colleciian of mineral); ranked high as a geolo- dered to Newport News. Doring the cam- 
gist, and waa a member of manj European paign of the ChickahomiD;, he was attached 
eciendfk societies. Author of " Essaya on to Oen, Hooker's command, and made brig,- 
Hateria Hedica," and "Medical Cheat Dis- gen, Sept. 7, 1863, He mm. the 4th div. Han- 
paosatoTf," and waa a contrib, to the Josnal cock'a corps in the Ya. campaign of 18G4, sad 
^Mediail Sdatee. waa in the bettlea of the Wildemeaa. 

Carpenter, Btbpubk Cdllbn, aaihor. b. Carr, Sik Robbbt, Britiah comnNssioTter 

Eog. ; d. 1830. Reporter of Hastings's trio!, in N, E. ; d. Urisiat, Eog., June 1, 1667, He 

Camelo Amer. tit 1B03. Li 1805, he com- waaof Ithall.NorthnmberlandCo. Hewasapp. 

neQMd io Charleston, B.C., with Brialed, the commia, bv Charlea II. in 1B64, in conjnnc- 

Montidji RtgitleT, Magaant, and Revitw of Iht tion with Kicotis, Cartwright, and Maverick. 

U.S. In 1809, he pnb. at N.Y. S vol* of Aug. 27, 16M,Nicollsand Carr captured New 

" Hemc^ra of JeSeraon." a decidedlj anti-Jef- Amsterdsm (Vom the Dutch, and called it New 

lersoniaik work. In ISIO and 11, he edited at York in honor of the duke, afterwards Jamet 

V)A\^.iba Mirror of TaMt, and Dramatic Cen- U, Carr forced the Swedea and Dutch on 

■or, and in 1815 pub, at Phila. 3 vols, of " Se- the Delaware, intoa capilnlation.Oct. 1, 1664; 

lect Amer. Speeches, with Prehlor? Re- retamed to Boston iu Feb. 1665, and. io coD- 

mark*," beinga sequel to Or, Chapmsa'a "Se- janclion with hia ca-a>^ators, assumed the 

lect Speeches," Ha also wrote "D, Campbell's principal powers of govt. 
Onrland Jonmefto India," N.Y., 1809-10. — Canrell, Gxobob Alotsidb, D.D., B, C. 

D^fdaadt. Bishop of Kv., b, Phila., June 13, 1803 ; d. 

CarT,DABiiBT,amembeTof tbeVa. bouse Covington, K;., Sept. 35, 1868. Completing 

of biirgeasesi d. Charlottesville, Va., Haj 16, his Ibeol. atndiea at Mount St, Mar; s, F,m- 



(Otueoneii 

waa adopt 



became in 1S3T prof in the U. of St. Louii, 

:r of and pastor of the colt, church of St. Xavier ; 

Jtferaoii, bv whom ha ii described as a man waa rector of the U. in iS45-8 ; prea. of Uie 

of sound judgment and inflexible pnrpoee, and Purcell Mansion Coll. and St. Xavier Church, 

of a powerful eloQuence. Dibnbt his son, b. Cincinnati, in 1&49-53; and Nov. 1, 1853, 

Apr. 1773, d. Richmond, Va., Jan. 8, 1837. was consecrated Bishop of Covington. 
Commenced topiacrise law at Albemarle; was CaiTera (kilr-ra'-ri) Joafe HlocsL, Jd.ir 

chancellor of Wineheater disL from 1811 to Josfe, and Lonia, three bros., diatinj;. in the 

1834, and judge of the Court of Appeala IVom revolutiona of Chili. The first of these, b. St 

1814 to 1837. Jafco, Chili, was a msj. of grenadiers at the 

Carr, Dabhx* S., of Baltimore, several beginning of the troubles, and defeated the 

vean naval officer of that port, and U. S. min- Spaniards on manj occosiona. After the bros. 

taier to Turkey in 1843-9 ; d. Cbartotleaville, had been some time at the head of the revol. 

Va., Mar. 34, 1854, a. 51. po»t., they were taken prisonert bj the Span- 

Carr, Ecoiaa A., brev. maj.-gen. U.S.A., lards in 1813, and confined at Tatoa, bnt soon 

b. Erie Co., N.Y,, Mar, 30, 1830, WcstPoint, regained their liberty, and also their power, 

1850. Entering the mounted rifles, he was for which had been assumed bj O'Higgina during 

■evcnl jears engaged in Indian warfare in Ibeir confinement The defeat at Raucai^un, 

New Mexico, Texas, and the WeiL In a akir- ia Oct. 1814, compelled the Carreras to quit 

mish near Diablo Mountain, 10 Oct. 1854, he thecountiy, Juao and Luis were again taken 

■ sererelj wounded, and for his gallantrj atMendoia, and.at the instigation or Gen. San 

~ promoted to 1st lient. 1st cavalrj. In Martin, were executed Apr. 8, 1818. Don 

^le waa in the Utah exped. ; 11 Jane, 1858, Jos^was also captured after a brave n 

. — A^ — . 1.. —'■., and itt 1861, ba and, after a partial trial, executed SepL 1,1 



Se, be w. 



iv\^ioo«^le 



CA^ 164 OAA 

Oarrera, MiBtisaz, ex^prw. of Mexico; had emiBTated to Va. bj iraj of Bu-badoes, and 

d. II Apr. 1871. irereboth fn(;agediiilheeiped. of Cul. Bvrd, in 

CoxreTA, RirABL mler of QaaUnuilB, b, 1736, to fix the bound 1117-line between Va. uid 
GaslcinalKCitT, 1814, of mixed Indian uid N.C. He atadiedlawin the office of Col . Clem- 
negro blood ; d. Apr. U, 1B6S. la 1899, wmn eni Read, clerk of the Co. of Lnneahnrg, ab. 
Morazan wal fte»., Carrera became a drummer- 1748 ; m. bis dan. ; coiaiDenced practice at 21, 
boy. In 1837. he placed hiouctf at (behead and loonroceio emineace. From 1 ~GS to 1 775, 
of a band of in*Drsent monntaineen, and in he waaa member of the house of bargeuea, and 
Feb. 1838, occupied the cit; of Guatemala, voted against the Stamp-act Tesolutiona of Pat- 
with S.OOO ladians, nhom he rCEtrained FToili rick Ueor;. He iras a member of Tariuus con- 
thejr anticipated pillage and maaiiacre ; bat, an ventionsia 1775-4, and of thecommitteevhicb 
ac(s>mmodaiion haTini; taken place, Carrera reportnl the Declarelion of Rigbta and tbe 
WH» ttcnt in an official capacity to Mela, a State Conitilatioo. He tben took hia seat in 
neighboring district. Apr. 13, 1839, he again the house of delegates, from which he passed 
entered tbe capital, and in 1840 he completed to the bench of the General Court in Ha;, 
thetriumphof thedisunioBisraand Statc-rigbta 17T9, end to the Court of Appeals in 1789, in 
partj by the defeat of Oen. Momzan. Ruling which last he remained until 1811. Member 
nrtt as gen-ia.chicf, he was elocled. Mar. 91, of the committee of safety during the whole of 
I&47, pres., and Oct. 19, I8&1, pres. for life, its existence, and, in tbe Vs. conicntiOQ, roled 
Id Feb. ISSl, with 1,500 men, he defeated the for the adoption of the Constitution, and was 
combined forces of San Salvador and Hondu- a member of the committee to report amead- 



ras. When first elected pres,, he did not know menls. Three of hissona were in the army, — 

how to read and write, but afterward, in some Gaoaos ; PaCL, who was at the battle of Gnil- 

measure, repiured the deHeienciea of his educa- ford, a Braduaie of Win, and Mary Coll., mem^ 

lion. His govt, was absolme. — J/en 0/ the ber of the H. of dde^tcs at 29, af^rward in 

Time. the Va. senate, and judge of the Superior 

Carrier, Thomas, of remarkable longevity. Court, d, Jan. 8, 1B16, a. 59 ; and Col. ClbH' 

b, in the west of Eng. ; d. Coltbester, Ct.,May ekt, who was serercly wounded at Eutaw. — 

16, 1735, a. 109. He Bottled in Andover, Ms,, Griq^. 

and in 1664 m. Martha Allen, who, Aog. 19, Carroll, Cbables, last aurriving signer 

1699, jell a victim to the witchcraft deluaion at of the Declaratioa o! Independence, b, Annap- 

Salem. He pas.->ed the last 90 yean of his life olis, Sept. 20. IT37; d. Baltimore, Nov. 14, 

al Colchester, and, shonly bi^fore his death, ISSS. Descended from awealthy Irish Catholic 

walked G miles to see a sick man, and visited family, who came to Md. during the reign of 

his neighbora the very da; before be died. William and Mary. He was educated at St. 

Notnilhstanding his ^e, his head was not Omer'a, and al a Jeauil coll. at Rheima, and 

hald, nor hia hair gray. studied law in France, and at the Temple, Lon- 

Carrisain, Puilip, lawyer, b. Concord, don. Returning home in 1754, hosoon became 

N.H., FcF. 20, 1779 ; d. there Mar. 16, 1849. noted as an able political writer, and advocate 

Danm. Coll. 1794. His father Philip, b. forliberiy. He inherited a vast estate, and was 

N.Y., 1746, d. Concord, Aug. 1806, waa a Considered the richest man in the Colonies. In 

physician and surgeon of eminence in C. The 1775, he waa a member of die first committee 

aon practised law successively at Concord, Ep- orobservalion established at Annapolis, and a 

80ra, Chichester, and again at Concord; waa delegate 10 the prov. convention. InFeb.1776, 

aec. of Stale of N. H. 4 yeara, and also clerk be was app. a commissioner with Franklin and 

of ihc senate. He aarveyed a great part of Chase, aecomp. by Rev. John Carroll, to visit 

N.H., of which he pub, an excellent map in Cnnnila, and induce tbe Canadians to unite 

1816. with the Colonies. A journal of this mission, 

CarrmKtOIl) Edward, 1ieui..col. Revol. with a memoir by B. Mayer, was pub. 1845. 

army, b. Va., Feb. II, 1749: d. Richmond, Returning in June, he labored aasiduooslj in 

Va., Oct. 98, 1810. Commissioned lieut.-col. the convpniion to authorize tbe Md. delegates 

of Harrir'on's art. rcgt., Nov. 30, 1776. De- in Congress 10 join in a deel. of indep., which 

lached with a portion of this regt. to ihe South, was done June 98. He was a delegate to Con. 

be waa made prisoner at Cbarlcaton, Carring- gress from July 4, 1776, until 1778, and an effi- 

lon was afterward employed by Gales and by cieot member of the board of war. In the lat- 

Grecne. who made him hia qaarlcrmnster.gen. tcr part of 1776, he waa one of Ihe committee 

Aided by capt. Smith of the Md. line, bo ex- to draft Ihe cnnatitntion of Md.; and in Dec. 

plored the River Dan, and made every prepa- 1776, also in 1781,1786, and 1797, was elected 

ration for Greene to cross it with his army ; to the State senate. Ho was a U. S. senalor 

then joined him near [he Yadkin, and was an in 1789-91 ; and in IT99-1801 was « commi:>- 

active and efficient officer in the roeraomhle re- sinner to settle the bonndary-line between Va. 

treat 10 the Dan. He com. tbe artillery, and Md. July 4, 1898, when he had passed the 

and did good service at tbe buttle of Hobkirk'a patriarchal age of 90, attended by one of tbe 

Hill, Apr. 94, 1781, and also at Vorklown, must imposing civic processions ever seen in 

M. C. in 1785-6, and was foreman of ihc jury the U. S., he laid tbe corner-stone of the Bol- 

in Burr's trial for treason. timore and Ohio Railroad. In natural saga- 

CarringtOIl, Col. Paui., stateaman of the city, in refinement of loate, and in anaSbcied 

Rcvol., bro. of Col. Edward, b. Va., Feb. 34, and habitual courtesy, he hod few equals. His 

1733; d. at his seat, Charlotte Co., Va., June grand-dangbter, Miaa Calon, afterward Mat* 

22,1818. Wra. and Mary Coll. OfEnglishde- chioneas of Wcllesley, d. Hami ton Court Pai- 

«cent, his materDal grandfather and his &ther ace, Dec 17, 1853. 



OAR 165 CAM 

OBrroU|DutEi.,goa>mofClurl««,b.Md.i hardware biuinMs in Pimburz, *heDce, in 

i, WuhiDgun, D. C, 1849, It a great as:s. 1810, he went to Nuhrille. TaU, well-fbrmeil, 

Delegate to the Old Congress, 17S0-1. He and fond of military life, he attracted the at- 

wai ■ deleg&te from Md. to lbs conrontlon lentlon of Jachaoa, bj whom he was made 

which fraiaed iho U. 8. Coostilntion ; M. C. capt. and brigade-insp. in bis diTisioii, Feb. 21), 

it) nS9-91,and was in the latter year app. IBIS; col and insp. -gen. Sept 1813, to May, 

commissioner for sarveyiDg the DisL of Co- 181-1. In IStS. be fongbt ■ dael with Jesse, 

lambia. His farm formed the site of the prei- broiherof Col. Tboa. H. Benton. Disting. him' 

CDt city of Washington. aeiratEuotochopcoi was wounded in the battle 

Carroll. Dahibl Lvnn, D.D., Presb. cler- of ibe Horse-shoe Bend of Tallapoosa River. 

eviaaa, b. Fayette Co., Pa., 10 May, 1797; d. Mar. 37, 1813; mBJ..gGn. of Tenn. miHiia,No« 

Philo., Not. 33, lasi. Jeff. Coll. IS23. Li- IS, 1814, to May 13, 1815; disting. inthede- 

ccDscd to preach, G Oct. 1826. D.D. uf the U, fence of New Orleans, and especially in the 

of N. Y. Be iDcceeded Dr. Bcccher as the battle of Jan. B, ISIS. OoT. of "fenn. in 

minister of Litchtleld (1827-3} ; was in 1829- 1821-7 and 183»-3^ 

3S, pastor in Brooklyn; in 183S-8, pre*, of CarmttlOTSi WilliiOI A., novelist, b. 

Haicp.Sid. CoU.iin 1838-14, pastor in I'hila.; Va., ah. 180U; d. ab. 1850. He was a student 

and afterward sec. of cbe N. Y. Colonization of Wash. Coll. in 1818; and in the Knick/r- 

Society. He pub. 9 vols, of serniona, 1846-7, bocter Mag. for July, 1838, gives an aeeouniol 

aomeaddiesses, sermons, and tracts-'-^/irajiv. a hoxardous ascent of the Natnral Bridge, Va. 

Carroll, Jobm, D.D., LL.D., cousin of He pub. several works in K.Y., ab. 1834, and 

Charles, R. C. bishM of the U. S., b. Upper removed to Savannah, Ga., where he practised 

Marlborough, Md., Jan. 8, 1T35; d. Bait., Dec. medicine, and wrote for the J/ojTnofia, and other 

3, IBIS. Edncated at St. Omer's, Liege, and Southern macaunea. He pub." The Caraliers 

Bruges ; ord. a priest in 1 769, and became a of Virginia. " The Kentuckians in New York. 

Jesuit ihortlj after. In 1770, he accomp. Lord or the Advenrares of Three Son themers," 

Stourton on a lour through Europe as private " The Knights of the Horse Shoe," Wetump- 

tnior.andin 1773, on his return to Bruges, ac- kn, Ala., 1845, and "Life of Dr. Caldwell." — 

cepted a profbssorship in the coll. After a brief Daackindc. 

residence in Eng., he returned to Md. in 1775, C&rson, Chbistopheb, popularly known 

and entered upon the dudes of a parish priest, as "Kit Carson," mounlaineer, trapper, and 

Apr. 2, 1776, by deeireof Congress, he accomp. guide, b. Madison Co., Ky., Dec. 34. 1809; d. 

Dr. FranUin, Charles Cirroll, and Samuel Fort Lyon, Col. Terr., May 33, I86B. While 

Chase, on a mission to Canada. In 1 7B6, at yet an infani, his family emigrated to Howard 

the instance of Dr. Franklin, Mr. Carroll was Co., Mo. He became a skilful hunter. The 

app. vicar-gen., aod fixed his abode in Balti- early years of his lire were passed asatrappcr ; 

more. In 1789, he was named lirsl R. C- bishop and be was (or S years burner to Bent's fort, 

of the D. S., and went lo Eng. in the summer Fremont engaged him as gaide in his enplora- 

of 1790, where he was consecrated, Aug. 15. tioiis. In 1847, Carson was sent to Wasbtng- 

In thesame year, he returned toBaitimore, and, ton, bearer of despatches, and received an app. 

as (he seat of his epiKopat see was established as lient. U.S. Rides. In 1853, he drove 6,S<X) 

in that city, assumed the title of Bishop of Bal- sheep to Cal., a difficalt undertaking, and, on 

limoie. In 1791, he founded St. Mary's Coll., his return to Taos, was app. Indian agent in 

and, in 1804, obtuned a charter for ^aldmore New Mexico. He was subsequently largely 

Coll. Devoid of intolerance, he lived in friend- instrumental in bringing about treaties between 

't commnnion with persons of other sects. A the U.S. and the Indians. During the late war. 

:w yean befoi« bis d., he was raised to the he rendered great service to the Union, in Mew 

.rcbiepiKopa». Mexico, Colorado, and the Indian Terrilorj. 

CarTOll, SuinEL SPBiao, brev. Tnflj.-gen. and was a brev. brig.. gen. At its close, he re- 

V. S. A., b. Washington, D.C. West Point, sumed his duties as Indian agent. In 1S6S, he 

1856. Entering the lOlh Inf., he became capt. visiled Washington with a deputation of the 

1 Nov. 1861 ; col. Slh Ohio Vols., 15 Dec. Red men, and miide a tour of several of the 

I86I; hrig.«en. vols., ISMay, IB64; IJent.-col. Northern and Eastern States. Unlike many of 

Slsi U. S. Inf., 33 Jan. 1867. Be served in hisprofe«sion,hewasamanoftemarkablemod- 

West Va., Dec. isei, to May, 1B62; com. a esty, and was an excellent judge of the Indian 

brigade in Shields's division. Mav-Aug. 1863 ; character. — Sat Ufe by BurdeU (Phila., 1869). 

cngagedatPortRepublicand Cedar Mountain; Carter, Jaurs Gosdon, educationiat. b. 

was wounded at the Rapidan, 14 Aug. 1863; Leominster, Ms., Sept. 7, 1795; d. Chicago, 

com. brit-aile 3d corps at Fredericksburg; brev. July 23, 1849. II. U. 1820. He taught school 

maj. 3 May, 1B63, lor Chancellors ville, and at Leominster until IB30. In 1823, hecontrib. 

l>eut--coL 3 July, 1863, for Gettysburg; com. to the Botlon Pntriot a series of papers subse- 

brigade 2d corpa, and brov. col. 5 May, 1864, qnondy pub. with the title of" Carter's Essays 

for baiile of the Wilderness; wonnded, and on Popular Education." In 1833, his "Letters 

brev. brig.-^n., 13 Mar. 1865, for bnttle of to the Hon. William Frescott, on the Free 

SpoltiylvaniB(9-l3 May, 1864); and brev.mnj.- Schools of N.E., with Remarks on the Princi- 

gcn. vols., and also of U. 8. A., 13 Mar. I86S, pies of Instruction" first developed the idea 

for gallant and merit services doting the Re- of a normal school, or seminary for teachers, 

bdiion. — CuJ/um. In 1834, he edited the U.S. Rtmea, at Boston. 

CarroUi Okn. William, soldier and In 1830, he assisted in organizing the Amer. 

statesman, b. Pittsburg, 1788; d. Nashville, Inshtnte of Instruction, of which he was long 

Tenn., Mai. 33, 1M4. Ha was engaged in the an active member and officer. Hia lectnref bfr 



t 



t.Google 



^ 



■~ — j^-t-- b- Si. Malo, Dec. 31, MM ; d. th 

J ■;.• Ths importance of having a ■xiUin'' 

^ . - -3.- :h« fisheries of Nenfoandland itdaceil 

. - .. y-anvu I., after gomo Qusuccesarulatccmpts. CO 

^ . ig tiv: out earlier in 1534. He sailed rmm St. 

J >ii.o. Apr. 30, wilb2sh<pgorS0coQii,and 123 

Dtfo. Maj 10, he aaw Bona Vigw, on the la- 

t p- jjd of NewfoDndland ; but. compelled bj the 

v; nv to alcer lo the louth, he entered a harbor ac 

.. _ - f. thi' diilance of 5 leajjues, to which he (jbtc the 

^ -i .:- nioie of St, CBtharine. Entering the Slrai[i 

^ ; . iM" Belle Isle, he viaiied the greater part of the 

.. . I -.; n cuaat of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and took 

■ u -. " oj possession of the country in the name of the 

. » ,... la ting. A bay wliich ho discovered, was, on ac- 

. , -I Cm count of the aoltrj' weather enperieni^d in it, 

V ^a-n, named bv him de Chultur; and he explored the 

^ . ■ ',1 1 ISii great river afterwards called the St. Lawrence, 

., 1 V kj- i,>f returning home in Sept. A sctltement having 

. ii'i 'r. cub. been determined upon, he received a more 

^ .IV. siT Ha ample commission, wea aesigned 3 veBscis, and 

^, ■ ., - ■ n'liih'.i] sailed May 19, 1535. Ascending the Si. Law- 

■ --..■iv lor his rence, hcdiscovircd an island, which he named 

•i viiti.: his Bacchus, but which is noo called Orleans, in 

., .1,: i\l "The the vicinity of Quebec, and continued his 

.^ . , t; S.-a " Hia voyage aa far as llochelaj^, an Indian aettle- 

. ■ '.'V ["tuns of mem upon an island which he called Montt 

,,,, .; IVu-im. Coll. ffijja/, now Montreal. He set sail for France 

. 'I .^iiuat " \t pre- in the following May, taking with him 10 of 

,. , v..,ii»ini IWlry." the natives, and arrived in July. In May, 

.....trix. brig.-gen. ISIO, as pilot, with the command of 5 ships 

. . k"-! -ft Co., Tonn., nnder Roberval, commissioned lieul..gov. of 

. .. , <.. t.'d ttl NJ.Colt., Canada, be sailed on his third extiedition, and 

S.S..I. '<i -Miitinian in the built a fort which he called Charlesbourg. near 

V v<.<. ^o was assist, in- the present site of Qneboc. On his way to 

* . , (. .'V,' luivnl tcad. In Franco, in the sprine of IMS, he stopptKl al 

, . •Mv, present at the St. John's, Newfoundland, where he met Ro- 

. ., -.i.iiii; on hoard "The berval, who did not accompany hJm in hisvoy- 

,,.vl in ibo capture of the occ, by whom he was ordered lo retom to 

\ ..^'ll, i'hiiia, in 1656, and Canada; but choosing, rather, lo pursue bis 

.. >'- .i<iil'ii>tr,v on that occa- voyai^e to France, he sailed out of the harbor 

,...<■! .v>'" I'' '''^ Annapolis privately in the nigbt. After his rotam from 

iii.trmlor of seaman- hissecond voyage, hepub. (1545) "Memoiraof 

'ii ' • >, is<il, he was tempont- Canada." Thejoornals of the two first jour- 

,. '1, w jr drpt., for the silecial nejs of Cartier are contained in ibe 3Sd vol. 

' '. ■.< i..H>|i. !Vi>m East Tenn. of Ramusio's Italian Collection{Venice, 1565), 

,'. :il IViiii. Viils. ; was acting also in Lescarbol's " Ilisloire de la Nuavdit 

\. ■ki' W >'f Mill Siirinc and was Friince; " a description of his 3d journey is in 

, Mil I Irui-i. In Dor. 1663, the .3d vol. of Hakluyt's "Principal Naviga- 

■ ■. . . . .Ni'isl. whichcut Ihe E.Tenn. torn," &c.. 1600. 

, ..k'tiii.; iit'nrly HK) miles of the CartWTight, CoL. GsoROB, was one of 

, , ..iili.inii- other dnmairt. He the commissionorB to N.E. with Nicolls, Carr, 

>■ lU' miiiitro of Knojtvillc, and and Maverick, in 1664. When, on their arri- 

<, li ">'. 'II 'h" liiltof 1B63. He com. val at Boston,, the commissioners informed 

,, I,. II Si'h»lliild In the N.C.cam- the General Court that ihcyshonld nextday sit 

^) ,, IH|I^ and hear a cause against the gov. and company, 

.y Sin. 1 1 anno n Etibnnb, Canadi- the court pub. "by sound of trumpet" its disnp- 

'!*, I'itiid ■iiiti'sman. duscended from probation of this proceeding, and prohibited 

t>, St Alili'lne, L.C., 6 SepL ISU; all persons from atetting it. The commission - 

\Ut HO, l»T3- '» I^^- ^^ began ers, finding Chat they had to deal with men of 

III MiiiitMHil : member of the Cnniidi. this stamp, soon departed in displcB-<orc. 

■ • IHIH-fll ; proT. Btc. Jan. -May. Cartwright, on his voyage to Eng. Jn 1665. 

I. Miiy 94, 1SA6 ; leader of the was taken by the Dutch, and barely escaped 

an roniii'rvative party; prime- with his life, 

IH.^H Miiy.lR63; atly.-gen. for CartWTight, Capt. GEOiioK.anthor of "A 

Miir, IK64; deloRala lo Eng, Journal of Transacliuns and Events during a 

■ iif I'linfi'deralionand thcinler- Residence of nearly 16 Yean in Labrador," 

.V In INiiA, and a<;iiin in IB6e. 3 vols., 1792, Newark ; b. Mamham, 17^9; d. 

iir l<ri<lativo nnd judicial re- 1819. In the7-vears' war, heservedin Germa- 

rinlliiiii I)um, GovL 1867-73. ny, and attained the rank of capt. 

Ill ii'i'ii'), JAcgDKS, > French Cartwright, Muor John, political ro 



iv\^ioo«^le 



CAS 167 CAS 

formar, b. Eag., Sept. 9B, ITMj d. Loadon, H« obuined ■ patent ia Ifll9, emharked la 

S«pi. 33, IBM. Us had bceo in offlMr in tbe " The Ma^flOHer," and, alux a dani.'eroDB to;- 

BnUth any. Id ITTI, Hb attracied Dolice bj a^a, luded at Ptvinoiiih, Dec 21, 1620. Pi^ 

ailvucating tbfl fruedom of lb« Colonies, and, in tiou to thoir landing, on Kot. 21, thecolonuu 

Iii5, pab. a tnel, enlitled "Amarlcan Inde- agreed a poa and subKribed a viriiKQ ineim- 

pvndeuce the Glory and Intemt of Great Bri- ment, bj vhich they formed ihooisulves into a 

uio." Thi« pabJication canted a ruplura b»- bod/ politic for their belter order and pretei^ 

tween him and his friend, Lord Howe, HhOHO valioa ; and Carver was unanimously elected 

odo-or a com. oodcr him, apunst the Ameri- g<iy. Ho managed the affuira of the infant 

ami, he had rejected. It atlTOcated a union colony with prudeoiA!; wasaman of erealptety, 

bisiwuea the Colonies and Lbs mother-coontry iui^rity. and firmness of mind; and exiubilod 

under Mparate legtslaiarea. and pluced the great address in bis intercuurae with the Indi' 

(question on the tbnndalion of natural, inherent ans. but died soon after landing, 

nght. April 2, ITTT, he preseuied lo the king GorveriJONiTHAJt, traveller, b. Stillwater, 

~ii addnsa, recommending p£ac« with Amer., N.Y., 1732; d. London, Jan. 31, 1780. In tbe 



and proposing the union he hod before *ug- Franch war, becom. with reputation acompany 

riod in his letters on Amer. indupendcnue. of prorincialaia theezped. against Canada. In 
1780. he joined with Dr. Jebband Granville I7S3, he undertook to explore the rasl territory 



Sharpo in fomiing the " Society for Cousiito- gaiueil by Great Britain in N. Amer. He at- 

lionaj Information." His teflumenti in hvor oordiuKly left Boston ia 1T66, and banna 

of liberty subjected bim to trial, and the pay- reached Mich ill mad nac, the remotest EiiglisG 

mcnl of a fine, June 1, 1S21. He pub. scTeral post, applied to Mr. Kogers, the gov., for an 

uulilieal tracts, and, in his "Leuen on the assortment of goods,as presents furthe Indians 

blare Trade." favored the makiog that traffic inhabiling the tnck he inteodcd to pursue. 

iiirvcy. Hii Lile and Corrosp., by hit siece. Having received a part of the rEquired supply, 

Franre* L). Cartairigbt, contains a map of bis with a promise that the remainder sliould be 

diiH:arerie3 and explorations in Newfoundland, scat after bim at the Falls of St. Anihonj, he 

remark* on the aborigines, conesp. with Thos. continued bis jonrney ; but, the remainder of 

Jclferaon. Ac the goods not reaching him, he was under tbe 

CWT^al (ka^*i-hU'), Fkanoii di, a necessiiv of retaming to Prairie du Chien. 

Bpaniah captaia. b. ab. 1*64; d. l&iB. He Henre.in the beginning of 1767. he directed 

disLiDg. himself at tbe battle of PaT)a,aad at his steps northward, with a view of fimling a 

ibe sack of Bome in 1927 ; then served ia commanication from the heads of the Missis- 

Ainer., whither avarice had led him, and con- *ippi into Lake Superior. He reached Lake 

tnbaied to the vktory (rf Cbiapas, which Vaca Superior, and returaed, after continuing some 

de Castro, gov. of Peru, obtained over the nontbs on ia aorthom and eastern borders, 

young Almagro, and, in 1542. became amRJof' and exiiloriog the bay* and rivers that empty 

ucn. Ranging himseir on the side of Gonules ihemselTes into this large body of water. Soon 

PiuuTD, he became the soul of his party. Hade after his arrival ai Boeton, in (Jet. IT6S, up to 

prisoner with bim in IMS, he was condemned which time be bad travelled near 7,000 miles, 

lu be hnng. He was then 81 year* old. Car- he set out for Eng., " to aitnmunicato tbe dia- 

vajalrwembled theotberconqueronof iheNew coveriei he made, and render [hem beneficial 

World, both in valor and cruelly. More than lo that kingdom." On his arrival, he presented 

20.000 Indians whom be had enslaved are aaid a petition to tbe king, praying for a re-imburse- 

lo have giveu way under the weight of tbe labor ment of the suma he bad eipcudod ; and, after 

be had heaped upon them. undergoing an examination by the board of 

C^FTallo (kar-va)'-ja), HiNDBL. lawyer trade, be received perroiision to publish his 

and diplomatist of Chili, b. Santiago, June, pnpers. His travels were pub. in 1778. The 

1B08. Finishing his eduoatlon in the National profits ha derived from it were, however, in- 

laalinte in 1330. he was at once app, chief sufficient to relieve his necessi licit ; and, in the 

clerkoribecongreasof plenipotentariesat San- winter of 1779. be obtained a subsislettce by 

tiago, chief clerk of the stale depl., represeiv acting as clerk in a lotterj-offi(«. Having sold 

tative in Congrees, and dtarg^iTaffiiira lo tbe his name lo a historical compilation, which was 

U. B. He m. ai Washington, returned home pnb. in IT79, io folio, entitled " The New 

ill IS3S. and became a disling. lawyer. Hioii- Uoiveraal Trareller," containing an account of 

tcr to the D- S. in 1846. He has a profound all tbe empires, kingdom*, and states in the 

knowledge of tbe law of nations; is a member known world, he was abandoned by Ihow 

of the committee to reform the Chilian Code; whose duty it was to support bim. In the 

of the fauntty of law and political science of early port of 1780, be was reduced to a state 

the n. of Chili, and of some foreign wcietiea. of extreme destitution, aad was carried off by 

His printed legal opiaioo* aod argutsenia form dysentery. Tbe circamatance:i of his deaib 

a thick vol. were made known lo the public by the benevo- 

Correr, Jobn , first gov. of Ptymoalh, b. lent Dr. Leiuom, who bronghl ont a new edi- 

Eng.; d. Plymouth. Ms., April i, 1621. Ho tiun of his travels, (or tbe benefit of bis widow 

bad a good estate in Eng., wlucb be *peat ia and children, and made sucb a representation 

the emigratioD to Holland and Amer., and was of the author's suSeringi. as finally led to the 

a deacon or elder ia Hr. Bobinson's church, institution of the Literary Fund. Besides his 

He bad quitted bis eoantry for the sake of ro- " Travels," Carver wrote bu excellent trea- 

ligion, aod had established himself at Luden, lise on the cultivation of the tobacco-)>lnnt. 
when be was •eat to efiect a treaty with the Oaiy, Col. AscEiiB:ti.D, patriot and s taiee- 

Vu Company coiMemtDg lerriiaryiaN.Aioer. man, b. va.,ab. 1730; d. Ampth ill, Sept. IT8& 



yv^iuo^ie 



c&» 168 C.&3 

Be early became & member of the H. of bar- aad fourth v07igee;iraa ordained on bia arrivrf 

gesses. lu 17&4, he aerred on the committee at St. Domingo in 1510, aod, on the (^)n(|ueat 

which reported the address lo the kiaz, lords, of Cuba, settled there, and disting. hiim ;lf by 

and eomiQDDBi in 1T73, he was one of the com- his humane conduct lo<Turd< the oppresu'd na- 

mittce of correspondence, and he aerred with tiTea, over whom be attained great iufluence. 

dietinction in thecooveationof ITTG. Aichair- Besides setting at liberty tbo«e who bad Isllen 

min of (he committee of the whole, be re]>orte(l to his share id the divisioD, ha interested htm- 

the resolutions ioairucting the Va. ilelcgaus in self so much for them, that, in 1516, he went lo 

Congress to propose independeace. Upon the Spain to lay a statement of their case beforv 

oi'ganization of the Stale eorl., he was re- King Ferdinand, whose death at that rime pre- 

turnvd to the senale, where be presided with veoted any measures for their redress. The 

Keul di^'uity and efficiency antit hie death, regent, Cardinal Ximenes, however, app. a coiu- 

e was dirscended from Henry, Lord Uansdon, mission, whom Las Casasaccomp. widi thi title 

and at the time of his death was bdr-apparont of " Proiecior of (he Indiana." lie next ap- 

uf the baruDy. He wu a man of singular plied for a gtani of an uuocc[ipi»l tract in 

I'onm^ and intrepidity, sbon in siatore, but order to try his own plao with a new colony, 

possessed of great personal beauty. Haring obtained this, with SOO persons whom 

Csry, John, colored servant of Washing' be bad persuaded to accompany him, he landed 
ton, whom be accomp. in the old Frencb war, at Porto Rico in l&Sl, but found an exped. 
at Braddock's defeat, and through tbe BeTol. advancing to ra*age this very tract, and con- 
war ; b. WcatmoreUnd Conocy, Va., Aug. vey iu inhabitants to Hiapaniola aa alarea. 
1729 ; d. at Waabioglon, Jooe S, 1843, in hi* He endeavored in vain to prevent tbe threat- 
lUlh Tcer. ened danger, and with a fewadberenls relumed 

Cory, LOTT, a Baptist preacher, originally to Hiapaniola to solicit succor. During liis 
a slave in Va., b. there ab. 1780; d. Monrovia, absence, the natives attacked the colon i-iu with 
Not. 10, IS^S. In 1807, he joined a Baptist such success, that, in a short time, nut a Span- 
ehurch in Richmond, Vs., mode rapid progress iard remained in that part of America. In 
in learning, and soon, eibibiling talents of a despair at tbe failure of bis project. Las Casaa 
superior order, became a preacher, and saved a retired to the Dominican Convent at St. Do- 
sum sufflcteul to purchase the freedom of him- min^, and assumed the habit of the order, 
self and ramliy. Ha accomp. a colony of emi- While on a mission to Spain in 1543, he com- 
grania to Liberia in 1831, the existence of posed his celebrated uealise,"BKi:issiiiia Reia- 
which was mainly preserved b^ hia efforts, in cioa de la IJeitniccion da Inikt," in which be 
appreciation of which, he was m IB25 elected exposed the cruelties practised by the Span 
(lie vice-agent. While engaged with others in ianls. His unremitting perseverance at 
making cartridges for an exped, againat the length obuined a new code of laws and regu- 
nuiives, who bad robbed a neighboring fac- laiiona, by which tbe naiives were greatly 
tory, a candle was overturned, occasioning an relieved. He returned in 1544, al tbe age of 
explosion, which caused the death of Cary 70, and for the 8lh time, to Amer. as Bishop 
and seven others. ' of Chlape, which office be resigned upon his 

Cary, Col. Ricbauj, aide-de-camp to return to Spain in 1551. He met with diffi- 

Wasbiii^'ion io the Uevol., b. Charleaiowu, Us., culties in the administration of bis bishopric, 

Jan. 13, 1747; d. Dec 13, 1806. H. U. 1763. and, having refused tbe sacraments to those of 

App. A. D. C., SI June, 1776. tbe colonists who reduced the Indians to sla- 

Cary, Col. Simboh, b. Bridgewater, Ms., very, drew upon himself not only tbe hostility 

Dec. 6, 1719; d. 1802, Capt. in the French of die planters, but also the disapproval of ttie 

war, col. in (he Revot., and held many local church. The charge that he advii^ed tbe im- 

offices. portation of negro slaves as a substitute Ibrln- 

Casa Xrujo de (ka-sifr-roo-bo), Cablo* dianshas been completely refuted by M. Gre- 

Mabia, Mautinkz, MaEQUIB, a Spanish goire, says the "NouvelU BiajraiJue GtatraU." 

statesman, b. Cartagena, 17S5; d. 1824. Froni He composed several unpublished works, 

1793 to 180B, be was minister to the U.S., among which is a "General Ilietorj of tbe 

where he m. a dau, of Gov. Thos. McKean. Indies," which greatly assisted Herrera in bis 

Plenipo. at the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle history. Alt bis works display profound leam- 

in 1819 ; ambassador to Paris iu 1821 ; minis- ing. piely, and sound judgment. 
(erof foreign affairs, and pres. of the council. Case, Acodhtcb Ludlow, commodore 

1823-1. U.S.ri..b. Newbunih, N.Y.. Feb. 3, 1812* mid- 

Casalde (dit-ka^lil'), Uanuel Atbeb, a shipm. Apr. I, 1828; IteuL Feb. £5. 1841; 

fortii|-iicse geographer, who emigrated (o Bra- commander, Sept. 14, 1855 ; capt. Jan. 2, 1863 , 

III in ilia youth ; mode explorations there, resid- comnio. Dec. 8, 1867. He served in the Bra- 

ing some time iu Rio Janeiro, and d. iu Lis- ztl s^inad. and in the W.L, IS2S-34 ; in the ex- 

bon many years after tbe publication of bis ptoring exped., 1838-42. During the Mexican 

Hiitorieul and Geographical Descriptiua of war, 1846-8, be participated in the ca]jturA of 

Brazil, 1817. Vera Cruz, Alvarado, and Tabasco; after 

Casas Idalaski-^), Babtbolohkw db taking possession of Laiguno, be took with 25 

LAS, B philanthropic Spanish missionary, b. men, and b " " '^ ■ ■ ■ 

Seville. 1474; d. Madrid in 15G6. In 1493, some nami . . 

be. with his fuLhcr, accomp. Columbns io tbe steamer " Caledonia," Braail squadron and 

West Indies. 5 years after, he returned to Paraguay exped., 185B; com. steam-frigato 

Spain, and entered the ecclesiastical order. Ho' "Minnesota, 1861-2; engaged Furls Clark 

again accomp. Columbus in his second, third, and Hattetas, Atig. 38, 39, 1861 ; took part in 



,,Google 



oAja 169 OAS 

the bitlleoritoanokglslaDi], Feb. 7-8, lesS; toI. tid« to HaniMD at the battle of iba 

com. IroqaoU N.A. blockad. aqoad. 1SS3. He Tbamei; app. gor. of Mlcbig&n Terr., Oct. 

had cbarge or the blockade of Hew Inlet, N.C., 1813, and, ai snperiDteodont of Indian aSairt, 

and was engaged in cntting out tbe (learner u^odated 19 Indian tieatia. In 1819-20, ba 

"Kaie" fmta under the batieriea at New Inlet, organized a sdentiflc exploration of the Up- 



ijsbt; 



le imp. 1S67-69; chief of bureau of per Mp<. Residing the office of gov. 



™, Ang. 10, 1M9. hawaiapp., in July, lec. of war by Pres. Jack- 
Case?, G«N, Lbti, Rerol. officer; M.C. aon; wai minister to France jn 1BS6-43; 
■ 803-;, b. 8.C., 1749 ; d. Waibington, D.C., U.S. aenator, 1845-8, and, nominated by the 
Feb. 1, ISOT. He com. a companj, with which Democ. convention at Baltimore to tbe presi- 
beaisiiied in the aiaanlt on Savannah; wnt dcncj in May, IB4B, received 137 electoral 
diilini;. at Itockv Mount, Hanging Bock, TOtea to 163 for Oen^ Tajlor, the Whig candi- 
HnseroTc'a, King's HonnUin, Fiahing Creek, date. Again C.B. senator, 18Sl-Mar. 18S7, 
Blaciiiocks, and tbe Cowpena, where he per- he voted for Douglas's KeDsss-NeliraalEa Bill 
formed services of great importance to Mor- in 1854. Sec. of State to Fns. Buchanan, 
gaa; and represented the Newburj dist. in the Mar. 1857-Dcc 18GO,reaigningon account of 
State Ic^isl. and in Congreai. — Nat. InteU. tbe pres. declining to re-enfbrce the garrison of 
Fib. 6, 1807. Fort Sumter, While see. of war, the policy 
Casey, Silih, brev. maj.-gen. U.S.A., b. of removing the Indians to the west of tbe 
East Greenwich, B.I., Jnly 13, 1807. West Mpi., whicb he strenuously advocated, led to 
Point, 18S6. Entering the 3d Inf., he became the war with the Seminolea in Florida, who 
rapt. I July, 1839, diiting, under Worth in Flor- were Bn ally snbdaed at the cost of much blood 
ida war in 1837-41 ; brev. major for Contreraa end treasure. At the close of his diplomatic 
and Chnrubuaco, Aug. ao, 1847; com. and career, ba attacked the "quintuple treaty," for 
aeverel